Essay type questions, By Pooja Godiyal
Types, How to construct, advantages, Disadvantages, Suggestions, Bluffing
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- 1. ESSAY TYPE QUESTIONS
- 2. • "A test item which requires a response composed by the examinee, usually in the form of one or more sentences, of a nature that no single response or pattern of responses can be listed as correct, and the accuracy and quality of which can be judged subjectively only by one skilled or informed in the subject." Stalnaker, 1951 7/26/2021 2 MRS. POOJA GODIYAL
- 3. • Essay test is a test that requires the student to structure a long written response up to several paragraphs. William W and Stephen G J,1990 • An essay test presents one or more questions or other tasks that require extended written responses from the person being tested. Robert LE and David AF 7/26/2021 3 MRS. POOJA GODIYAL
- 4. When to use Essay type questions ? • To assess student’s understanding of subject’s content • To assess student’s ability to reason with their knowledge of a subject 7/26/2021 4 MRS. POOJA GODIYAL
- 5. • To measure students’ ability to select; organize; integrate; relate; and evaluate related ideas as a whole, and demonstrate complete understanding of complex learning objectives by applying facts and principles or interpreting cause-effect relationships. 7/26/2021 5 MRS. POOJA GODIYAL
- 6. • Essay questions are divided into two major types, depending upon the amount of freedom given to student to organize his ideas and write answers 1) Extended response 2) Restricted Response 7/26/2021 6 MRS. POOJA GODIYAL
- 7. 7/26/2021 MRS. POOJA GODIYAL 7
- 8. Extended response • No restriction is placed on the student as to the points he or she will discuss and the type of organization the student will use. Example a) Describe the health status of India suggested by different health committees constituted from time to time in India ? b)Explain the role of nurse in the health care team? 7/26/2021 8 MRS. POOJA GODIYAL
- 9. Extended response • Extended response items pave the way for more organization, creativity and depth of knowledge. • They can be used to assess higher-levels of Bloom’s taxonomy such as in describing application of a set of principles,explaining cause and effect relationships, formulating conclusions, or to produce, organize, and express ideas 7/26/2021 9 MRS. POOJA GODIYAL
- 10. Extended response An extended response of essay type questions permits the student to demonstrate the ability to • Recall factual knowledge • Evaluate their factual knowledge • Organize their ideas • Present their ideas in a logical , coherent fashion. 7/26/2021 10 MRS. POOJA GODIYAL
- 11. Restricted Response • In restricted response the student is more limited and restricted and student will have less scope because the student is specifically told context in which his/her answer is to be made. • Eg; Describe in not more than 100 words ,the recommendation made by the health survey and development committee with regard to improvement of health care delivery system in India ? • This type of question tend to be more objective while the extended type questions tend to be more subjective. 7/26/2021 11 MRS. POOJA GODIYAL
- 12. • Restricted response, also referred to as short answer questions, are organized in a manner that specifies or limits student responses. • They typically assess learning objectives at the lower levels of Bloom’s taxonomy and require students to list, define, or describe • The restricted response question usually limits both the content and the response 7/26/2021 12 MRS. POOJA GODIYAL
- 13. Key terms and types of essays Key term List Arrange Select Describe Discuss Explain Compare Outline Interpret Criticize Formulate new problems or procedures Type Essay Restrictive Restrictive Restrictive Both Extended Both Both Restrictive Extended Extended Extended 7/26/2021 13 MRS. POOJA GODIYAL
- 14. How should these Questions be constructed 1. Questions should be clear & specific & exact limit should be set 2. Avoid: - - What do you think? - What is in your opinion? - Discuss? 3. Instead use: - Enlist, Enumerate or Define, • - Compare & Contrast, • - State your reasons, • - Describe ( acceptable) 4. Match the question to specific learning objective. Communicate clearly to the students what is expected. 7/26/2021 14 MRS. POOJA GODIYAL
- 15. How should these Questions be constructed 5. Use simple, clear and straight forward language 6. No options- and better comparison, if options they should be from same topic and should match the difficulty level. 7. In "Write briefly..." type of questions qualify how briefly into number of words or lines of standard paragraphs. 8. Scoring system: Split the total marks allotted to each part of the question topic. May be indicated in the paper (e.g ). 9. Consider using several narrowly focused items rather than one broad item 7/26/2021 15 MRS. POOJA GODIYAL
- 16. Traditional Unstructured Essay type Question • Discuss Pathology of Thalassemias. (10 marks) 7/26/2021 16 MRS. POOJA GODIYAL
- 17. Structured Essay type Questions • Differ from unstructured essay questions in the freedom regarding scope and nature of answer. • Framed in such a way that the student is provided considerable guidance regarding points to be included in the answer. 7/26/2021 17 MRS. POOJA GODIYAL
- 18. Traditional Unstructured Essay type Question • Discuss Pathology of Thalassemias. (10 marks) Structured Essay type Questions • Write an essay on Thalassemias , focusing on its classification, molecular basis, clinical manifestations and laboratory diagnosis (2+2+3+3) 7/26/2021 18 MRS. POOJA GODIYAL
- 19. Advantages • Tests the ability to communicate in writing ; depth of knowledge and understanding. • It is relatively easier to prepare and administer. • It emphasises on the integration and application of thinking and problem solving skills. • The student can have free to communicate, his/her ability for independent thinking. • It can improve writing skills. • It requires short time for the teacher to prepare the test and administer. 7/26/2021 19 MRS. POOJA GODIYAL
- 20. Advantages • The student can demonstrate her ability to organize ideas and express them effectively in a logical and coherent fashion. • It is more economical to use essay type tests than objective type. • It can be successfully employed for all the school subjects. • The mental processes like logical thinking ,critical reasoning , systematic presentation can be best developed. 7/26/2021 20 MRS. POOJA GODIYAL
- 21. Disadvantages • Essay type possesses relatively low validity and reliability because of the factors like: 1. Contaminated by extraneous factors like spelling, good handwriting,coloured writing, neatness, grammar, and length of the answer. 2. Biased judgment by previous impressions. 3. Mood of examiner 4. First impression 5. Improper comparison of answer of different students (Bright and dull). 6. Ambiguous wording of questions may be misinterpreted results in guessing and bluffing on the part of the students. • Lack of objectivity. • Provides little useful feedback. • Takes long-time to score. • Subjectivity of scoring. 7/26/2021 21 MRS. POOJA GODIYAL
- 22. Modified Essay Question (MEQ) • Problem solving type of essay question. • A short history is given to the student, based on which questions are asked. • Requires the student to apply what he has learnt, in the context of a given situation. • The format has questions closely resembling a series of short answer questions than an essay question. 7/26/2021 22 MRS. POOJA GODIYAL
- 23. Modified Essay Question (MEQ) • A 4 year old child presents with H/o lethargy, lack of play for 2 months , bouts of fever for last 15 days. On physical examination , his axillary and inguinal lymph nodes were found enlarged. He had mild hepatosplenomegaly. Q1. What are possible causes of this type of presentation? Q2. Which investigation would you advise first and why? Q3. What investigations will you order to arrive at the diagnosis ? Q4. If the diagnosis is confirmed what shall be the management options ? (2+2+2+2) 7/26/2021 23 MRS. POOJA GODIYAL
- 24. Principles of Preparing Essay type test • Do not give too many lengthy questions. • The limits of areas and the behaviour which you want should be clearly mentioned. • Words should be simple ,unambiguous and carefully selected. • According to the level of student, difficulty and complexity items has to be selected. • Avoid phrases e.g. ‘Discuss briefly’ 7/26/2021 24 MRS. POOJA GODIYAL
- 25. Grading • Essay is a performance based test, there are several components to consider including the initial task itself constructed by the writer, submitted by the examinee, and then graded by the rater(s), using a rating/grading system • The first step in grading is selecting a grading system which may be predetermined during test item construction. • Grading essays falls into two types: holistic/global and analytic grading. 7/26/2021 25 MRS. POOJA GODIYAL
- 26. RUBRIC • A rubric is an assessment tool that clearly indicates achievement criteria across all the components of any kind of student work, from written to oral to visual. • The Rubric is your ideal answer for what an Essay or paper should be like • The Rubric makes your expectations clear to the students • Helps students evaluate the quality of their own work. • Improves the consistency and speed of grading • It can be used for marking assignments, class participation, or overall grades. • There are two types of rubrics: holistic and analytical. 7/26/2021 26 MRS. POOJA GODIYAL
- 27. Holistic Rubrics • The rater will read for an overall impression, for both the content as well as the quality of the writing, and then translate his or her impressions into a score or letter grade • With a holistic rubric the rater assigns a single score (usually on a 1 to 4 or 1 to 6 point scale) based on an overall judgment of the student work. • Many researchers have argued that holistic grading focuses on too much on what the writer does well rather than on areas of weakness, and therefore does not provide for diagnostic information. 7/26/2021 27 MRS. POOJA GODIYAL
- 28. Analytic scoring • Method of grading that requires a separate score for each of a number of aspects of a task or subcategories, such as grammatical accuracy, vocabulary, idiomatic expression, organization, relevance, coherence. • The grader breaks each question down to its different parts and identifies the major points covered by the students answer as indicated on predetermined criteria. • The grader will then assign points to each section depending on the value they feel each deserves. 7/26/2021 28 MRS. POOJA GODIYAL
- 29. Suggestions for the essay test • Restrict the use of essay questions to those learning outcomes that cannot be satisfactorily measured by objective items. • Formulate questions that will call forth the behaviour specified in the learning outcomes. E.g. Compare the following two methods…….. State the question clearly and precisely and make clear what information the answer should contain. • Indicate the approximate time limit for each question. 7/26/2021 29 MRS. POOJA GODIYAL
- 30. • The question should clearly indicate the significance of each part so that students may determine the time to be devoted to each part: This can be done by dividing the question into component parts and offering marks according to the significance. Eg; a 15 marks essay question on nursing management of cirrhosis of liver can be stated as , I. Define cirrhosis of liver (2m) II. Briefly explain the medical management(5m) III. Explain the nursing management of a patient with cirrhosis of liver(8m). • Avoid the use of optional questions. If students answer different questions it is obvious that they are taking different tests and so the common basis for evaluating their achievement is lost. 7/26/2021 30 MRS. POOJA GODIYAL
- 31. Suggestions for scoring an essay answer • Prepare an outline of the expected answer in advance- This scoring includes characteristics of answer to be evaluated and the amount of marks to be allotted to each.(preparing a scoring key). • Use the scoring method which is more appropriate (point method or the rating method)- there are two common methods of scoring essay questions. • With the point method each answer is compared with the ideal answer in the scoring key and a given number of points is assigned according to the adequacy of the answer. • With rating method each paper is placed in one of a number of pile as the answer is read. These piles represents the degree of quality and determine the marks assigned to each answer. 7/26/2021 31 MRS. POOJA GODIYAL
- 32. • Decide how to handle factors that are irrelevant to the learning outcomes being measured: Several factors influence the evaluation of answers to questions include handwriting, spelling ,sentence structure ,punctuation and neatness. • We should make an effort to keep such factors from influencing our judgement and make a separate score for written expression or for the specific factors. • Evaluate all the answers to one question before going to the next one: One way to minimize this is to score all answers to the first question , shuffle the papers then score all answers to the next question . • Evaluate the answers without looking at the students name : If important decisions are to be based on the results obtain two or more independent ratings: 7/26/2021 32 MRS. POOJA GODIYAL
- 33. Bluffing: A common Scoring Problem • It is possible for students to obtain higher scores in essay questions than they deserve by the mean of clever bluffing. • This is usually a combination of writing skill, general knowledge and use of common tricks like; Write something for every question. Stressing importance of topic. • Name dropping.(The above view points are supported by the view points of Florence nightingale) • Agreeing with teachers opinion. • Write on a related topic and “make it fit”. • Writing in general terms that fit many situation. 7/26/2021 33 MRS. POOJA GODIYAL
- 34. 7/26/2021 MRS. POOJA GODIYAL 34
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Answering Short Essay Questions on Exams
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Presentation on theme: "Answering Short Essay Questions on Exams"— Presentation transcript:
The Scarlet Ibis by James Hurst
How to format an essay.
“The Scarlet Ibis” Analysis and Writing Activities.
The Introduction How to begin…. Find a quotation Make sure the quote is related to what you will discuss in your essay. On the next slides, I will provide.
How to Organize an Argumentative Paper
Who is “The Scarlet Ibis”? “ Everybody thought he was going to die”
Body Paragraphs. All body paragraphs are 8 sentences long. 1. Topic Sentence: tells reader what your paragraph will be about; answers the prompt 2. Evidence.
The Five Paragraph Essay & The One Paragraph Analysis
Suggestions For Writing An Essay
Character Analysis Essay
Your Handy Dandy Guide to Organizing a Proper 5 Paragraph Essay
James Hurst. Symbols World War I The first world wide conflict between “brothers” Symbolizes the war inside of the narrator He is frustrated.
“The Scarlet Ibis” Plot: Doodle is born disabled and the brother feels a responsibility to his family and to Doodle. Exposition: The brother wanted to.
#1 - How to Formulate a Strong Thesis Statement
Response to Literature Essay. Response to Literature (47L) Purpose: To show your understanding about a character’s traits, the setting, plot, or theme.
Test Taking Tips How to help yourself with multiple choice and short answer questions for reading selections A. Caldwell.
Introductory Paragraph ANT
Analytical Writing Key concepts to review. Heading: TOP RIGHT CORNER Name Date Always provide a creative title. The title should be in the center of your.
Assignment Write a three paragraph character analysis paper. Choose which character you want to analyze: Doodle or Brother. Once you have chosen a character,
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ESSAY TYPE 0F QUESTIONS - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
ESSAY TYPE 0F QUESTIONS
Identify situations where essay type questions are used for evaluation. construct model answer and to assign ... reasoning and lucid expressions like. ex. ... – powerpoint ppt presentation.
- Assistant Professor
- Identify situations where essay type questions are used for evaluation
- Construct model answer and to assign weight age to its elements, for objective scoring
- Formulate short answer questions
- M E Q to evaluate higher levels of cognitive domain
- Relatively easy to frame
- Give the students a freedom for effective expression and to test their knowledge, reasoning and ability to organise ideas
- Essay questions are useful when
- -a few questions in depth are enough to assess
- reasoning and lucid expressions like
- Ex. Correlate the changes in the ovary with those of endometrium during a menstrual cycle or after fertilization
- Limited range of application
- Lack of objectivity
- Inconsistent and time consuming scoring pattern
- Hardly any feedback to the teacher
- Scope for guesswork by the students
- Scoring pattern shows halo/anti-halo effect
- Preparing a model answer with subdivisions of scores for each element
- Scoring of all answers to the same questions should be done before proceeding to the next to avoid the carry over or HALO effect
- Conceal the identity of students
- Averaging the scores of two examiners
- Avoid distractions during scoring
- Ensure adequate scoring time
- Framing short essay questions which elicit restricted response
- Easier to set as wide range of subjects can be covered.
- It ensures more objective scoring.
- Provides less scope for guesswork.
- Examiners should NOT
- _provide clues.
- _give trivial questions.
- Patient Management Problem ( P M P )
- 2. Modified Essay Question ( M E Q )
- The format has questions closely resembling a series of short answer questions than an essay question
- Framing M E Q requires a certain amount of skill.
- Things to be avoided are
- giving answers to previous questions
- avoid students from being penalised for the same error.
- It is apparent that essay type questions can be improved.
- So that the higher cognitive learning of the student can be improved.
- Essay test questions must be improved rather than abandoning the test totally in favour of multiple choice test.
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STRUCTURED ESSAY QUESTIONS
Aug 08, 2014
580 likes | 1.66k Views
Techniques. Getting Started. Types. STRUCTURED ESSAY QUESTIONS. Structured essay questions require you to look at various factors and/or issues and weigh the factors in deciding if anyone of it is more or less important than the others. . Techniques. Marking. Weighing. Marking. Weighing.
- mother story jody
- conflict bet
- citizenship rights policy
- various factors
- the mother story jason
Techniques Getting Started Types STRUCTURED ESSAY QUESTIONS Structured essay questions require you to look at various factors and/or issues and weigh the factors in deciding if anyone of it is more or less important than the others. Techniques Marking Weighing Marking Weighing Getting started Types of SEQ
Types TYPES OF SEQ
Types TYPES OF SEQ • Type 1: 1 factor vs the others E.g. The most important cause of conflict in Sri Lanka was over the Language Policy. Do you agree? Explain your answer.
Types TYPES OF SEQ • Type 2: Discuss two factors • E.g. The Sinhala Only Policy was a more important cause of conflict than the University Admission Policy. Do you agree? Explain your answer.
Types TYPES OF SEQ • Type 3: Discuss three factors • E.g. Given below are three causes of conflict in Sri Lanka: • (a) Citizenship Rights Policy • (b) Sinhala Only Policy • (c) Resettlement Policy • Which do you think is the most important? Explain your answer.
Types TYPES OF SEQ • Type 4: Discuss an issue • E.g. Conflict in Sri Lanka is mainly caused by the LTTE. Do you agree? Explain your answer.
Getting Started GETTING STARTED - TOOLS
Getting Started The Mother Story 3 Teck Whye Secondary pupils have done extremely well in their O level examinations. As they are the best performers in the Combined Humanities examinations, the Press is here to interview them on their success story!!! Let’s go live to Teck Whye Secondary School.
Getting Started The Mother Story Jane, who is the person behind your success? There are many people behind my success. They include my mother, father, teachers, friends, uncle, aunt, my brother, my sister, my sister’s friends, my mother’s friend, my uncle’s friend and many more Well, that does not tell me much. Maybe I should ask someone else.
Getting Started The Mother Story Jason, who is the person behind your success? I would say that my mother is behind my success. She took leave from work during my exam period; she made coffee for me; she stayed awake with me when I did my revision; she cooked good food for me. I love my mother. [L2 – Description only] These are things Jason’s mother did. But where is the LINK between what his mother did and Jason’s success?
Getting Started The Mother Story Jody, who is the person behind your success? The person behind my success is my mother. She is very caring and kept telling me how capable I am. In doing so, she gave me much confidence and made me work harder. This led to my success. This is a very good answer indeed.
The Mother Story Getting Started Question: The person behind my success is Factor: my mother. Story: She is very caring and kept talking to me about how capable I am. [Description] Explain: My mother is the person behind my success because by caring she gave me more confidence and encouraged me to work harder, leading to my success. [Link: How / In what way she helped]
Factor Question Story Explain Getting Started Square Approach • link from story to explanation (because) • link from explanation to question (leading to) • detailed (show • understanding of • content) • example will be good
Factor Question Story Explain Getting Started Square Approach The person behind my success is My mother is the person behind my success because by caring she gave me more confidence and encouraged me to work harder, leading to my success. My mother She is very caring and kept talking to me about how capable I am.
Getting Started Let’s See An Example – The University Admission Policy was the most important cause of conflict in Sri Lanka. Do you agree? Explain your answer.
Factor Story Explain Getting Started Example Question Yes I agree that the University Admission Policy was a very important cause of conflict. Before 1970, university admissions were based on merit and the exams were in English. The English educated Tamils benefited and there were more Tamils that qualified to enter university even though their population was smaller than the Sinhalese. The Sinhalese felt discriminated. After 1970, the government introduced new university admission criteria. Tamil students had to score higher than Sinhalese students to enter the same courses in the universities. A fixed number of places were also reserved for Sinhalese.This led toconflict between the Sinhalese and the Tamils becauseuniversity admission was seen as a road to a bright future. Not being able to go into the university would cause the Tamils to have difficulty getting good jobs and it would affect their socialand economic positions. Thus, there was tension between the Tamils and Sinhalese leading to conflict
Marking • The common • mistakes Marking
Factor Question Story Explain “The Sinhala Only Policy was the main cause of conflict in Sri Lanka.” Do you agree? Explain your answer. Student 1: Yes, the Sinhala Only Policy was an important cause of conflict between the Tamils and the Sinhalese in Sri Lanka. This led to conflict because it made the Tamils very unhappy with the Sinhalese as they felt discriminated against. Tensions thus developed between the two races, leading to conflict between them. Marking No story [No description of what happened / Un clear]
Factor Question Story Explain “The Sinhala Only Policy was the main cause of conflict in Sri Lanka.” Do you agree? Explain your answer. Student 2: Yes, the Sinhala Only Policy was an important cause of conflict between the Tamils and the Sinhalese in Sri Lanka. When Sri Lanka was under British colonial rule, the British appointed more Tamils than Sinhalese into important positions in the government service because they could speak and write English better than the Sinhalese. After the British left, the Sinhalese government tried to improve the position of the Sinhalese in the government by introducing the "Sinhala Only" language policy. Sinhala was to be used as the official language of the country and government instead of English. The Tamils were only giver 3 years to learn Sinhala or be dismissed. Marking No explanation [No link to the cause of conflict]
“The Sinhala Only Policy was the main cause of conflict in Sri Lanka.” Do you agree? Explain your answer. Yes, I agree that the Sinhala Only policy was an important cause of conflict bet. The Tamils and Sinhalese. When Sri Lanka was under British colonial rule, the British appointed more Tamils than Sinhalese into important positions in the government service because they could speak and write English better than the Sinhalese.[Description or story ] As a result, the Sinhalese felt discriminated and because of this, there was tension between the Sinhalese and Tamils during the colonial period which later led to conflict. [Link].
“The Sinhala Only Policy was the main cause of conflict in Sri Lanka.” Do you agree? Explain your answer. After the British left, the Sinhalese government tried to improve the position of the Sinhalese in the government by introducing the "Sinhala Only" language policy. Sinhala was to be used as the official language of the country and government instead of English. The Tamils were only giver 3 years to learn Sinhala or be dismissed. [description or story] As a result of this, the Tamils felt discriminated as they would lose their jobs and would have difficulty doing business in Sri Lanka. Their Tamil culture would also be lost. The Tamils protested against this policy but they were broken up by Sinhalese supporters and violent clashes took place between the Sinhalese and Tamils. About 100 people died in the clashes and racial tension continued until Tamil was recognized as a language of administration in the northern and eastern provinces in 1966 where there were Tamil majority. [Link]
Techniques Do’s and Don’ts Techniques
Techniques 1. Answer the question Techniques
Factor Question Story Explain Techniques 2. Remember the square: Techniques
Techniques 3. One paragraph for one factor Techniques
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Constructing Essay Tests
An essay question is a test item that contains the following four elements; 1. Requires examinees to compose rather than select their response. 2. Elicits student responses that consist of one or more sentences. 3. No single response or single response pattern is correct. 4. The accuracy and quality of students' responses to essays must be judged subjectively by a competent specialist in the subject.
Current Developments in English for Academic and Occupational Purposes
Kibiwott P Kurgatt
Most literature on writing assessment offers a lot of guidance on design and validation of measures and items in essays and examination questions (e.g. Alderson and North 1991, Bachman 1990, Hamp-Lyons 1988). Most of this literature, however, seems to be oriented towards language tests and not to how information concerning exam questions is interpreted in the academic contexts for which most students work in. Nevertheless, the most extensive analysis of prompts in subject-specific contexts can be rightly attributed to Horowitz (1986a and 1986b), Canseco and Byrd 1989 and Braine (1989). These studies also make suggestions concerning implications of the analysis to the teaching of English for Academic Purposes. The concern of the present paper was to seek to build on these earlier studies by looking at the types of prompts found in essay and examination questions in an ESL context in Africa. In particular it attempts to find out: a) The general features of first year undergraduate essay and examination questions b) What these features tell us about what students need to know c) What are the features of format and/or content of which students need to be aware d) Whether there is significance in the nature of the distribution of prompts (specific or general) across disciplines or courses. This paper starts with looking at the general features of the questions including the marks allocated to different types of questions per department. Subsequently, the questions are then classified according to the categories and subcategories of prompts as proposed by Horowitz. The nature of these prompts is then discussed and a summary of the results and conclusions is then presented.
Journal of Research in Science Teaching
Journal of Baltic Science Education
Education. Innovation. Diversity.
This scientific research explores the potential of using essays as a formative assessment tool in the context of the competencies approach. The competencies approach emphasises the importance of focusing on learning progress and needs to promote successful learning, thus formative assessment plays a pivotal role in facilitating effective learning. The study highlights the significance of essay writing in promoting critical thinking, problem-solving, and self-directed learning. However, students often perceive essays solely as a means of summative assessment, lacking a comprehensive understanding of the assessment criteria. To address this issue, the research emphasizes the importance of involving students in the learning process by collectively defining outcomes, establishing assessment criteria, and providing constructive feedback. Clear objectives and feedback are crucial in fostering self-regulated learning and lifelong learning. The study highlights the need for student-teacher ...
Gazi Medical Journal
Applied Psychological Measurement
This study investigated the similarity of information that is provided by direct and indirect methods of writing assessment. The skills required by each of these techniques provide a framework for a cognitive model of writing skills from which these procedures can be compared. It is suggested that practitioners in terested in reliably measuring all aspects of the pro posed writing process continuum, as characterized by this cognitive model, use both indirect and direct methods. Index terms: Confirmatory factor analy sis, Essay tests, Free-response tests, Multiple-choice tests, Writing assessment, Writing processes.
Sharifah Khairol Musairah Syed Abdul Mutalib
Dirasat, Educational Sciences
ETS Research Report Series
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Proceedings of the First Indonesian Communication Forum of Teacher Training and Education Faculty Leaders International Conference on Education 2017 (ICE 2017)
Edd Pitt , James Adie
LAUTARO ALEJANDRO MANRIQUEZ MANQUEHUAL
Yin Ling Cheung
International Journal of Clinical Medicine
Higher Education Studies
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Open Journal of Modern Linguistics
Journal of Geography in Higher Education
VELES: Voices of English Language Education Society
Journal of Educational Measurement
Journal of Research in International Education
The Law Teacher
International Journal of Language Education
International Advances in Writing Research: Cultures, Places, Measures
International Journal of Medical Education
International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education
Research in Higher Education
Eurasian Journal of Educational Research
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