The Writing Center • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Essay Exams

What this handout is about.

At some time in your undergraduate career, you’re going to have to write an essay exam. This thought can inspire a fair amount of fear: we struggle enough with essays when they aren’t timed events based on unknown questions. The goal of this handout is to give you some easy and effective strategies that will help you take control of the situation and do your best.

Why do instructors give essay exams?

Essay exams are a useful tool for finding out if you can sort through a large body of information, figure out what is important, and explain why it is important. Essay exams challenge you to come up with key course ideas and put them in your own words and to use the interpretive or analytical skills you’ve practiced in the course. Instructors want to see whether:

  • You understand concepts that provide the basis for the course
  • You can use those concepts to interpret specific materials
  • You can make connections, see relationships, draw comparisons and contrasts
  • You can synthesize diverse information in support of an original assertion
  • You can justify your own evaluations based on appropriate criteria
  • You can argue your own opinions with convincing evidence
  • You can think critically and analytically about a subject

What essay questions require

Exam questions can reach pretty far into the course materials, so you cannot hope to do well on them if you do not keep up with the readings and assignments from the beginning of the course. The most successful essay exam takers are prepared for anything reasonable, and they probably have some intelligent guesses about the content of the exam before they take it. How can you be a prepared exam taker? Try some of the following suggestions during the semester:

  • Do the reading as the syllabus dictates; keeping up with the reading while the related concepts are being discussed in class saves you double the effort later.
  • Go to lectures (and put away your phone, the newspaper, and that crossword puzzle!).
  • Take careful notes that you’ll understand months later. If this is not your strong suit or the conventions for a particular discipline are different from what you are used to, ask your TA or the Learning Center for advice.
  • Participate in your discussion sections; this will help you absorb the material better so you don’t have to study as hard.
  • Organize small study groups with classmates to explore and review course materials throughout the semester. Others will catch things you might miss even when paying attention. This is not cheating. As long as what you write on the essay is your own work, formulating ideas and sharing notes is okay. In fact, it is a big part of the learning process.
  • As an exam approaches, find out what you can about the form it will take. This will help you forecast the questions that will be on the exam, and prepare for them.

These suggestions will save you lots of time and misery later. Remember that you can’t cram weeks of information into a single day or night of study. So why put yourself in that position?

Now let’s focus on studying for the exam. You’ll notice the following suggestions are all based on organizing your study materials into manageable chunks of related material. If you have a plan of attack, you’ll feel more confident and your answers will be more clear. Here are some tips: 

  • Don’t just memorize aimlessly; clarify the important issues of the course and use these issues to focus your understanding of specific facts and particular readings.
  • Try to organize and prioritize the information into a thematic pattern. Look at what you’ve studied and find a way to put things into related groups. Find the fundamental ideas that have been emphasized throughout the course and organize your notes into broad categories. Think about how different categories relate to each other.
  • Find out what you don’t know, but need to know, by making up test questions and trying to answer them. Studying in groups helps as well.

Taking the exam

Read the exam carefully.

  • If you are given the entire exam at once and can determine your approach on your own, read the entire exam before you get started.
  • Look at how many points each part earns you, and find hints for how long your answers should be.
  • Figure out how much time you have and how best to use it. Write down the actual clock time that you expect to take in each section, and stick to it. This will help you avoid spending all your time on only one section. One strategy is to divide the available time according to percentage worth of the question. You don’t want to spend half of your time on something that is only worth one tenth of the total points.
  • As you read, make tentative choices of the questions you will answer (if you have a choice). Don’t just answer the first essay question you encounter. Instead, read through all of the options. Jot down really brief ideas for each question before deciding.
  • Remember that the easiest-looking question is not always as easy as it looks. Focus your attention on questions for which you can explain your answer most thoroughly, rather than settle on questions where you know the answer but can’t say why.

Analyze the questions

  • Decide what you are being asked to do. If you skim the question to find the main “topic” and then rush to grasp any related ideas you can recall, you may become flustered, lose concentration, and even go blank. Try looking closely at what the question is directing you to do, and try to understand the sort of writing that will be required.
  • Focus on what you do know about the question, not on what you don’t.
  • Look at the active verbs in the assignment—they tell you what you should be doing. We’ve included some of these below, with some suggestions on what they might mean. (For help with this sort of detective work, see the Writing Center handout titled Reading Assignments.)

Information words, such as who, what, when, where, how, and why ask you to demonstrate what you know about the subject. Information words may include:

  • define—give the subject’s meaning (according to someone or something). Sometimes you have to give more than one view on the subject’s meaning.
  • explain why/how—give reasons why or examples of how something happened.
  • illustrate—give descriptive examples of the subject and show how each is connected with the subject.
  • summarize—briefly cover the important ideas you learned about the subject.
  • trace—outline how something has changed or developed from an earlier time to its current form.
  • research—gather material from outside sources about the subject, often with the implication or requirement that you will analyze what you’ve found.

Relation words ask you to demonstrate how things are connected. Relation words may include:

  • compare—show how two or more things are similar (and, sometimes, different).
  • contrast—show how two or more things are dissimilar.
  • apply—use details that you’ve been given to demonstrate how an idea, theory, or concept works in a particular situation.
  • cause—show how one event or series of events made something else happen.
  • relate—show or describe the connections between things.

Interpretation words ask you to defend ideas of your own about the subject. Don’t see these words as requesting opinion alone (unless the assignment specifically says so), but as requiring opinion that is supported by concrete evidence. Remember examples, principles, definitions, or concepts from class or research and use them in your interpretation. Interpretation words may include:

  • prove, justify—give reasons or examples to demonstrate how or why something is the truth.
  • evaluate, respond, assess—state your opinion of the subject as good, bad, or some combination of the two, with examples and reasons (you may want to compare your subject to something else).
  • support—give reasons or evidence for something you believe (be sure to state clearly what it is that you believe).
  • synthesize—put two or more things together that haven’t been put together before; don’t just summarize one and then the other, and say that they are similar or different—you must provide a reason for putting them together (as opposed to compare and contrast—see above).
  • analyze—look closely at the components of something to figure out how it works, what it might mean, or why it is important.
  • argue—take a side and defend it (with proof) against the other side.

Plan your answers

Think about your time again. How much planning time you should take depends on how much time you have for each question and how many points each question is worth. Here are some general guidelines: 

  • For short-answer definitions and identifications, just take a few seconds. Skip over any you don’t recognize fairly quickly, and come back to them when another question jogs your memory.
  • For answers that require a paragraph or two, jot down several important ideas or specific examples that help to focus your thoughts.
  • For longer answers, you will need to develop a much more definite strategy of organization. You only have time for one draft, so allow a reasonable amount of time—as much as a quarter of the time you’ve allotted for the question—for making notes, determining a thesis, and developing an outline.
  • For questions with several parts (different requests or directions, a sequence of questions), make a list of the parts so that you do not miss or minimize one part. One way to be sure you answer them all is to number them in the question and in your outline.
  • You may have to try two or three outlines or clusters before you hit on a workable plan. But be realistic—you want a plan you can develop within the limited time allotted for your answer. Your outline will have to be selective—not everything you know, but what you know that you can state clearly and keep to the point in the time available.

Again, focus on what you do know about the question, not on what you don’t.

Writing your answers

As with planning, your strategy for writing depends on the length of your answer:

  • For short identifications and definitions, it is usually best to start with a general identifying statement and then move on to describe specific applications or explanations. Two sentences will almost always suffice, but make sure they are complete sentences. Find out whether the instructor wants definition alone, or definition and significance. Why is the identification term or object important?
  • For longer answers, begin by stating your forecasting statement or thesis clearly and explicitly. Strive for focus, simplicity, and clarity. In stating your point and developing your answers, you may want to use important course vocabulary words from the question. For example, if the question is, “How does wisteria function as a representation of memory in Faulkner’s Absalom, Absalom?” you may want to use the words wisteria, representation, memory, and Faulkner) in your thesis statement and answer. Use these important words or concepts throughout the answer.
  • If you have devised a promising outline for your answer, then you will be able to forecast your overall plan and its subpoints in your opening sentence. Forecasting impresses readers and has the very practical advantage of making your answer easier to read. Also, if you don’t finish writing, it tells your reader what you would have said if you had finished (and may get you partial points).
  • You might want to use briefer paragraphs than you ordinarily do and signal clear relations between paragraphs with transition phrases or sentences.
  • As you move ahead with the writing, you may think of new subpoints or ideas to include in the essay. Stop briefly to make a note of these on your original outline. If they are most appropriately inserted in a section you’ve already written, write them neatly in the margin, at the top of the page, or on the last page, with arrows or marks to alert the reader to where they fit in your answer. Be as neat and clear as possible.
  • Don’t pad your answer with irrelevancies and repetitions just to fill up space. Within the time available, write a comprehensive, specific answer.
  • Watch the clock carefully to ensure that you do not spend too much time on one answer. You must be realistic about the time constraints of an essay exam. If you write one dazzling answer on an exam with three equally-weighted required questions, you earn only 33 points—not enough to pass at most colleges. This may seem unfair, but keep in mind that instructors plan exams to be reasonably comprehensive. They want you to write about the course materials in two or three or more ways, not just one way. Hint: if you finish a half-hour essay in 10 minutes, you may need to develop some of your ideas more fully.
  • If you run out of time when you are writing an answer, jot down the remaining main ideas from your outline, just to show that you know the material and with more time could have continued your exposition.
  • Double-space to leave room for additions, and strike through errors or changes with one straight line (avoid erasing or scribbling over). Keep things as clean as possible. You never know what will earn you partial credit.
  • Write legibly and proofread. Remember that your instructor will likely be reading a large pile of exams. The more difficult they are to read, the more exasperated the instructor might become. Your instructor also cannot give you credit for what they cannot understand. A few minutes of careful proofreading can improve your grade.

Perhaps the most important thing to keep in mind in writing essay exams is that you have a limited amount of time and space in which to get across the knowledge you have acquired and your ability to use it. Essay exams are not the place to be subtle or vague. It’s okay to have an obvious structure, even the five-paragraph essay format you may have been taught in high school. Introduce your main idea, have several paragraphs of support—each with a single point defended by specific examples, and conclude with a restatement of your main point and its significance.

Some physiological tips

Just think—we expect athletes to practice constantly and use everything in their abilities and situations in order to achieve success. Yet, somehow many students are convinced that one day’s worth of studying, no sleep, and some well-placed compliments (“Gee, Dr. So-and-so, I really enjoyed your last lecture”) are good preparation for a test. Essay exams are like any other testing situation in life: you’ll do best if you are prepared for what is expected of you, have practiced doing it before, and have arrived in the best shape to do it. You may not want to believe this, but it’s true: a good night’s sleep and a relaxed mind and body can do as much or more for you as any last-minute cram session. Colleges abound with tales of woe about students who slept through exams because they stayed up all night, wrote an essay on the wrong topic, forgot everything they studied, or freaked out in the exam and hyperventilated. If you are rested, breathing normally, and have brought along some healthy, energy-boosting snacks that you can eat or drink quietly, you are in a much better position to do a good job on the test. You aren’t going to write a good essay on something you figured out at 4 a.m. that morning. If you prepare yourself well throughout the semester, you don’t risk your whole grade on an overloaded, undernourished brain.

If for some reason you get yourself into this situation, take a minute every once in a while during the test to breathe deeply, stretch, and clear your brain. You need to be especially aware of the likelihood of errors, so check your essays thoroughly before you hand them in to make sure they answer the right questions and don’t have big oversights or mistakes (like saying “Hitler” when you really mean “Churchill”).

If you tend to go blank during exams, try studying in the same classroom in which the test will be given. Some research suggests that people attach ideas to their surroundings, so it might jog your memory to see the same things you were looking at while you studied.

Try good luck charms. Bring in something you associate with success or the support of your loved ones, and use it as a psychological boost.

Take all of the time you’ve been allotted. Reread, rework, and rethink your answers if you have extra time at the end, rather than giving up and handing the exam in the minute you’ve written your last sentence. Use every advantage you are given.

Remember that instructors do not want to see you trip up—they want to see you do well. With this in mind, try to relax and just do the best you can. The more you panic, the more mistakes you are liable to make. Put the test in perspective: will you die from a poor performance? Will you lose all of your friends? Will your entire future be destroyed? Remember: it’s just a test.

Works consulted

We consulted these works while writing this handout. This is not a comprehensive list of resources on the handout’s topic, and we encourage you to do your own research to find additional publications. Please do not use this list as a model for the format of your own reference list, as it may not match the citation style you are using. For guidance on formatting citations, please see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial . We revise these tips periodically and welcome feedback.

Axelrod, Rise B., and Charles R. Cooper. 2016. The St. Martin’s Guide to Writing , 11th ed. Boston: Bedford/St Martin’s.

Fowler, Ramsay H., and Jane E. Aaron. 2016. The Little, Brown Handbook , 13th ed. Boston: Pearson.

Gefvert, Constance J. 1988. The Confident Writer: A Norton Handbook , 2nd ed. New York: W.W. Norton and Company.

Kirszner, Laurie G. 1988. Writing: A College Rhetoric , 2nd ed. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.

Lunsford, Andrea A. 2015. The St. Martin’s Handbook , 8th ed. Boston: Bedford/St Martin’s.

Woodman, Leonara, and Thomas P. Adler. 1988. The Writer’s Choices , 2nd ed. Northbrook, Illinois: Scott Foresman.

You may reproduce it for non-commercial use if you use the entire handout and attribute the source: The Writing Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

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Introduction

CDHE Nomination

AUCC Requirements

Course Description

Sample Policy Statements

Syllabus Sequencing Strategies

Sample Daily Syllabi

Lesson Plans

Reading Selection Recommendations

Assignments

Response Papers and Discussion Forums

Presentations

Discusssion, Group, WTL Questions

Variations, Misc.

Curbing Plagiarism

Additional Teaching & Course Design Resources

Guide Contributors

Midterm and Final Exam Examples

Exams are a great way to reinforce and evaluate students' understanding of the course content and main ideas. There are several different ways to approach exams including an in-class essay, short essays, multiple choice, short answer, fill in the blank, matching, quote/passage identification, character identification, etc. with plenty of flexibility for what an instructor deems important. Most instructors that choose to assign exams give both a midterm and final, though some just choose a comprehensive final. Of those who do give both, the midterm and final exam often look similar in style and content so students can expect consistency in the testing methods. Many instructors choose to test the first half of the course's information in the middle of the semester through a midterm and the rest of the semester at the final. In other words, the course's information is not cumulative and lets students focus on the most current concepts so they do not need to remember trivial details such as minor characters from the first text at the end of the semester.

Midterm Exams: Midterm exams often come at the midpoint in the semester. As stated previously in the overview, instructors sometimes divide the class into two sections so that the course's information is not cumulative. This strategy emphasizes making the overall picture or most recent concepts most important instead of testing on characters or plot lines from the first text of the semester.

Midterm Exam Examples:

  • Midterm Exam Example
  • Midterm Exam Study Guide Example

Final Exams: Final exams are similar to midterms except given at the end of the semester. Keep in mind that according to university policy,

"Final examination week is part of the regular semester. Student attendance shall be consistent with University policy. The final in-class examination period is intended for the end-of-semester examination. No in-class examination constituting more than 10% of the final course grade may be given in undergraduate courses during the week preceding the final examination period of the semester; laboratory, performance and other alternative classes (e.g., courses in the individualized mathematics program) excluded."

This does not indicate that instructors must give a final, only that they must use the time. If you do decide to give a final, here are a few sample finals to give you ideas for your own. Many of them follow the same format and structure of the midterm exams.

Final Exam Examples:

  • Final Exam Example
  • Final Exam Study Guide Example
  • Final Exam Example with Study Guide

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Preparing for the ACT Test with Writing

About the act writing test.

The ACT writing test is a 40-minute essay test that measures your writing skills. The test consists of one writing prompt that will describe a complex issue and present three different perspectives on that issue.  It is a paper-and-pencil test. You will write your essay in pencil (no mechanical pencils or ink pens) on the lined pages of an answer folder that will be provided to you. The only exception is for approved students with diagnosed disabilities who cannot hand write the essay. (See Accommodations .) 

The ACT writing test complements the English and reading tests. The combined information from these tests tells postsecondary institutions about students’ understanding of the conventions of standard written English and their ability to produce a direct sample of writing. The writing test cannot be taken without first taking all four multiple-choice tests in the same session. 

You are asked to read the prompt and write an essay in which you develop your own perspective on the issue. Your essay should analyze the relationship between your perspective and one or more other perspectives. You may adopt a perspective from the prompt, partially or fully, or you may generate your own. Your score will not be affected by the point of view you take on the issue.

Some colleges require the ACT writing test. You should decide whether or not you should take it based on the requirements of the colleges you are applying to or considering.

Why the ACT Writing Test Is Optional 

Because postsecondary institutions have varying needs, we offer the ACT writing test as an option. 

  • Postsecondary institutions are making their own decisions about whether to require the results from the ACT writing test for admissions and/or course placement purposes. 
  • Students will decide whether to take the writing test based on the requirements of the institutions they are considering. 

Practice Your Writing Skills 

Read. Write. Repeat. 

There are many ways to prepare for the ACT writing test that don't even include writing at all. Reading newspapers and magazines, listening to news analyses on television or radio, and participating in discussions and debates about issues and problems all help you build a foundation for your writing skills. These activities help you become more familiar with current issues, with different perspectives on those issues, and with strategies that skilled writers and speakers use to present their points of view. 

Of course, one of the best ways to prepare for the ACT writing test is to practice writing. But you don’t have to sit at a desk and fill a notebook with essays. Practice writing for different purposes, with different audiences in mind. The writing you do in your English classes will help you. Practice writing stories, poems, plays, editorials, reports, letters to the editor, a personal journal, or other kinds of writing that you do on your own—including, yes, essays. 

The ACT writing test asks you to explain your perspective on an issue in a convincing way, so writing opportunities such as editorials or letters to the editor of a newspaper are especially helpful. Practicing various types of writing will help make you a versatile writer able to adjust to different writing assignments. 

Finally, don’t forget you only have 40 minutes on test day. Get some practice writing within a time limit. This will not only give you an advantage on the test, but also will help you build skills that are important in college-level learning and in the world of work. 

Build Your Writing Skills 

Everyday ways to improve your writing 

You can strengthen your writing skills just about anywhere, anytime. Read below for some ideas to make writing, responding, and organizing your thoughts part of your daily routine:   

  • Read and write frequently.  Read as much as you can from a variety of sources, including plays, essays, fiction, poetry, news stories, business writing, and magazine features. 
  • Become familiar with current issues in society and develop your own opinions.  Think of arguments you would use to convince someone of your perspective. Taking speech and debate classes can help you think through issues and communicate them to others. 
  • Practice writing in different formats and in as many real situations as possible.  Write letters to the editor, or letters to a company requesting information. 
  • Try some writing in extracurricular activities.  School newspapers, yearbooks, and creative writing clubs offer opportunities to express ideas in writing. 
  • Share your writing with others and get feedback.  Feedback helps you anticipate how readers might interpret your writing and what types of questions they might have. This can help you anticipate what a reader might want to know. 
  • Learn to see writing as a process —brainstorming, planning, writing, and then editing. This applies to all writing activities. 
  • Listen to the advice your English teacher gives you about your writing. 
  • Strive for well-developed and well-organized writing  that uses precise, clear, and concise language. 
  • Remember that everyone can improve their writing skills.  Confidence and skill will grow with the more writing you do. Practice and work lead to achievement. 

Tips for Taking the ACT Writing Test

Pace yourself.

The ACT writing test contains one question to be completed in 40 minutes. When asked to write a timed essay, most writers find it useful to do some planning before they write the essay and to do a final check of the essay when it is finished. It is unlikely that you will have time to draft, revise, and recopy your essay.

Before writing, carefully read and consider all prompt material. Be sure you understand the issue, its perspectives, and your essay task. The prewriting questions included with the prompt will help you analyze the perspectives and develop your own. Use these questions to think critically about the prompt and generate effective ideas in response. Ask yourself how your ideas and analysis can best be supported and organized in a written argument. Use the prewriting space in your test booklet to structure or outline your response.

Establish the focus of your essay by making clear your argument and its main ideas. Explain and illustrate your ideas with sound reasoning and meaningful examples. Discuss the significance of your ideas: what are the implications of what you have to say, and why is your argument important to consider? As you write, ask yourself if your logic is clear, you have supported your claims, and you have chosen precise words to communicate your ideas.

Review Your Essay

Take a few minutes before time is called to read over your essay. Correct any mistakes. If you find any words that are hard to read, recopy them. Make corrections and revisions neatly between the lines. Do not write in the margins. Your readers know you had only 40 minutes to compose and write your essay. Within that time limit, try to make your essay as polished as you can.

There are many ways to prepare for the ACT writing test. These include reading newspapers and magazines, listening to news analyses on television and radio, and participating in discussions and debates.

One of the best ways to prepare for the ACT writing test is to practice writing with different purposes for different audiences. The writing you do in your classes will help you. So will writing essays, stories, editorials, a personal journal, or other writing you do on your own.

It is also a good idea to practice writing within a time limit. Taking the practice ACT writing test will give you a sense of how much additional practice you may need. You might want to take the practice ACT writing test even if you do not plan to take the ACT with writing, because this will help build skills that are important in college-level learning and in the world of work.

Find more info about how the writing test is scored .

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Example of a Great Essay | Explanations, Tips & Tricks

Published on February 9, 2015 by Shane Bryson . Revised on July 23, 2023 by Shona McCombes.

This example guides you through the structure of an essay. It shows how to build an effective introduction , focused paragraphs , clear transitions between ideas, and a strong conclusion .

Each paragraph addresses a single central point, introduced by a topic sentence , and each point is directly related to the thesis statement .

As you read, hover over the highlighted parts to learn what they do and why they work.

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Other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about writing an essay, an appeal to the senses: the development of the braille system in nineteenth-century france.

The invention of Braille was a major turning point in the history of disability. The writing system of raised dots used by visually impaired people was developed by Louis Braille in nineteenth-century France. In a society that did not value disabled people in general, blindness was particularly stigmatized, and lack of access to reading and writing was a significant barrier to social participation. The idea of tactile reading was not entirely new, but existing methods based on sighted systems were difficult to learn and use. As the first writing system designed for blind people’s needs, Braille was a groundbreaking new accessibility tool. It not only provided practical benefits, but also helped change the cultural status of blindness. This essay begins by discussing the situation of blind people in nineteenth-century Europe. It then describes the invention of Braille and the gradual process of its acceptance within blind education. Subsequently, it explores the wide-ranging effects of this invention on blind people’s social and cultural lives.

Lack of access to reading and writing put blind people at a serious disadvantage in nineteenth-century society. Text was one of the primary methods through which people engaged with culture, communicated with others, and accessed information; without a well-developed reading system that did not rely on sight, blind people were excluded from social participation (Weygand, 2009). While disabled people in general suffered from discrimination, blindness was widely viewed as the worst disability, and it was commonly believed that blind people were incapable of pursuing a profession or improving themselves through culture (Weygand, 2009). This demonstrates the importance of reading and writing to social status at the time: without access to text, it was considered impossible to fully participate in society. Blind people were excluded from the sighted world, but also entirely dependent on sighted people for information and education.

In France, debates about how to deal with disability led to the adoption of different strategies over time. While people with temporary difficulties were able to access public welfare, the most common response to people with long-term disabilities, such as hearing or vision loss, was to group them together in institutions (Tombs, 1996). At first, a joint institute for the blind and deaf was created, and although the partnership was motivated more by financial considerations than by the well-being of the residents, the institute aimed to help people develop skills valuable to society (Weygand, 2009). Eventually blind institutions were separated from deaf institutions, and the focus shifted towards education of the blind, as was the case for the Royal Institute for Blind Youth, which Louis Braille attended (Jimenez et al, 2009). The growing acknowledgement of the uniqueness of different disabilities led to more targeted education strategies, fostering an environment in which the benefits of a specifically blind education could be more widely recognized.

Several different systems of tactile reading can be seen as forerunners to the method Louis Braille developed, but these systems were all developed based on the sighted system. The Royal Institute for Blind Youth in Paris taught the students to read embossed roman letters, a method created by the school’s founder, Valentin Hauy (Jimenez et al., 2009). Reading this way proved to be a rather arduous task, as the letters were difficult to distinguish by touch. The embossed letter method was based on the reading system of sighted people, with minimal adaptation for those with vision loss. As a result, this method did not gain significant success among blind students.

Louis Braille was bound to be influenced by his school’s founder, but the most influential pre-Braille tactile reading system was Charles Barbier’s night writing. A soldier in Napoleon’s army, Barbier developed a system in 1819 that used 12 dots with a five line musical staff (Kersten, 1997). His intention was to develop a system that would allow the military to communicate at night without the need for light (Herron, 2009). The code developed by Barbier was phonetic (Jimenez et al., 2009); in other words, the code was designed for sighted people and was based on the sounds of words, not on an actual alphabet. Barbier discovered that variants of raised dots within a square were the easiest method of reading by touch (Jimenez et al., 2009). This system proved effective for the transmission of short messages between military personnel, but the symbols were too large for the fingertip, greatly reducing the speed at which a message could be read (Herron, 2009). For this reason, it was unsuitable for daily use and was not widely adopted in the blind community.

Nevertheless, Barbier’s military dot system was more efficient than Hauy’s embossed letters, and it provided the framework within which Louis Braille developed his method. Barbier’s system, with its dashes and dots, could form over 4000 combinations (Jimenez et al., 2009). Compared to the 26 letters of the Latin alphabet, this was an absurdly high number. Braille kept the raised dot form, but developed a more manageable system that would reflect the sighted alphabet. He replaced Barbier’s dashes and dots with just six dots in a rectangular configuration (Jimenez et al., 2009). The result was that the blind population in France had a tactile reading system using dots (like Barbier’s) that was based on the structure of the sighted alphabet (like Hauy’s); crucially, this system was the first developed specifically for the purposes of the blind.

While the Braille system gained immediate popularity with the blind students at the Institute in Paris, it had to gain acceptance among the sighted before its adoption throughout France. This support was necessary because sighted teachers and leaders had ultimate control over the propagation of Braille resources. Many of the teachers at the Royal Institute for Blind Youth resisted learning Braille’s system because they found the tactile method of reading difficult to learn (Bullock & Galst, 2009). This resistance was symptomatic of the prevalent attitude that the blind population had to adapt to the sighted world rather than develop their own tools and methods. Over time, however, with the increasing impetus to make social contribution possible for all, teachers began to appreciate the usefulness of Braille’s system (Bullock & Galst, 2009), realizing that access to reading could help improve the productivity and integration of people with vision loss. It took approximately 30 years, but the French government eventually approved the Braille system, and it was established throughout the country (Bullock & Galst, 2009).

Although Blind people remained marginalized throughout the nineteenth century, the Braille system granted them growing opportunities for social participation. Most obviously, Braille allowed people with vision loss to read the same alphabet used by sighted people (Bullock & Galst, 2009), allowing them to participate in certain cultural experiences previously unavailable to them. Written works, such as books and poetry, had previously been inaccessible to the blind population without the aid of a reader, limiting their autonomy. As books began to be distributed in Braille, this barrier was reduced, enabling people with vision loss to access information autonomously. The closing of the gap between the abilities of blind and the sighted contributed to a gradual shift in blind people’s status, lessening the cultural perception of the blind as essentially different and facilitating greater social integration.

The Braille system also had important cultural effects beyond the sphere of written culture. Its invention later led to the development of a music notation system for the blind, although Louis Braille did not develop this system himself (Jimenez, et al., 2009). This development helped remove a cultural obstacle that had been introduced by the popularization of written musical notation in the early 1500s. While music had previously been an arena in which the blind could participate on equal footing, the transition from memory-based performance to notation-based performance meant that blind musicians were no longer able to compete with sighted musicians (Kersten, 1997). As a result, a tactile musical notation system became necessary for professional equality between blind and sighted musicians (Kersten, 1997).

Braille paved the way for dramatic cultural changes in the way blind people were treated and the opportunities available to them. Louis Braille’s innovation was to reimagine existing reading systems from a blind perspective, and the success of this invention required sighted teachers to adapt to their students’ reality instead of the other way around. In this sense, Braille helped drive broader social changes in the status of blindness. New accessibility tools provide practical advantages to those who need them, but they can also change the perspectives and attitudes of those who do not.

Bullock, J. D., & Galst, J. M. (2009). The Story of Louis Braille. Archives of Ophthalmology , 127(11), 1532. https://​doi.org/10.1001/​archophthalmol.2009.286.

Herron, M. (2009, May 6). Blind visionary. Retrieved from https://​eandt.theiet.org/​content/​articles/2009/05/​blind-visionary/.

Jiménez, J., Olea, J., Torres, J., Alonso, I., Harder, D., & Fischer, K. (2009). Biography of Louis Braille and Invention of the Braille Alphabet. Survey of Ophthalmology , 54(1), 142–149. https://​doi.org/10.1016/​j.survophthal.2008.10.006.

Kersten, F.G. (1997). The history and development of Braille music methodology. The Bulletin of Historical Research in Music Education , 18(2). Retrieved from https://​www.jstor.org/​stable/40214926.

Mellor, C.M. (2006). Louis Braille: A touch of genius . Boston: National Braille Press.

Tombs, R. (1996). France: 1814-1914 . London: Pearson Education Ltd.

Weygand, Z. (2009). The blind in French society from the Middle Ages to the century of Louis Braille . Stanford: Stanford University Press.

If you want to know more about AI tools , college essays , or fallacies make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples or go directly to our tools!

  • Ad hominem fallacy
  • Post hoc fallacy
  • Appeal to authority fallacy
  • False cause fallacy
  • Sunk cost fallacy

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An essay is a focused piece of writing that explains, argues, describes, or narrates.

In high school, you may have to write many different types of essays to develop your writing skills.

Academic essays at college level are usually argumentative : you develop a clear thesis about your topic and make a case for your position using evidence, analysis and interpretation.

The structure of an essay is divided into an introduction that presents your topic and thesis statement , a body containing your in-depth analysis and arguments, and a conclusion wrapping up your ideas.

The structure of the body is flexible, but you should always spend some time thinking about how you can organize your essay to best serve your ideas.

Your essay introduction should include three main things, in this order:

  • An opening hook to catch the reader’s attention.
  • Relevant background information that the reader needs to know.
  • A thesis statement that presents your main point or argument.

The length of each part depends on the length and complexity of your essay .

A thesis statement is a sentence that sums up the central point of your paper or essay . Everything else you write should relate to this key idea.

A topic sentence is a sentence that expresses the main point of a paragraph . Everything else in the paragraph should relate to the topic sentence.

At college level, you must properly cite your sources in all essays , research papers , and other academic texts (except exams and in-class exercises).

Add a citation whenever you quote , paraphrase , or summarize information or ideas from a source. You should also give full source details in a bibliography or reference list at the end of your text.

The exact format of your citations depends on which citation style you are instructed to use. The most common styles are APA , MLA , and Chicago .

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.

Bryson, S. (2023, July 23). Example of a Great Essay | Explanations, Tips & Tricks. Scribbr. Retrieved February 20, 2024, from https://www.scribbr.com/academic-essay/example-essay-structure/

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Shane finished his master's degree in English literature in 2013 and has been working as a writing tutor and editor since 2009. He began proofreading and editing essays with Scribbr in early summer, 2014.

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Writing Essays for Exams

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While most OWL resources recommend a longer writing process (start early, revise often, conduct thorough research, etc.), sometimes you just have to write quickly in test situations. However, these exam essays can be no less important pieces of writing than research papers because they can influence final grades for courses, and/or they can mean the difference between getting into an academic program (GED, SAT, GRE). To that end, this resource will help you prepare and write essays for exams.

What is a well written answer to an essay question?

Well Focused

Be sure to answer the question completely, that is, answer all parts of the question. Avoid "padding." A lot of rambling and ranting is a sure sign that the writer doesn't really know what the right answer is and hopes that somehow, something in that overgrown jungle of words was the correct answer.

Well Organized

Don't write in a haphazard "think-as-you-go" manner. Do some planning and be sure that what you write has a clearly marked introduction which both states the point(s) you are going to make and also, if possible, how you are going to proceed. In addition, the essay should have a clearly indicated conclusion which summarizes the material covered and emphasizes your thesis or main point.

Well Supported

Do not just assert something is true, prove it. What facts, figures, examples, tests, etc. prove your point? In many cases, the difference between an A and a B as a grade is due to the effective use of supporting evidence.

Well Packaged

People who do not use conventions of language are thought of by their readers as less competent and less educated. If you need help with these or other writing skills, come to the Writing Lab

How do you write an effective essay exam?

  • Read through all the questions carefully.
  • Budget your time and decide which question(s) you will answer first.
  • Underline the key word(s) which tell you what to do for each question.
  • Choose an organizational pattern appropriate for each key word and plan your answers on scratch paper or in the margins.
  • Write your answers as quickly and as legibly as you can; do not take the time to recopy.
  • Begin each answer with one or two sentence thesis which summarizes your answer. If possible, phrase the statement so that it rephrases the question's essential terms into a statement (which therefore directly answers the essay question).
  • Support your thesis with specific references to the material you have studied.
  • Proofread your answer and correct errors in spelling and mechanics.

Specific organizational patterns and "key words"

Most essay questions will have one or more "key words" that indicate which organizational pattern you should use in your answer. The six most common organizational patterns for essay exams are definition, analysis, cause and effect, comparison/contrast, process analysis, and thesis-support.

Typical questions

  • "Define X."
  • "What is an X?"
  • "Choose N terms from the following list and define them."

Q: "What is a fanzine?"

A: A fanzine is a magazine written, mimeographed, and distributed by and for science fiction or comic strip enthusiasts.

Avoid constructions such as "An encounter group is where ..." and "General semantics is when ... ."

  • State the term to be defined.
  • State the class of objects or concepts to which the term belongs.
  • Differentiate the term from other members of the class by listing the term's distinguishing characteristics.

Tools you can use

  • Details which describe the term
  • Examples and incidents
  • Comparisons to familiar terms
  • Negation to state what the term is not
  • Classification (i.e., break it down into parts)
  • Examination of origins or causes
  • Examination of results, effects, or uses

Analysis involves breaking something down into its components and discovering the parts that make up the whole.

  • "Analyze X."
  • "What are the components of X?"
  • "What are the five different kinds of X?"
  • "Discuss the different types of X."

Q: "Discuss the different services a junior college offers a community."

A: Thesis: A junior college offers the community at least three main types of educational services: vocational education for young people, continuing education for older people, and personal development for all individuals.

Outline for supporting details and examples. For example, if you were answering the example question, an outline might include:

  • Vocational education
  • Continuing education
  • Personal development

Write the essay, describing each part or component and making transitions between each of your descriptions. Some useful transition words include:

  • first, second, third, etc.
  • in addition

Conclude the essay by emphasizing how each part you have described makes up the whole you have been asked to analyze.

Cause and Effect

Cause and effect involves tracing probable or known effects of a certain cause or examining one or more effects and discussing the reasonable or known cause(s).

Typical questions:

  • "What are the causes of X?"
  • "What led to X?"
  • "Why did X occur?"
  • "Why does X happen?"
  • "What would be the effects of X?"

Q: "Define recession and discuss the probable effects a recession would have on today's society."

A: Thesis: A recession, which is a nationwide lull in business activity, would be detrimental to society in the following ways: it would .......A......., it would .......B......., and it would .......C....... .

The rest of the answer would explain, in some detail, the three effects: A, B, and C.

Useful transition words:

  • consequently
  • for this reason
  • as a result

Comparison-Contrast

  • "How does X differ from Y?"
  • "Compare X and Y."
  • "What are the advantages and disadvantages of X and Y?"

Q: "Which would you rather own—a compact car or a full-sized car?"

A: Thesis: I would own a compact car rather than a full-sized car for the following reasons: .......A......., .......B......., .......C......., and .......D....... .

Two patterns of development:

  • Full-sized car

Disadvantages

  • Compact car

Useful transition words

  • on the other hand
  • unlike A, B ...
  • in the same way
  • while both A and B are ..., only B ..
  • nevertheless
  • on the contrary
  • while A is ..., B is ...
  • "Describe how X is accomplished."
  • "List the steps involved in X."
  • "Explain what happened in X."
  • "What is the procedure involved in X?"

Process (sometimes called process analysis)

This involves giving directions or telling the reader how to do something. It may involve discussing some complex procedure as a series of discrete steps. The organization is almost always chronological.

Q: "According to Richard Bolles' What Color Is Your Parachute?, what is the best procedure for finding a job?"

A: In What Color Is Your Parachute?, Richard Bolles lists seven steps that all job-hunters should follow: .....A....., .....B....., .....C....., .....D....., .....E....., .....F....., and .....G..... .

The remainder of the answer should discuss each of these seven steps in some detail.

  • following this
  • after, afterwards, after this
  • subsequently
  • simultaneously, concurrently

Thesis and Support

  • "Discuss X."
  • "A noted authority has said X. Do you agree or disagree?"
  • "Defend or refute X."
  • "Do you think that X is valid? Defend your position."

Thesis and support involves stating a clearly worded opinion or interpretation and then defending it with all the data, examples, facts, and so on that you can draw from the material you have studied.

Q: "Despite criticism, television is useful because it aids in the socializing process of our children."

A: Television hinders rather than helps in the socializing process of our children because .......A......., .......B......., and .......C....... .

The rest of the answer is devoted to developing arguments A, B, and C.

  • it follows that

A. Which of the following two answers is the better one? Why?

Question: Discuss the contribution of William Morris to book design, using as an example his edition of the works of Chaucer.

a. William Morris's Chaucer was his masterpiece. It shows his interest in the Middle Ages. The type is based on medieval manuscript writing, and the decoration around the edges of the pages is like that used in medieval books. The large initial letters are typical of medieval design. Those letters were printed from woodcuts, which was the medieval way of printing. The illustrations were by Burn-Jones, one of the best artists in England at the time. Morris was able to get the most competent people to help him because he was so famous as a poet and a designer (the Morris chair) and wallpaper and other decorative items for the home. He designed the furnishings for his own home, which was widely admired among the sort of people he associated with. In this way he started the arts and crafts movement.

b. Morris's contribution to book design was to approach the problem as an artist or fine craftsman, rather than a mere printer who reproduced texts. He wanted to raise the standards of printing, which had fallen to a low point, by showing that truly beautiful books could be produced. His Chaucer was designed as a unified work of art or high craft. Since Chaucer lived in the Middle Ages, Morris decided to design a new type based on medieval script and to imitate the format of a medieval manuscript. This involved elaborate letters and large initials at the beginnings of verses, as well as wide borders of intertwined vines with leaves, fruit, and flowers in strong colors. The effect was so unusual that the book caused great excitement and inspired other printers to design beautiful rather than purely utilitarian books.

From James M. McCrimmon, Writing with a Purpose , 7th ed. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1980), pp. 261-263.

B. How would you plan the structure of the answers to these essay exam questions?

1. Was the X Act a continuation of earlier government policies or did it represent a departure from prior philosophies?

2. What seems to be the source of aggression in human beings? What can be done to lower the level of aggression in our society?

3. Choose one character from Novel X and, with specific references to the work, show how he or she functions as an "existential hero."

4. Define briefly the systems approach to business management. Illustrate how this differs from the traditional approach.

5. What is the cosmological argument? Does it prove that God exists?

6. Civil War historian Andy Bellum once wrote, "Blahblahblah blahed a blahblah, but of course if blahblah blahblahblahed the blah, then blahblahs are not blah but blahblah." To what extent and in what ways is the statement true? How is it false?

For more information on writing exam essays for the GED, please visit our Engagement area and go to the Community Writing and Education Station (CWEST) resources.

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Sat / act prep online guides and tips, sat essay prompts: the complete list.

SAT Writing , SAT Essay

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On every SAT Essay, you'll have to read an argument meant to persuade a broad audience and discuss how well the author argues his or her point. The passage you'll have to read will change from test to test, but you'll always need to analyze the author's argument and write a coherent and organized essay explaining this analysis.

In this article, we've compiled a list of the 14 real SAT essay prompts that the College Board has released (either in The Official SAT Study Guide or separately online) for the new SAT. This is the most comprehensive set of new SAT essay prompts online today.

At the end of this article, we'll also guide you through how to get the most out of these prompts and link to our expert resources on acing the SAT essay. I'll discuss how the SAT essay prompts are valuable not just because they give you a chance to write a practice essay, but because of what they reveal about the essay task itself.

UPDATE: SAT Essay No Longer Offered

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In January 2021, the College Board announced that after June 2021, it would no longer offer the Essay portion of the SAT (except at schools who opt in during School Day Testing). It is now no longer possible to take the SAT Essay, unless your school is one of the small number who choose to offer it during SAT School Day Testing.

While most colleges had already made SAT Essay scores optional, this move by the College Board means no colleges now require the SAT Essay. It will also likely lead to additional college application changes such not looking at essay scores at all for the SAT or ACT, as well as potentially requiring additional writing samples for placement.

What does the end of the SAT Essay mean for your college applications? Check out our article on the College Board's SAT Essay decision for everything you need to know.

SAT essay prompts always keep to the same basic format. Not only is the prompt format consistent from test to test, but what you're actually asked to do (discuss how an author builds an argument) also remains the same across different test administrations.

The College Board's predictability with SAT essay helps students focus on preparing for the actual analytical task, rather than having to think up stuff on their feet. Every time, before the passage, you'll see the following:

  • evidence, such as facts or examples, to support claims.
  • reasoning to develop ideas and to connect claims and evidence.
  • stylistic or persuasive elements, such as word choice or appeals to emotion, to add power to the ideas expressed.

And after the passage, you'll see this:

"Write an essay in which you explain how [the author] builds an argument to persuade [her/his] audience that [whatever the author is trying to argue for]. In your essay, analyze how [the author] uses one or more of the features listed in the box above (or features of your own choice) to strengthen the logic and persuasiveness of his argument. Be sure that your analysis focuses on the most relevant features of the passage.

Your essay should not explain whether you agree with [the author]'s claims, but rather explain how [the author] builds an argument to persuade [her/his/their] audience."

Now that you know the format, let's look at the SAT essay prompts list.

14 Official SAT Essay Prompts

The College Board has released a limited number of prompts to help students prep for the essay. We've gathered them for you here, all in one place. We'll be sure to update this article as more prompts are released for practice and/or as more tests are released.

SPOILER ALERT : Since these are the only essay prompts that have been released so far, you may want to be cautious about spoiling them for yourself, particularly if you are planning on taking practice tests under real conditions . This is why I've organized the prompts by the 10 that are in the practice tests (so you can avoid them if need be), the ones that are available online as sample prompts, and the ones that are in the text of the Official SAT Study Guide (Redesigned SAT), all online for free.

Practice Test Prompts

These 10 prompts are taken from the practice tests that the College Board has released.

Practice Test 1 :

"Write an essay in which you explain how Jimmy Carter builds an argument to persuade his audience that the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge should not be developed for industry."

Practice Test 2 :

"Write an essay in which you explain how Martin Luther King Jr. builds an argument to persuade his audience that American involvement in the Vietnam War is unjust."

Practice Test 3 :

"Write an essay in which you explain how Eliana Dockterman builds an argument to persuade her audience that there are benefits to early exposure to technology."

Practice Test 4 :

"Write an essay in which you explain how Paul Bogard builds an argument to persuade his audience that natural darkness should be preserved."

Practice Test 5 :

"Write an essay in which you explain how Eric Klinenberg builds an argument to persuade his audience that Americans need to greatly reduce their reliance on air-conditioning."

Practice Test 6 :

"Write an essay in which you explain how Christopher Hitchens builds an argument to persuade his audience that the original Parthenon sculptures should be returned to Greece."

Practice Test 7 :

"Write an essay in which you explain how Zadie Smith builds an argument to persuade her audience that public libraries are important and should remain open"

Practice Test 8 :

"Write an essay in which you explain how Bobby Braun builds an argument to persuade his audience that the US government must continue to invest in NASA."

Practice Test 9 :

"Write an essay in which you explain how Todd Davidson builds an argument to persuade his audience that the US government must continue to fund national parks."

Practice Test 10 :

"Write an essay in which you explain how Richard Schiffman builds an argument to persuade his audience that Americans need to work fewer hours."

Special note: The prompt for Practice Test 4 also appears on the College Board's site with real sample essays written in response. If you've written a practice essay for practice test 4 and want to see what essays of different score levels look like for that particular prompt, you can go there and look at eight real student essays.

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Free Online Practice

This prompt comes from the College Board website .

"Write an essay in which you explain how Dana Gioia builds an argument to persuade his audience that the decline of reading in America will have a negative effect on society."

This prompt comes from Khan Academy , where it is listed as an alternate essay prompt to go along with Practice Test 2:

"Write an essay in which you explain how Leo W. Gerard builds an argument to persuade his audience that American colleges and universities should be affordable for all students."

The Official SAT Study Guide 2020

The Official SAT Study Guide (editions published in 2015 and later available online for free) contains all 10 of the previously mentioned practice tests at the end of the book. In the section about the new SAT essay , however, there are two additional sample essay prompts (accompanied by articles to analyze).

Sample Prompt 1:

"Write an essay in which you explain how Peter S. Goodman builds an argument to persuade his audience that news organizations should increase the amount of professional foreign news coverage provided to people in the United States."

Sample Prompt 2:

"Write an essay in which you explain how Adam B. Summers builds an argument to persuade his audience that plastic shopping bags should not be banned."

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How Do You Get the Most Out of These Prompts?

Now that you have all the prompts released by the College Board, it's important to know the best way to use them. Make sure you have a good balance between quality and quantity, and don't burn through all 14 of the real prompts in a row— take the time to learn from your experiences writing the practice essays.

Step By Step Guide on How to Practice Using the Article

#1: Understand how the SAT essay is graded .

#2: Follow along as we write a high-scoring SAT essay, step by step .

#3: Plan a set of features you'll look for in the SAT essay readings and practice writing about them fluidly. This doesn't just mean identifying a technique, like asking a rhetorical question, but explaining why it is persuasive and what effect it has on the reader in the context of a particular topic. We have more information on this step in our article about 6 SAT persuasive devices you can use .

#4: Choose a prompt at random from above, or choose a topic that you think is going to be hard for you to detach from (because you'll want to write about the topic, rather than the argument) set timer to 50 minutes and write the essay. No extra time allowed!

#5: Grade the essay, using the official essay rubric to give yourself a score out of 8 in the reading, analysis, and writing sections.

#6: Repeat steps 4 and 5. Choose the prompts you think will be the hardest for you so that you can so that you're prepared for the worst when the test day comes

#7: If you run out of official prompts to practice with, use the official prompts as models to find examples of other articles you could write about . Start by looking for op-ed articles in online news publications like The New York Times, The Atlantic, LA Times , and so on. For instance, the passage about the plastic bag ban in California (Official SAT Study Guide sample essay prompt 2, above) has a counterpoint here —you could try analyzing and writing about that article as well.

Any additional articles you use for practice on the SAT essay must match the following criteria:

  • ideally 650-750 words , although it'll be difficult to find an op-ed piece that's naturally that short. Try to aim for nothing longer than 2000 words, though, or the scope of the article is likely to be wider than anything you'll encounter on the SAT.
  • always argumentative/persuasive . The author (or authors) is trying to get readers to agree with a claim or idea being put forward.
  • always intended for a wide audience . All the information you need to deconstruct the persuasiveness of the argument is in the passage. This means that articles with a lot of technical jargon that's not explained in the article are not realistic passage to practice with.

What's Next?

We've written a ton of helpful resources on the SAT essay. I f you're just getting started, we recommend beginning with our top SAT essay tips for a quick overview of the essay task and what you need to know.

A little more familiar with the SAT essay but still not quite sure how to write one? Follow along with our step-by-step guide to writing the SAT essay .

Looking to earn a high score? Learn what it takes to get the highest score possible on the SAT essay here .

Plus, if you want a reference linking you to all of our great articles on the SAT essay, be sure to check out our ultimate SAT essay guide .

Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points?

Check out our best-in-class online SAT prep program. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your SAT score by 160 points or more.

Our program is entirely online, and it customizes your prep program to your strengths and weaknesses. We also have expert instructors who can grade every one of your practice SAT essays, giving feedback on how to improve your score.

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Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of Music of Bard College. She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and GRE and loves advising students on how to excel in high school.

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IELTS Sample Essays

Here you will find IELTS Sample Essays for a variety of common topics that appear in the writing exam.

The model answers all have tips and strategies for how you may approach the question and comments on the sample answer.

You can also view sample essays with band scores on this page. 

Looking at IELTS essay topics with answers is a great way to help you to prepare for the test. 

These IELTS sample essays have been categorised in a way that makes it easy for you to see how certain essay question types require you to provide certain responses to ensure the question is fully answered. 

Specifically these are:

  • Agree / Disagree
  • Discuss Two Opinions
  • Problems and Solutions
  • Advantages and Disadvantages
  • Other Types

Agree / Disagree Type Questions

In these types of question you are given one opinion and you then have to state the extent to which you agree or disagree with that opinion:

  • Advertising
  • Alternative Medicine
  • Spending on the Arts
  • Human Cloning
  • Social Interaction & the Internet
  • Airline Tax
  • Free University Education
  • Scientific Research
  • Banning Smoking
  • Employing Older People
  • Vegetarianism
  • Paying Taxes  
  • Examinations or Formal Assessment 
  • Multinational Organisations and Culture
  • Internet vs Newspapers
  • Technology Development  
  • Dying of Languages
  • Animal Extinction
  • Truth in Relationships
  • Role of Schools
  • Return of Historical Artefacts

Discuss Two Opinions Type Questions

In this essay question type you are given two opinions, and you have to discuss both of these and then give your own view:

  • University Education
  • Reducing Crime
  • Animal Rights
  • Child Development
  • Diet & Health
  • Donating Money to Charity
  • Closing Zoos   
  • Becoming Independent  
  • Formal and Informal Education  
  • Influence of Scientists and Politicians
  • Sources for Stories
  • Searching for Extraterrestrial Life

Cause Type Questions

There are a variety of 'cause type' essay questions. In these you first have to give the reasons why something has happened, in other words the causes, but then discuss a different aspect of it, such as the effects, solutions or the extent to whether it is a positive or negative development:

Causes & Effects:

  • Child Obesity
  • Skin Whitening Creams
  • Family Size
  • Having Children Later in Life
  • Time Away from Family

Causes and Solutions:

  • Youth Crime
  • Global Warming
  • Paying Attention in Class
  • International Travel & Prejudice 
  • Museums & Historical Places
  • Disappearance of Traditions
  • Communication Between Generations

Causes, Pros & Cons:

  • Family Closeness
  • Living Alone
  • Rural to Urban Migration

Problems & Solutions Type Questions

In these type of questions, instead of discussing the causes of a problem, you need to discuss the problems related to a particular issue in society, and then suggest what can be to solve these problems:

  • Overpopulation
  • Competing for Jobs  
  • Professionals Immigrating

Advantage & Disadvantages Type Questions

In these type of questions you are asked to discuss the positive and negative sides of a particular topic. You will usually be asked this in the context of giving an opinion ( e.g. Do the advantages outweigh the disadvantages? Is it a positive or negative development? ): 

  • Traffic Problems
  • Food Additives
  • Computer Games
  • Age Discrimination at Work  
  • Children using Tablets and Computers  
  • Cell Phones, Internet, & Communication  
  • Working from Home 
  • Eating Locally grown  Produce  
  • Oil and Gas Essay  
  • Peer Pressure on Young People
  • Online Fraud

'Hybrid' Types of Essay Question

There are sometimes questions that don't fit easily into a particular category as above. I've called these 'hybrid', as they are of mixed character, are composed of different elements from other types of essay, or are perhaps just worded differently. 

  • Protecting Old Buildings
  • Animal Testing
  • Fear of Crime
  • Communication Technology
  • Influence of Children's Friends  

Sample Essays with Band Scores

You can also view some sample essays that have been written by candidates practising for the test and have band scores and comments by an experienced ex-IELTS Examiner based on the IELTS marking criteria. 

  • IELTS Band 8 Essay Samples
  • IELTS Band 7 Essay Samples
  • IELTS Band 6 Essay Samples
  • IELTS Band 5 Essay Samples
  • IELTS Band 4 Essay Samples

Student Sample Essays

For more IELTS essay topics with answers you can also view essays that have been written by students. Some have feedback from other students or IELTS teachers:

  • Student Model Essays  (with comments by other students)
  • Student Model Essays (with comments by IELTS buddy)

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100 Band 7, 8 + 9 IELTS Writing Task 2 Essay Samples

Are you preparing for the IELTS Writing Task 2 exam and looking for some inspiration and guidance? Look no further! In this blog post, we have compiled a list of 100 Band 7, 8, and 9 IELTS Writing Task 2 essay samples to help you improve your writing skills and boost your chances of achieving a high score on the exam. These sample essays cover a wide range of topics, from education and technology to health and environment, and are a valuable resource for students at all levels of proficiency. Whether you’re just starting to prepare for the IELTS or are looking to fine-tune your writing skills, this blog post is an essential guide to acing your next Writing Task 2 test. So, please check out our IELTS sample essays and start preparing for the test today! Please note that these are real student samples. They contain mistakes because mistakes are totally normal for Band 7, 8, and even 9 students. All of the essays below have been checked by more than one former examiner, and all of the students achieved a Band 7, 8, or 9 in their real IELTS test.

Task 2 Samples

Some people think that parents should teach their children how to be good members of society. Others, however, believe that school is the best place to learn this. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.

Some people believe that children should be taught by their parents about how to function as useful members of society, while others believe that sending children to educational institutions is the best way for them to study this. Although the latter opinion can be beneficial in some cases, I believe that family upbringing plays a more important role in educating children to be good parts of the community.

Schools can be considered suitable places for children to learn to be good citizens. With standardized educational methods, schools can foster children’s cognitive development so that they are able to contribute to society in the future. For example, Trung Vuong school and Vinschool are well known for having nurtured successful alumni such as Professor Ngo Bao, Professor Nguyen Hung who have devoted their talents to the development of the country. However, these people only represent a small fraction of the total number of students attending schools, and thus sending children to schools cannot be the best method of educating them to be good members of society. 

I believe that parents play a more important role in teaching them how to be good citizens. In Vietnam, the average class size is 20 students, which makes it difficult for educators to provide proper schooling for each student. One to one lessons at home, on the other hand, allow children to progress faster. Furthermore, parents form stronger bonds with their offspring and thus, it is easier for them to shape children’s personalities at an early age. For example, by telling stories such as Robin Hood, Cinderella before bedtime, parents can instil a sense of compassion and integrity into them. These children are likely to become good members of society when they grow up.

In conclusion, although sending children to schools can be seen as a way of teaching them how to be good citizens, I believe that domestic upbringing has a bigger impact on determining who they are in the future.

There is an increasing trend around the world of married couples deciding not to have children. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages for couples who decide to do this.

An increasing number of married couples around the world choosing to remain childless. The main benefits of not having a child for couples are that they can focus on their careers and have more time for themselves. The main drawbacks are that they could not fit into their peers’ group and have no one to look after them when they get old. 

One primary advantage of remaining childless for married couples is that they can focus on their work. This is because they have less responsibility and distractions in their lives compared to the couples that have a child. Another advantage of this is that they have more spare time. Looking after a child is a full-time job for parents and taking most of their time, while child-free couples have lots of free time after work. For example, many couples stop going out late with their friends after having a child as they have to stay at home for looking after their children. 

One disadvantage of couples deciding not to have children is that they can struggle to hang with their peers after most of them have children. Most parents prefer to spend more time with other couples that have children as well. Moreover, do not have anyone to look after them in their elderliness is another disadvantage. Children are the ones who take care of their parents when they get old because their parents did the same for them when they were young. For instance, the vast majority of the people who live in care homes have no child. 

In conclusion, the main benefits of staying child-free for couples are that they can be more career-oriented and have more free time for themselves, and the main drawbacks are that they could have problems about fitting into their friends’ group and having no one to take care of them when they become older.

Some would say that parents should teach their offspring how to be good members of society, while others are of the opinion that school is the best in this regard. This essay agrees with the latter point and will show that, despite the practical experiences that parents give their children, school lessons can give deep insights into what it takes to be good citizens.

Some believe that parents can educate their children about being good members of society based on their life experiences. This is because the life experiences that parents can give their children are straightforward, down-to-earth, and so they can easily apply what their parents teach them in reality. For example, many children in Thailand become more polite, honest, and caring to everyone as a direct result of the practical lessons that their parents give them at home. However, I believe that parents now are so busy and do not spend much time with their children teaching them.

Lessons at school can provide children with valuable insights into being good members of society. In class, students can receive lessons about different traits of a truly good person that society needs, and then they put what they learn into practice by creating real-life problems and solving them together. For instance, after receiving lessons in civic education at school, many Vietnamese students are more willing to help their neighbors and even strangers, and they feel extremely happy after doing something good for others. For this reason, I believe that school lessons are more influential to young children. 

In conclusion, despite the practical experiences that parents can give their children at home, this essay believes that school lessons can help students deepen their understanding of being good members of society.

In many professional sports, there is an increase in the number of athletes using banned substances to improve their performance.

What are the causes of the phenomenon and what are some of the possible solutions?

In many professional sports, it is becoming commonplace for athletes to abuse prohibited substances to boost their overall performance. This essay will discuss how stiff competition and lax testing systems are the main cause of this problem, and the most suitable solutions are imposing heavier punishments on violators and revamping testing facilities.

The main cause of this problem is the fierce competition that exists in any sports. In other words, most many professional athletes feel that they have to take substances like steroids to give themselves an advantage over other strong opponents. Another reason is the lack of strictness in testing procedures. Many athletes who take advantage of banned substances can still get off scot-free due to the holes in testing systems. For example, a high-profile mix martial artist named Jon John who is notorious for using PED described how easy it was to get away with cheating in an interview in 2015.

A viable solution is to heavily punish lawbreakers. If sports clubs and establishments raise the fine for using banned substances, many athletes will think twice before making attempt to cheat. Another the way to deal with this issue is to upgrade testing amenities. This will eradicate any holes existing in the system and ensure that the test result is highly accurate. For instance, after the UFC had made major investments to provide their staff with the latest testing equipment, many fighters in their organization got caught.

In conclusion, strong competition and ineffective testing systems are the main cause of this problem, and the most suitable solutions are enforcing harsher punishments on violators and reforming testing facilities.

Details of politicians’ private lives should not be published in newspapers. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

It is thought that the information regarding politicians’ personal lives should not be shared in print media. This essay strongly agrees with this suggestion because publishing these details could be harmful to their families, and obtaining this type of information might require breaking the law.

First and foremost, what makes that the details related to private aspects of politicians’ lives should not be shared in newspapers is that it could be harmful not only to these individuals but also to their families. This is because revealing some details from their personal lives could expose them to unwanted comments or allegations, which might lead to a great deal of distress. In Poland, for instance, in 2015, the vice-prime minister committed suicide due to not handling the pressure caused by the paparazzi invading his and his family’s private life.

Furthermore, obtaining this type of information, in most cases, means breaking the law. This is because the right to privacy is one of the most fundamental policies in society, and anyone who wants to access the lives of politicians must obtain their consent. However, not only are paparazzi hired to invade properties belonging to politicians to take photos without their permission, but also politicians’ colleagues and relatives are bribed to share confidential facts from their lives. For instance, an accident in which Princess Diana was killed was partly caused by the paparazzi who followed her car, trying to take photos of her and her boyfriend against their will.

In conclusion, I strongly support the suggestion that politicians’ lives should not be subject to the interest of newspapers because revealing personal facts from politicians lives could destroy their family life and the process of obtaining these details often required wrongdoing.

Some say that music, art and drama are as important as other school subjects, especially at the primary level. Do you agree or disagree? Some people believe that arts-related subjects are as important as other school subjects, especially for primary school children. I totally agree with this statement because this can help children to discover their talents from an early age and can increase their confidence. 

One of the reasons I agree that creative subjects have the same importance as other school courses in primary school is that it allows students to find out their potential talents early on. That is to say, school-age is the most convenient time for students to learn more about their interests by trying different activities as they are young enough to pursue their hobbies. They will probably not have any other chance later in their lives to discover that because they will be busy with difficult exams when they get older. For example, most famous singers were discovered by their music teachers at school from a young age, and they claimed that they could not be that successful if their teachers did not find out their talents when they were young.

Moreover, music, art and drama subjects help students to boost their confidence. That is because creative lessons teach students how to perform in front of lots of people and give them a chance to socialise with other students. As a result, students can realise their real potential and act more confidently. For instance, many psychologists suggest to students who are struggling with social anxiety to take drama lessons as it helps to enhance confidence. 

In conclusion, this essay completely agrees that music, art and drama have the same value as other subjects in primary school because it allows children to discover their hidden talents early on and increases their self-confidence.

Some individuals believe that the right place to teach children how to become good citizens is the school, while others argue that parents should be the ones responsible for that. Although parents might influence their children more than anyone else, I believe that educational institutions are more trained and equipped to teach children how to become successful members of the community. 

Parents influence their children more than anyone else. This is due to the fact that mothers and fathers are the ones who raise and spend most of the time with their children which dramatically influences the way children act and think. If parents act in a good manner, their children will indirectly imitate them. This fortifies the fact that no one might exert such a strong influence on their children. For example, a study in Britain showed that children are two times more influenced by their parents than their teachers. However, I believe that this is not enough and that school should be the place teaching children to become good people in society.

Schools are trained to build good citizens. Teachers spent their undergraduate years studying how to deal with children and train them to become better individuals in their communities. For this reason, educational institutions should be the place where children can safely acquire the needed behaviors to become better individuals in the future. For example, a recent study in the USA showed that 90% of schools train teachers how to help students to become better citizens. For this reason, I believe that the best place to do this is the school.

In conclusion, although parents have a strong influence on their children, I believe that the best place to create better citizens is the school because tutors are trained to do that.

It is argued that newspapers ought not to publish the details of private lives of politicians. This essay strongly disagrees with this view because politicians build a public image through such news and they could be held accountable for any wrongdoings.

On the one hand, politicians can gain public trust by building a positive image through newspapers. Being the focus of media, sometimes details of their personal interests end up on the front pages of newspapers, which allows them to gain popularity among masses, especially when their interests match with the general public. Recently, the pictures of a famous politician of Milan, while playing football with local school children were published in many newspapers, and he instantly became famous among school and college students. Hence, it helps them gain popularity by depicting themselves in a positive way. 

On the other hand, publishing details of private affairs disclose the corruption of politicians and make them accountable. Many politicians usually hold a public office and are entrusted with managing public funds. If they do not spend the money on the wellbeing of people and are involved in corruption, newspapers expose their private life and put them under accountability. For example, when details of the lavish spending of the Mayor of London, while on a vacation, were revealed in the SUN, it prompted questions from many sections of the society, eventually exposing his corruption with the public money. Therefore, it is important that newspapers publish these details.

In conclusion, private matters of politicians should be published in newspaper because it allows them to gain popularity and expose their corrupt affairs.

Some say that music, art and drama are as important as other school subjects, especially at the primary level. Do you agree or disagree?

Some people believe that arts education is as significant as the study of other subjects, especially for primary students. I completely agree with this viewpoint because some educational content could be better illustrated in the forms of arts, and the study of arts is one key consideration which fosters all-rounded growth of young students.

The arts could deliver information to students, especially to those attending primary schools, in a way that words in textbooks sometimes cannot. Children may become bored and tired if they have to read or listen to too much educational content in textbooks. A colorful painting or a catchy song, on the other hand, can be much more appealing and thus more effective in conveying information to these children. For example, the Ghen Covy song has been taught at most schools in Vietnam and has become one of children’s favorite songs. This song has effectively highlighted the importance of hand washing as a means of disease prevention, and has made it easier for many children to remember every step of hand sanitization for its catchy melody and appealing dancing moves.

Furthermore, the study of arts is one factor that contributes to a comprehensive development of young students. While academic subjects focus on children’s cognitive development, arts education help children to develop their social-emotional skills. By singing a song or drawing a picture, these children are likely to express their feelings and nurture their sense of community. For example, thousands of Vietnamese children, who were encouraged by their teaching staff, drew pictures of sunflowers to deliver messages of love and support for pediatric cancer patients.

In conclusion, the arts can sometimes be better at transmitting knowledge than textbooks, and the provision of both academic and arts education is necessary for an all-rounded growth of young students. I firmly believe that the study of arts should never be underestimated in any child educational institution.

Some people think that all university students should study whatever they like. Others believe that they should only be allowed to study subjects that will be useful in the future, such as those related to science and technology. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.

Some would argue that all students in universities have to study the subject they like, while others think that they have to only study something useful for their future, for example, those related to science and technology sectors. Although learning about the latter subjects is crucial to secure a good job and salary, I believe that enrollment in whatever subject they favor leads to students being successful in their fields.

Studying science and technology during third-level education makes students able to easily find a job that pays high wages. That is to say, working in the majority of modern workplaces requires up-to-date technological information aiming to improve the quality of work and to compete with others, and, in turn, those employees will earn good remuneration. For instance, many IT graduates from the University of Toronto were able to have high positions and good wages in many renowned business companies. However, I think that the passion for what students study is more important than how much their earnings are in the future.

It is very important for university students to study the subjects they like because this is the reason behind a successful career. That is because the love for this particular subject allows them to go beyond their limits, be creative, and be eager to improve, and, thus, they might be promoted. For instance, many well-known musicians decided to study music because they were passionate about it and this positive spirit helps them climb their professional ladder. Therefore, I support this school of thought because studying a favorite subject is more important.

To conclude, despite the fact that a course in science and technology can provide postgraduates with a good future career and enough income, in my view, studying whatever they prefer is better because this leads to success in their field.

In some countries, younger people are neglecting their right to vote.

What problems does this cause and what are some of the possible solutions?

It is argued that in certain nations youth are not using their right to vote. This would hinder the political change, and it would also result in policies made that are not beneficial for these young people. The most viable solutions would be to create awareness among the younger generation and promote them to participate in politics. 

Not participating in elections would mean that it would be difficult to change the government which is necessary for some countries across the globe. This is because, in any functional democracy, the only way to change the ruling party is by casting votes in the electoral process. Furthermore, if young individuals forge their right to vote, it would result in policies made that do not benefit them. As a result, they would feel that the state is not addressing their concerns and end up leaving the country. For instance, every year thousands of young adults from developing countries immigrate to Europe and North America because they are unhappy with their government’s performance.

One way to tackle these issues is to inform these people about the power of vote. Campaigns should be held in universities, and colleges to educate youth about their political rights. Another solution is to promote these young people to come into politics. Doing this it would ensure their representation and their voices being heard. For example, Nelson Mandela was a young political activist who successfully fought against racism and became the first black President of South Africa.

In conclusion, neglecting to vote by the young generation would delay the necessary government change, and laws made that are not in their favor. However, encouraging youth participation in politics and awareness campaigns can be possible solutions to tackle these problems.

In certain parts of the world, the younger generation is not using their right to vote.

This phenomenon may result in younger people being apathetic toward politics and election results that do not reflect public opinion, and the most viable solutions are to educate younger people about the importance of voting and incentivize them to vote.

One major problem of this is that younger people may adopt an uncaring attitude toward politics. If younger people do not take part in the election, which is the most significant political event, they are unlikely to pay heed to anything related to politics later on. Another issue is that the result of the election might be undermined. Since only older people give their votes, the winner may not be the one that the majority want to put in charge. For example, it is commonly seen in my country that politicians with older supporters tend to win again candidates that appeal to the young since most of them do not give their votes.

One suitable solution for this is to run a public awareness campaign to emphasize to younger people the significance of voting. Once they realize that if they abandon their right to vote, the consequences will be immense, they will change their minds and begin to vote. Another way to overcome this is to provide them with certain incentives to start voting. Many younger people find voting a waste of time and, therefore, if they are given incentives, they are more likely to take the time to vote. For instance, younger people in my country are often given a small amount of money as a way of motivating them to vote.

In conclusion, the problems that may stem from this are younger people’s indifferent attitude toward political matters and an ineffective election, and some ways to deal with them are educating and incentivizing younger people to vote.

Some people say that the best way to improve public health is by increasing the number of sports facilities. Others, however, say that this would have little effect on public health and that other measures are required. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.

It is argued that the sports facilities should be increased in number to improve citizens’ health, while others claim that other initiatives are more essential to be conducted. While I support the idea that installing more sports facilities would help ordinary people to enhance their general health, I am more convinced that other effective measures should be taken. 

On the one hand, people’s general health status could have been improved greatly via exercising. It is proven that working out fastens the amount of oxygen to the brain, helping people be more concentrative and optimistic. Therefore, lack of physical exercise or insufficient physical movements one’s working performance may be impacted and less productive. For example, Hanoi citizens are reported to be healthier than they were because of the availability of exercise equipment right at the local parts. However, I believe that this measure just improves partially not whole the public’s health. 

On the other hand, there is a wide range of conducts to prevents poor health conditions. Improving diet quality is one of the effective measures that should not be neglected. A good physical health is indeed contributed by many elements, and a full nutrient meal makes consumers stronger and strongly resistant to some diseases. In Vietnam, there used to be a program of introducing milk into daily meals to deter malnutrition for children. After 2 years of conducting this campaign, the number of underweight children was minimised noticeably. Therefore, I completely advocate other solutions to implement to warrant the public’s general health. 

In conclusion, although launching more sports facilities would benefit the overall health of citizens, I think that this matter could be addressed better by other methods.

Some people think that it is better to educate boys and girls in separate schools. Others, however, believe that boys and girls benefit more from attending mixed schools. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.

A number of people argue that it is better for boys and girls to get an education from different schools, while others believe that it is more beneficial for children if they attend combined schools. Although studying in separate schools will help boys and girls to focus more on their studies, I believe learning from co-educational institutions will help them to become more social in society. 

On the one hand, when boys and girls attend separate schools, they will spend more time focusing on their studies. This is because there will not be any opposite gender to be attracted to and to get involved in any affairs. The schooling hours will be fully utilised to learn something rather than being diverted from studies and spending time with the ones they might have affair with in the school. For example, in Nepal, students from St. Mary’s Girls School showed a better academic performance than the girls who completed their school years from a co-educational institution. However, I believe that children attending mixed school will learn to be more social in the future.

On the other hand, co-education is more beneficial for children because they will learn some social skills during their school years. This is to say that children of both genders will be allowed to have combined studies and will learn how to deal politely with a person of the opposite sex, an important skill which is highly accepted by society. For example, boys who finished their studies at co-educational schools showed more courtesy towards ladies by offering some help when required. For this reason, it is better for children to attend mixed schools as it helps them to learn essential social skills.

In conclusion, although educating children in separate schools will help them to focus on their studies, I believe that co-education is much better for girls and boys as they will learn essential social skills in school.

Being a celebrity, such as a famous film star or sports personality, brings problems as well as benefits. Do you think that being a celebrity brings more benefits or more problems?

Lives of celebrities, like famous movie stars or sports people, bring benefits as well as problems. Although earning huge amounts of money is an advantage for celebrities, I believe the lack of privacy in their lives is a major problem that outweighs the benefit. 

The main advantage for celebrities is that they receive a huge remuneration. That is to say, such people are paid large amounts of money for their efforts or performance. Celebrities usually decide how much they should be paid, and the people who pay them do not negotiate as they are confident in their star value. For example, Avengers star casts were paid in high amounts even before they read the script of the film series because of their previous performances in the older series. However, I think celebrities are also human beings and money cannot replace the happiness or freedom they need in their lives.

One of the downsides of being a celebrity is that it is not possible for them to lead a private life. This means that because of their fame and popularity, they are continuously followed by the media, and by their fans who eagerly wait to know what is happening in their favorite stars’ lives. As such, celebrities lose their freedom and cannot enjoy their personal time with their families or friends. For instance, when Sachin Tendulkar became famous after his remarkable performance in cricket, he claimed that he could not walk down the streets of Mumbai as he used to do in the past. Thus, I believe celebrities cannot be carefree, and they always have to face the media in one or the other way.

To conclude, I think the problem of being a celebrity is that their privacy is interrupted, and this overshadows the benefit of making large amounts of money as a celebrity.

Being a famous person, such as a movie star or sports athlete, has many disadvantages and advantages. Although famous people will earn more money, I believe that there are more drawbacks because famous people will not be safe in public places. 

The biggest advantage is that well-known individuals will earn loads of money. This is because they will get colossal amounts of money from their sponsors for promoting their products, such as mobile phones, laptops or cars. As a result, notable individuals will become affluent around the nation. Floyd Mayweather, for instance, is a famous boxer as well as a wealthy person in the United States of America. Each year he gets around millions of dollars from Burger Kings and Rolls Royal sponsors for promoting their products during boxing matches. However, I believe that famous celebrities face huge problems whenever they go out because their frenzied fans will annoy them.

The major drawback is that famous individuals’ lives will be in danger in common places. This is because their foes will try to harm them whenever they go out either alone or with their family members, such as in parks or malls. As a result, they will have to hire some security guards to protect themselves against vicious-minded individuals. Jennifer Lopez, for instance, always goes out with five bodyguards. The reason is that in the past, some deranged fans attacked her in New York park and broke her left arm. Therefore, I believe that celebrities always face difficulties in common places because someone will assault them. 

In conclusion, although well-known individuals earn big amounts of money from sponsors, notable people’s lives will be in danger because evil-minded people will harm them. For these reasons, I believe that drawbacks are more than benefits.

It is being argued that media houses should not disclose the personal lives of statesmen. I completely agree with this statement because it will not only violate their right to privacy, but also they should focus their resources on more pressing issues that need immediate attention such as poverty.

It is the fundamental right of every human being to have their privacy. Even though they are public figures, their private lives should be away from the eyes of the media. They should only be judged against the service towards their countries and not for what is happening in their day-to-day affairs. The prime example of this can be seen in the Constitution of the USA, which gives its citizens the right to privacy.

In addition to this, it is the responsibility of newspapers to address important matters including poverty. Media can be a very powerful medium, so rather than talking about other people’s life, resources should be diverted towards putting pressure on public officials to engage them in solving real-life problems. Using their influence to the benefit of the general public should be the main focus of newspapers. For example, during the Great Depression, The Guardian was the main voice of people in protesting against the poor living conditions. 

In conclusion, I do not support the argument of newspapers publishing the personal information of government officials. This is because it will result in the violation of their privacy and also the primary focus of news agencies should be to highlight key issues concerning the nation.

Some people say that television is useful for education, while others say it is useful only for entertainment. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.

Television is considered useful for education by some, while others claim that it only serves entertainment purposes. While certain people believe television is only for entertainment as it steals time, this essay claims that it is valuable as educational programs on television can help a child’s intellect.

Some believe television is only useful for entertainment since it takes away time. This is because they feel that children who spend too much time in front of the television may miss out on life’s opportunities and that it is much more productive to spend time with friends, to work on homework, to go outside, or to relax instead of watching television. For example, kids who watch too much television tend to work less on their homework, which results in poor performance in school. However, I would argue that television is important as education programs can aid in boosting children’s intellect.

Educational programs on television can help children become more intelligent. Kids who watch informative and educational shows learn to solve problems and develop strong mental maths skills. For instance, several studies have shown that kids are more likely to outperform their peers on tests when they watch educational shows. Additionally, studies have shown that children who watch cartoons most of the time score less than those who watch educational shows. Therefore, I strongly believe educational shows on television encourage intellectual development in children.

In conclusion, while television is seen as only useful for entertainment because it eats up time, watching informative educational shows on television can develop a child’s intellectual skills.

Being a famous person, for example a popular actor or a sports star, is problematic as well as beneficial. This essay believes that fame has more negative effects because it comes with the cost of being a burden to the star’s family, and it can threaten the star’s mental health.

The first negative effect fame has on the star’s life is the burden it puts on his family. That is not only because of the paparazzi that keep chasing them everywhere they go and eventually putting them at physical risk, but also because of the pink media which posts news about them that completely breach privacy and are often related to intimate relationships. For example, it is very well known how much detrimental the role of paparazzi and pink media was on Princess Diana’s sons and they report that those publications and breaking news scarred them for a lifetime just because they come from a famous family.

The second reason behind the negativity of being a star is that it creates an unsafe environment that may endanger the star’s mental health. Being constantly under the spotlights and lacking the minimum amount of privacy in the person’s life is documented to be detrimental to this latter’s mental health. For instance, the famous movie star Marilyn Monroe is known to have committed suicide because she could not cope with a life with no privacy at all, and the same applies to the famous Egyptian star Souad Husni and many others.

In conclusion, in my opinion, the negative aspects of fame outweigh the positive ones especially because it puts a burden on the star’s family and puts their mental health in danger.

Multinational companies are becoming increasingly common in developing countries. What are the advantages and disadvantages of this?

It is becoming more popular in developing nations to see multinational corporations. There are some benefits for this trend such as the progress in the economy they create in these countries and the availability of jobs, however, the shut down of some small local businesses and the lower selling rate of local products can be its drawbacks.

The main advantage of the increasing number of these types of companies is the economic progress. That is to say, if multinational organizations operate in less-developed nations, this can bring wealth which boosts industries, trade, and other aspects of the economy. Moreover, more jobs will be available for the local people. That is because more workers and managers are needed to work for these companies which can be a good opportunity for locals to find a job. For instance, after opening a branch of Apple company in Dubai, many local graduates were thrilled by the good news of being accepted to work under this renowned company. 

However, one of the main disadvantages of this trend is the drop in the selling rate of the local products. That is because of the good reputations and qualities of international items, and, thus, citizens might refrain from buying their local products. Another disadvantage is that some small local shops could be closed. That is due to the unfair competition with these huge strong establishments, and as a result, some might be shut down or go bankrupt. For example, many amateur Syrian entrepreneurs, and after the harsh competition they had with international textile corporation, were forced to close their fabric factories. 

In conclusion, although the advantages of the popularity of multinational organizations in developing countries are the economic progress and the improvement in the job market, nonetheless, its downsides are the drop in the average selling of local products and the closure of some small businesses.

A number of individuals believe that television can help with education, while others feel it is only used for entertaining people. Although entertainment television programs are the most popular programs on TV, this essay argues that television is helpful in education if people utilize it properly.

On the one hand, nowadays, entertainment television programs have become the most well-liked TV programs. That is because those programs give people an escape from their home lives or occupations, and it is also a great way to spend time with. For example, in the United States of America the Ellen Show is one of the most popular shows which has lasted almost twenty years. However, I believe that entertainment television programs are people’s favorite television programs does not mean television cannot be useful for education.

On the other hand, television can be a helpful tool in education if people use it in a proper way. Television can help people to study through informative videos, TV shows, or documents, and those videos can help people form a visual representation of their thoughts. For instance, it can be commonly seen in many schools that teachers introduce TVs in their lectures to help students understand complicated and difficult subjects. For this reason, this essay believes that television is a useful tool for education.

In conclusion, although programs for entertaining people are the most well-liked television programs, I maintain that television is useful for education because it is a helpful tool for education if it is utilized properly.

In many countries, the government prioritises economic growth above all other concerns. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this.

Economic growth is a sphere that receives more attention than any other national domain in many states all over the world. The principal benefits of this phenomenon are lower unemployment and wealthier citizens, and the main downsides are higher costs of living for most and insufficient support for the poorest. 

On the one hand, what makes that prioritizing economic expansion is beneficial for the public is the fact that fever residents remain unemployed. This is because governments boost establishing various businesses, which will require many workers to operate. In addition, not only does a country become more powerful economically, but also many residents have an opportunity to become affluent. When companies generate more profit, it reflects how much money employees can make. In Poland, for example, 30 years after communism collapsed, average salaries offered for a middle-management position have tripled.

On the other hand, as a country’s economy thrives, costs of living increase. The most compelling reason for that could be the fact that since workers are paid more , their services become more expensive, which results in higher prices of many products. Moreover, in many cases, a state whose main priority is its economy offers little support for those who need it. If authorities believe that a strong economy is of the greatest importance, they are rather reluctant to offer help to those who do not contribute to the nation’s prosperity. To illustrate, when Donald Trump, who was a big advocate of a strong economy, became the president of the USA, the funds for jobless migrants were caught. 

In conclusion, as with anything in life, prioritizing economic growth by authorities has its pros and cons. While more have jobs that allow them to become wealthy, costs of living are going up, and those who need to rely on the social care system are marginalized.

It is argued that parents should be the ones to familiarise their children with basic teachings of morals and ethics and how to implement them to become better individuals in the society, while many believe educational institutes are the best places to learn them from. While parents can pay individual attention to their kids, I believe that schools provide an ideal environment in learning and grooming.

On the one hand, parents serve as role models and they are perfectly capable of paying undivided attention to their kids. That is to say that they can tell their kids stories containing lessons about differentiating right from wrong and good from bad. Furthermore, by demonstrating responsible behaviour, elders are instilling good habits in their young. As a result, children follow their elders and grow up to be better human beings. For example, on the dining table parents should tell their kids to eat quietly and not make unnecessary noises which can develop into a good habit. However , I believe that parents cannot consistently teach and monitor their kids’ behaviour patterns due to lack of time.

On the other hand, educational centres provide a specialised environment for minors in both academic and moral fields. That is to say that a child is more keen to learn and grow when one steps outside the comfort zone. By interacting with fellow students and actively participating in multiple social activities youngsters are able to perform to the best of their abilities. For instance, primary schools around the world include social activities and role plays in their curriculum to teach students how to become model citizens. Therefore, this option is preferable because it benefits the child in the long run as well as the society..

In conclusion, although parents can demonstrate moral teachings to their children in an effective manner, learning them at schools would make them rather more confident and productive members for the community.

In some countries, even though the rates of serious crimes are decreasing, people feel less safe than ever before. What do you think are the causes of this problem and what measures could be taken to solve it?

Although grievous offences are reducing, some people feel more insecure than they used to. The main reason behind this is the increase of cyber bullying and hate-crimes, and the solution would be to raise the general awareness among the masses and by promulgating new laws.

The primary cause of people not feeling safe than they used to is because the arena of crime has changed. More people are interacting virtually over the internet, which is mostly unregulated. Therefore, people are easily subject to harassment and bullying on social medias. Moreover, people are also subject to hate-crimes which is a consequence of constant portrayal of a certain group of people as evil by the media. For example, labeling the activities of criminals, who professes the Islamic faith, as terrorists has resulted in an increase in hate-crimes against Muslims across America. 

The solution to such problems would be in educating the general people so that they are more aware. This will allow them to act more responsibly. Also, the government can play their part by enacting new laws that addresses the needs of time. This will make their citizens feel more secure because they can have their problems redressed. For instance, the government of Bangladesh recently enacted Digital Security Act, 2018 and Digital Security Rules, 2020 in order to penalize offences that take place in the cyberspace, as crimes like online harassment and cyber bullying was not previously defined as an offence. 

In conclusion, insecurity among some section of the population is still prevailing due to the change in the nature of crimes that are being committed nowadays. However, this can easily be addressed by making people aware and also by making new laws.

Most high-level positions in companies are filled by men even though the workforce in many developed countries is more than 50 per cent female. Companies should be required to allocate a certain percentage of these positions to women. To what extent do you agree?

Although women account for more than 50 per cent of the workforce in developed nations, a number of managerial positions are still occupied by men. Some believe that a certain proportion of these vacancies should be allocated to females. This essay, however, strongly disagrees with this statement because this can discourage qualified men to work hard, and such a policy can encourage organisations to find some wrong ways to outsmart the system.

Reserving a certain proportion of high-level positions for women because of their gender may prevent educated males from making a contribution to the progress of a company. This is because any employee naturally wants to have equal opportunities for promotion irrespective of gender. If males at workplace are deprived of it, they are not motivated to work hard. For example, psychologists claim that the motivation and hard work of subordinates directly hinge on the promotional system of a company. 

Furthermore, imposing a quota will make companies seek for some illegal ways to outwit this regulation since the priority of most companies is to reward employees with high-level positions according to their knowledge and experience, not their genders. Hence, if any law contradicts the policy of a company based on gender, the owners of that company are more likely to make modifications to outsmart the system, which benefits neither of them. For example, not to compulsively hire female employees to the top management of a company, owners can change the tittle of a position to just to fill a vacancy. 

In conclusion, I strongly disagree with the idea of allocation of certain high-level posts to females because of their gender since this can discourage qualified males to work hard and make companies find alternative ways to outwit the law.

Some people think that the teenage years are the happiest time of most people’s lives. Others think that adult life brings more happiness, in spite of greater responsibility. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.

It is argued that adolescence years are the happiest years in one’s life, while others believe that adulthood is the most joyful phase to live despite having bigger responsibilities. This essay believes that, although adolescents are free of responsibilities, adults enjoy their life more because they are free to make their own choices.

On the one hand, adolescents are thought to live the happiest moments of their life because they are not asked to be responsible. Basically, a teenager lives with his parents, who not only provide him shelter, food, and education, but also, in some cases, would try to meet his fantasies. For instance, in my country, teenagers make a great example of spoiled people who spend their money carelessly and always ask for more, though they do not seem to be happy.However, I believe that not being obliged to worry about any responsibility is not what happiness is all about, and consequently adolescents do not live their happiest days.

On the other hand, others see that adulthood is a happier phase because adults are free to make the choices that fit their aspirations. Having the freedom of choice will eventually be followed by achievements and a sense of self-accomplishment, which is a primary source of joy. For example, many adults in my country are happy because of the choice of career or commitment they took on their own, and they see themselves happier than when they were teenagers. Therefore, I believe adulthood is the most enjoyable time because one can not be happy if they have to follow others’ plans even it comes with no responsibilities.

In conclusion, despite having no responsibilities on their shoulders, adolescents do not live the happiest moments of their life. This essay believes that it is adulthood which is the most enjoyable in light of the fact that adults are free to make their own choices.

In some countries, it is becoming increasingly common for people to follow a vegetarian diet. Do the advantages of this outweigh the disadvantages?

In a number of countries, following a vegetarian diet has become very popular. Although being a vegetarian can limit the options when eating, I believe the advantages outweigh the disadvantages because it allows the body to work properly. 

For vegetarian people it is difficult to find varied options to eat. Since the majority of the worldwide population have a diet that includes animal products, these type of food is the one that is normally available at food businesses. Therefore, people with a vegetarian diet have to choose between a limited number of plates or products when buying food or eating out. For example, in many popular restaurants in Colombia, the menu has only a short vegetarian section which includes only two or three plates that are completely vegetarian. However, I believe that those options that are offered are healthier than plates that are sold in large quantities.

Following a vegetarian diet allows the body to work better. This is because science has shown that when our human system digests animal products, such as meat, it has to work harder to process the food that it is not designed to receive. Thus, people that have a diet based on plants and seeds are more prone to have a healthier life because they allow their bodies to focus their energy in its normal processes. For instance, people who become vegetarian are less prone to get sick because their immune system has all the energy focused on fighting bacteria and not causing chronic inflammation because of the food. That is why I consider that following a vegetarian diet can have more benefits in the long term. 

In conclusion, although vegetarian people have fewer options when buying products without animal ingredients, it is my belief that following a vegetarian diet has a positive impact in the body functions.

Some claim that families should educate their offspring on being good members of community, while others say that school is the most suitable place to do that. Although school has professional ways to teach children about being good in society, I believe that teaching them by parents is more appropriate because parents have more influence on children. 

On the one hand, school should tech children how to interact in good way in society because it has academic methods to better educate children on that. Any school curriculum is examined by experts before being used, so it contains no mistakes or unsuitable context. For example, to design a school national curriculum, governments hire the most experienced and knowledgeable teachers nationwide. However, I believe that children follow parent’s instructions better than school’s instructions. 

On the other hand, parents are more influent in teaching children about being good in society. That is because parents are close to children, so children are more likely to believe in them. As a result, children are effectively learn how is it important to behave well in society. For instance, the vast majority of children gain their good habits from their parents as they eager to transmit the good attitude to their children. Therefore, I believe that families are the most suitable teacher for children when it comes to be good in society. 

In conclusion, despite the fact that school has professional methods to educate children on being good in society, I believe that parents are more successful doing that because they have better influence on children.

It is thought by some that their happiest years were during their teenage years. Others, however, believe that happiness comes during adult life later on, despite the great deal of responsibilities. Although being an adult means having enough money to enjoy many life activities, teenagers have an enormous amount of time to spend on leisure activities, and for this reason, I stand with the latter view.

Undoubtedly, adults usually have the money to spend on entertaining activities and create joyful moments. Due to the fact that adults usually have the financial means to travel somewhere far, attend a concert, or even rent an expensive car, many express their happiest moments to be during their thirties and the years after while their health is still perfect and they enough money to spend. For example, a 35-year-old man can always travel to Spain during summer time and be able to create an unforgettable moments. However, in my opinion, most adults are so engaged mentally with work and family responsibilities that they do not have the time to spend or travel but rarely.

On the other hand, during adolescence, teenagers have all the time they need to have fun. Having no serious tasks or long working hours, teenagers often spend their time partying with their cool friends throughout the week while having absolutely no responsibility on their shoulders. As a result, people usually remember these days as their happiest. For example, teenagers usually have their own party places that open during week days, especially when they become university students, they become happier as their social network also expands. Personally, I believe that having no responsibilties is the key to create happy moments to remember. 

To conclude, while being an adult means having more money to spend on entertaining events, teenagers have all the time in the world to be with their firends and party, and that, in my view, is the reason why people remember these days as their happiest.

Global companies are gaining more popularity among third-world countries. The main advantages of this are that they generate more employment in a country and provide good benefits to employees. However, the major drawbacks are long working hours and unsecured jobs.

One benefit of multinational companies is that they employ a large workforce. This is because these big companies have more than two or three branches around the country, thereby, increasing the employment rate within the country. Moreover, these companies have good benefits for their staff, as compared to local companies, such as yearly travel compensation and full coverage family insurance. For instance, Amazon provides a yearly international trip to the employee and their family, covering accommodation and return tickets.

On the other hand, having to work extremely long hours is the major disadvantage of being in such companies. This is because these companies handle clients who work in different time zone. Hence, the employees have to work in their local time zone as well as per client time zone, which can be several hours apart. Furthermore, losing a job at any time is the biggest fear of employees working for such organizations, unlike government sector, where an employee cannot be fired from the job easily. For example, in Apple Inc., it is reported several times that the employees are fired due to their grudges with their boss.

In conclusion, multinational organizations have benefitted developing countries by increasing the employment rate and making the lives of employees better by providing good benefits. However, it does not have strict policies for their staff as they have to work long hours and fear of losing their job at any time.

sample of essay exam

In modern times, children are spending less time with their families and more time with their friends. Why has this change occurred? Do you think parents should force their children to spend more time at home?

Nowadays, children spend more time with their friends than with their families. This change has occurred because children do not want to feel left out amongst their peers and parents should not force children to stay home because they will resent their parents for it.

Young ones do not want to miss out on social activities with their friends. Since the invention of technology, many activities that people carry out, especially teenagers, are now being posted online. As a result, children want to engage more in activities with their peers so they would also have fun stories to post on their social media pages and not be the odd one among their peers. For example, many young people in South Korea are known to shop and visit fun places with their friends rather than their parents, so as to show off the fun activities they engage in on Wechat, a popular social media platform.

Children whose parents mandate spending more time at home might hold a grudge towards their parents. This is because if children are forced by their parents to spend more time at home, they may interpret this as a form of punishment and develop a negative attitude towards their parents, which defeats the goal of family time. However, if they are encouraged to play with their siblings and bond with the family, children will be more willing to stay at home. For example, most children in Nigeria, even though they spend time with their friends, look forward to family time because parents in Nigeria emphasize the benefits of spending more time with family. 

In conclusion, children want to engage in activities with their friends and not be left out, and parents should encourage their children to stay at home more, rather than force them so that their children will not resent them.

It is believed by some that adolescent years are the happiest period of most people’s lives, while others believe that adulthood brings more content, despite having more responsibilities. Although teenagers obtain new experiences in their teenage years, I believe that adults can enjoy in the things they have accomplished.

On the one hand, experiences that adolescents gain before their reach adulthood make them happy. This is because many teenagers get more freedom to do the things that they like without being controlled by their parents. A sense of freedom gives them opportunity to socialise with their contemporaries and many of them fall in love for the first time. These are unprecedented experiences that makes them feel very happy. For example, many dwellers of Sarajevo have said that teenage years were the happiest years of their lives. However, I think that adolescents do not know what a real happiness is at such a young age. 

On the other hand, adults can appreciate the things they have achieved. This is to say that many adults set goals when they were younger, such as having prosperous careers, because they knew achieving their goals would make them content. They worked hard to get closer to their goals, and when they finally achieved their targets, they felt contentment. For instance, many Bosnians dreamed about owning a property, and after purchasing housing they were ecstatic. Therefore, I believe that adults can value happiness at a greater level.

In conclusion, although pre-adulthood brings new experiences, I believe that adults enjoy the perks of their hard work.

In many professional sports, there is an increase in the number of athletes using banned substances to improve their performance. What are the causes of the phenomenon and what are some of the possible solutions?

The number of sportspeople using illegal substances to improve their performance has increased in many sporting events. This essay believes that many athletes are taking banned substances to win the competition and exceed capabilities beyond their limits. This can be prevented by requiring athletes to take drug tests before the competition and punish them if they have violated the rules.

Some sportsmen are taking banned substances because they want to be the best athlete in the competition. It is in their nature to be on top among other competitors, and winning is their main goal. In addition, using illegal substances help exceed their abilities by boosting their physical strength. They are tempted to do this because it helps them to handle such excruciating trainings needed to achieve their goals. For instance, Michael Phelps, a professional swimmer, confessed that the use of an illegal substance has helped him become an Olympic Gold medallist.

One solution to eradicate this problem is to test all athletes before the competition so that they will be discouraged from using banned substances, allowing fair competition among athletes. Moreover, sports organizations should also punish athletes who are taking performance-enhancing drugs, such as banning them from playing any sports event. This will give them lessons and take away the temptations of using illegal substances. For example, the Tour de France organization has banned Edward Armstrong from entering the bike racing competition and stripped down all his trophies because of his drug violations. 

In conclusion, many athletes nowadays use illegal substances to win the competition and exceed their physical capabilities. However, it is vital to have fair competition, and this can be eradicated by requiring the athletes to do drug tests and ban them if found guilty.

Some people argue that television helps in learning while others believe that its only purpose is to entertain us. Although television is widely used for enjoyment and leisure, in my opinion, it also helps in other ways like getting news and information from all over the world.

For decades, people have been watching television for fun and leisure because it is the most common entertainment product in every household. Furthermore, it offers a variety of channels and programs with just clicks of some buttons which help children and adults to relax and enjoy when they feel tired after studies or work. Entertainment programs such as The Kapil Sharma Show have always been the most popular programs because they spread laughter and joy among the people and help them unwind the day. However, I think that other than entertainment, people have many reasons to watch television such as getting educated about major events around the world.

On the other side, many people argue that beyond the entertainment, there are various news and educational programs aired on television that are watched by a large number of people. Many shows on television play a vital role in educating citizens about various issues and current affairs and help them increase their knowledge. Many news programs, for example, Prime-Time with Ravish Kumar on NDTV pick one of the events happened during the day and discuss different perspectives about it in details and educate people on how it affects their lives. Moreover, these types of shows have become more interesting and entertaining due to the use of advanced technology and presentation methods.

In conclusion, while the most people watch television for pleasure and relax, I believe that it is not fair to tag it as an entertainment tool because it is still a main source of news and information for the majority people around the world.

Some argue that newspaper journalists should not report on the personal lives of the people in politics. This essay emphatically disagrees with this view because citizens are entitled to be informed about their politicians’ lives before they elect them, and because politicians need to be kept in check to stop them from misusing their powers.

Politicians are public servants who have taken an oath to serve the citizens of a nation. In a democracy, politicians are elected on the basis of two important factors – their vision and their values. While the vision is communicated by politicians during their campaign, the values can only be depicted through the way the way they have lived their personal lives. Journalists are trained to investigate all kinds of information. Hence, for a well-rounded evaluation, it is essential that newspapers give a complete account of the values of a politician through a coverage of their personal lives. For instance, in 2016, many supporters of Donald Trump lost their trust in him after newspapers uncovered the story of the sexual harassment allegations against him.

Furthermore, politicians hold great power because of their ranks. It would be very easy for politicians to misuse this power to benefit their own personal lives. On behalf of the public, journalists own the authority to keep politicians’ personal lives in check. For example, President Bill Clinton wrongly took advantage his position by having an affair with an intern. The American citizens were informed of this through newspapers and other media platforms.

In conclusion, it is extremely important that newspaper publishers cover the private lives of politicians so that they can be fairly evaluated before elections, and to ensure that their power is kept in check while they’re serving the public.

During the course of history, crime term is viewed as a negative blow on both society and each individual. Although a reducing crime statistic in some particular countries has been publicly recognized in recent decades, other kinds of crime might cause local residents a sense of less safety than previous times, especially juvenile crime, so some policies need to be implemented to ensure tackle this phenomenon.

There is several compelling evidence that crime under the age of 18 has been a contributor to unsafe feelings. With the aid of technological advancement, teenagers nowadays are frequently exposed to violence in the media and mimic violent acts whose brains are not fully developed and can not tell the difference between right and wrong. Violent scenes on Youtube, for example, are usually starred by adults who are likely to become negative role models, leading to the growth of juvenile crime after watching those videos, especially turning to bullies in school. Thus, parents will have a fear of their offspring not only befriending these bullies but also becoming a potential crime if they can not control the information absorbed by their children due to hectic working schedules.

With regard to the responsibility of the government to assure residents do not feel unsafe, banning violence-related contents on the Internet should be adopted. This policy required producer companies to minimize scenes containing violence before publicizing final products. In addition, adults also are in charge by teaching their infants to identify wrongdoings to avoid. By spending time with those, parents could either diminish unsafe feelings or intervene at the right time whether friends of their youngsters are good or not.

In conclusion, juvenile crime is a major indicator of increasing fearness of society despite a drop in serious crime rate. Government must take immediate action by passing violence- content restriction on stakeholders on a national scale and parents should dedicate more time to their children to help authorities to address these issues.

It is generally believed that some people are born with certain talents, for instance for sport or music, and others are not. However, it is sometimes claimed that any child can be taught to become a good sports person or musician. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.

While some think that people can not succeed in sports or music unless they have some natural talents that a few people have, others reckon that any child can be educated to become successful in those areas. This essay agrees with the former view because, although children are able to get access to many professional training programs, natural gifts enable owners to excel at their subjects such as music or sports.

Some argue that all children can become good at music and sports as soon as they receive the appropriate learning programs. This is because now children are taught by many professional teachers, and the programs that they are involved in are far more modern and systematic. Therefore, they do not need talents to become successful. For instance, many renowned musicians and sports athletes in Vietnam admit that they are not talented, but they can thrive in their areas mainly because of their hard work in many years and the intensive training programs that their tutors gave them. However, I think that some subjects like music or sports have some unique features that require learners some talents to master them.

Gifted people can thrive because their natural gifts help them quickly master knowledge. The immense level of their innate skills enables them to completely grasp anything they learn in a short amount of time, and they can creatively and successfully put them into practice. Let’s take Mozart as a musical genius of all ages, with an extraordinary memory, he could remember any details of music like melodies and lyrics and composed thousands of famous songs of all time. For this reason, I believe that some inborn qualities play a crucial part for people to thrive in some areas like music or sports. 

In conclusion, despite any professional programs that schools now offer, this essay thinks that children need to have some talents to become professional athletes or skilled musicians.

Some say that educating boys and girls in a single-gender school is more beneficial, while others feel that mixing both genders is a better idea. I believe that while separation can reduce the amount of classroom disruption, mixed schools have a better impact on both genders because it prepares them for their future in the real world.

On the one hand, a single gender educational environment can reduce distraction between peers during the class. Children try to impress or get the attention of the opposite gender by talking or showing off, which leads to lack of focus in the class and causes interruptions to other students. For instance, girls and boys tend to find their first crushes at school. It distracts them because instead of paying attention to studying, they are focused on getting into relationships. Despite this, I would argue that both boys and girls can benefit more from being mixed because it helps them to be prepared for the future life.

On the other hand, mixed-sex schools where boys and girls are not separated, can prepare children for their future life. When young males and females attend co-educational school, they can develop relationships with other people. In their future they will work with opposite sex so educating students in single-sex schools limits their opportunity to work cooperatively with the opposite gender. For example, if children are used to have contact with many peers from their childhood, they will not have a problem to adjust to a mixed-sex environment in their future such as work area or daily life. I therefore believe that this method is better as it helps to interact with the opposite sex.

In conclusion, while separating boys and girls at school can help them to be more focused during their classes, I think that mixing both genders gives them the ability to learn how to build relationships with different genders, which is valuable later in life.

Following a vegetarian diet is becoming very popular in some nations. Although without meat it is hard to get the required amount of protein, I believe that the benefits of consuming high fibre and low saturated fat while on this diet far outweigh any drawbacks.

The main disadvantage of the vegetarian diet is that without meat people may have a protein deficiency. That is to say, people by nature are omnivorous more than herbivorous, and by avoiding consuming animal products, protein levels will decrease, and this deficiency can have consequences on muscles, bones and immunity system. By following this type of strict diet in certain religious groups in India, for instance, people might suffer not only from fatigue and bone fractures, but also from disturbance in their immune system. However, I think that a well-planned diet provides people with all nutrients including enough protein.

The positive feature of this diet is that it contains high fibre and low saturated fat, which can help decrease heart problems. In other words, high amounts of fats are found in animal products, this can accumulate on blood vessels causing clots and predisposing to certain heart diseases, and by controlling fat levels and consuming more fibre as in vegetarian diet, the risk of heart disease can be reduced. That is why many physicians, for instance, advise their patients to go on this healthy diet which plays a major role in decreasing their risk of suffering from heart problems. Therefore, in my view, protecting people from this type of illness by recommending such a regimen is very beneficial.

To conclude, while it is difficult to have enough protein from a vegetarian diet, in my opinion, the advantages of protecting people from heart disease with its high level of fibre and low saturated fat far outweigh any disadvantages.

Nowadays more and more people have to compete with young people for the same jobs. What problems does this cause? What are some possible solutions?

These days the competition for the same job has increased, as more young people apply for it. The main problems this causes are high competition for one job and an increased unemployment rate. The most viable solutions are creating special programs for young people and expanding the job market by introducing special positions for others. 

Having a high number of people applying for the same job creates high competition for one position, among younger and older people. As a result, for one position apply hundreds of people, and only one, mainly young people, is hired. Additionally, this leads to unemployment, as there are not many positions available to people and not everyone finds a job. In Ukraine, for example, every year many people in their forties or fifties file for unemployment insurance, as they were not able to find a job due to the companies prefer hiring younger candidates rather them. 

One way for governments to overcome this difficulty is to create special positions for the elder and senior people, like to be trainers. In such a way, they will not lose their jobs and will be able to pass their knowledge to the younger generations. Another solution is for organizations to introduce more internships or traineeships. Creating such opportunities will assist people in having at least temporary jobs. For example, every year a well-known Ukrainian mobile company Life hires the younger for one year program with a future potential full-time employment, as they want to retain their current employees and provide future job opportunities for younger generations. 

In conclusion, having more young people applying for the same job creates high competition and unemployment. In order to overcome this, the government should introduce more positions, like trainers for elderly and current employees, and offer more internships for the younger generation.

Some companies have uniforms for their staff which must be worn at all times. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this.

Employees of some companies must wear their uniforms all the time. The main advantages of this are that wearing uniforms can be a source for advertising their products and helps to bring a sense of belonging, while the disadvantages are that wearing inappropriate clothing for work and hampering employee’s performance.

Employees who wear uniforms can be a source of marketing for their own products. This is because when employees step out from their company, then people will notice their logos and make a good impression of them, as a result, they might end up buying their items. Moreover, staff wearing uniforms can also help to grow a sense of belonging. That is to say that if staff wear the same clothes every time, this would lead to a feeling of team spirit and better production in the company. To illustrate this, the workers of Lux company always dress up in the same uniforms; thus, they become an inevitable part of the marketing team of Lux in Bangladesh.

On the other hand, employees who always wear uniforms might end up wearing inappropriate clothes for their work. This is because they do not have any idea of the specific material or right sizes of the clothes that they should wear at the workplace. Wearing uniforms by employees can also hamper their better performance. This is mainly because of making poorly designed work clothes and, this might cause difficulties in work since they find the uniforms constricting their work output. For instance, flight stewardesses wearing pencil skirts and high heels may look good, but at the same time, it also causes discomfort to them and the passengers.

To conclude, the main advantages of wearing uniforms are that it can be a key element of marketing and helps to grow a sense of belonging; however, the disadvantages are the inappropriacy of wearing uniforms and restricted performance.

Nowadays the way many people interact with each other has changed because of technology. In what ways has technology affected the types of relationships people make? Is this a positive or negative development?

Because of developments in technology, the way we communicate with each other has changed. As a result of this, people are making friends and even started to find themselves a partner through the internet. I believe that it is a negative trend because people try to take advantage of us after they know about our personal life.

Many have started making friends and dating online. Social media users follow individuals whom they do not know and interact with them by commenting on their posts or texting to each other from these platforms. Some teenagers and even adults use dating websites to find themselves a date. In such platforms internet normally pair them up with a random person and they make conversation with each other. For example, the dating website called Omegle is getting popular among individuals.

People often get threatened by their online friends. After they earn their friend’s trust, and get familiar with their personal life, they start demanding money, and if a person refuses to give them what they want they begin threatening them telling them that they will hurt their loved ones. For instance, more than thousands of social media users in Uzbekistan are becoming the victims of such crimes every year.

In conclusion, as a result of improvements in technology the way we interact with each other has changed. Because of this people are dating and making friends online. I am of the opinion that it is a negative development because people often get threatened by their online friends.

Today people are travelling more than ever before. Why is this the case? What are the benefits of travelling for the traveller?

People are travelling more than ever before in recent times. Achieving quality education from abroad is the main reason for this, and the major benefits of travelling for the traveller are they will be entertained by watching exciting things around them and personality development.

The main reason of people travelling more today is to achieve quality education from abroad. This is because, degrees from their own countries may not have more value. Instead, if they have degrees from abroad, people can compete with other individuals for amazing jobs, and by having such jobs, people’s standard of living improves. For example, many engineers in India are travelling abroad in order to complete their higher education and by achieving quality education from abroad, they can get a phenomenal job anywhere across the world.

One benefit of travelling for the traveller is that they are ammused by watching exciting things while travelling.This is because, usually people at home have a hectic life style and they do their normal routine work. While travelling, travellers observe mesmerizing lights and new things on their way and get entertained. Moreover, travelling helps in personality development of a traveller. This is because, in an airbus they have to wait for a long time for their destination to come, which develops the quality of patience in travellers. For example, while travelling from Melbourne to Hyderabad, travellers have to wait for 16 hours in an aircraft which develops patience and overall personality development in them.

In conclusion, today people are travelling more than ever before, to achieve quality education from abroad is the main reason of travelling, and the main benefits of travelling for the traveller are getting entertained by watching exciting things while travelling and personality development.

It is the view of some people that individuals who have talents in certain areas such as sports or music are born with it, while others believe that a child can learn to be good at these skills. Although, it is true that people are talented in these fields because they can achieve great feats with no training or with minimal effort, I believe that any child can learn to become good at certain skills if they work hard.

People who are naturally talented at sports or music can perform excellently well in these areas without training. Some people who perform very well in sports or music do not need to learn or practice to become proficient at these skills because it comes naturally to them, unlike others who have to train for a long time to reach the same level. For example, Michael Jackson, a musical legend, is widely known to be talented in singing and dancing because he displayed these skills from childhood without training. However, I believe that even those who are talented in certain fields need to learn and practice in other to perform at maximum capacity.

Children can be taught to become good sportsmen and women and outstanding musicians if they work hard at it. It is possible to teach someone different skills, especially a young child, because they learn faster and with practice they too can become very good in music and sports. For example, Dwayne Johnson, popularly known as the rock, was taught how to wrestle from an early age and now holds many wrestling titles. For this reason, I believe that children can be learn to be good at these skills by working hard even if they were not born with such talents.

In conclusion, even though some people can perform well in sports or music because they are talented, I believe that young people who are not talented can learn to be skilled at sports or music if they work hard.

Many people are now opting to provide technology companies with their personal data in exchange for access to software. Do the advantages of this outweigh the disadvantages?

These days many individuals are choosing to give tech companies their personal information to gain access to software. Although using this software makes people’s life easier, I believe that the benefits do not outweigh the drawbacks because companies are able to constantly influence consumers’ choices.

The main advantage of sharing your private data with tech companies is that the software they provide you makes your life simpler. This is because this software offers users personalized help in their daily matters so that they can avoid wasting time and energy doing things that they can easily do with the aid of technology. For example, Google Drive offers you a free cloud-based storage where all your documents and pictures are automatically saved and you can access them from any device at any time, without worrying about saving them on a pen drive that you might lose. However, I believe that this argument is weaker because people should prioritize their privacy.

One of the disadvantages is that once they have access to your data, tech corporations can use them to control your choices at all times. This is to say that tech companies harvest the data you agreed to share with them, and through an in-depth analysis performed by artificial intelligence and through complex algorithms, they create profiles based on your interests, likes and dislikes. These profiles are then sold to third-party companies for advertising purposes. For example, Google records all your google searches and all the videos you watch on YouTube and then decides what type of advertisement you would be more susceptible to. This targeted marketing has proven extremely successful. I believe this argument is stronger because people are deceived from these companies to generate revenues. 

In conclusion, although providing confidential information to tech firms in order to use software simplifies your life, I believe that being continuously influenced in your decisions is a major drawback. For these reasons, I think that the negatives far outweigh the positives.

While some argue that building more sports facilities is the best possible method of improving public health, others believe that this approach is not very effective, and other actions are needed. I agree with the latter opinion as although doing sports plays a key role in leading a healthy way of life, mass educational activities about different ways of health improvement are a better option because they can target more people. 

On the one hand, doing sports influences people’s health and well-being enormously. Not only does it make us stronger and more resilient, but it also trains our cardiovascular systems and, thus, reduces the chances to die earlier than we could have. In contrast, those who lead a sedentary lifestyle deprive themselves of these benefits. Hence, the more sports facilities will be available to the public, the more people could do sports and, thus, stay healthy. However, I do not agree that this is the best way to improve public health as the majority of people either just do not want to or can not go in for sports because of different reasons. 

On the other hand, informing and educating people about different ways of improving their health is a foundation of health and well-being. If people knew the consequences of drinking too much alcohol and why they need to eat healthy food and avoid ultra-processed food, for example, then they would take a more sensible approach to their health and would have more motivation. Hence, I am convinced that this approach is much better than just opening more sports facilities as it targets all people and not just a small part of them. 

To conclude, although opening more sports facilities will make some people healthier, I believe that educating people is more important as it will target more people overall.

In few countries, the population of vegetarians is increasing rapidly. Although this trend might be a cause of unemployment among a particular group whose livelihood is dependent on the meat business; this essay thinks that the advantages like the positive effect on the environment outweigh the disadvantages.

The drawback of a large population of a country turning vegetarian is that some people lose their business. That is to say that there are thousands of farmers whose livelihood depends on the livestock business, they farm animals like cows and pigs, and sell the meat in local meat markets. These markets might close if a large population turns vegetarian resulting in these people losing their livelihood. For example, in India, there are thousands of individuals, especially in coastal cities like Mumbai or Chennai, who earn their living through huge meet markets established in these cities, these people will get unemployed if the markets close. However, this essay believes that individuals would find an alternative source of income if these markets close.

The major advantage of people choosing a vegetarian lifestyle is that it is eco-friendly. In other words, livestock requires vast areas of land to live in; they eat a huge quantity of food which would be enough for multiple people to survive; they produce double the carbon dioxide in a day than an average human. Due to these reasons farming livestock is takes a heavy toll on the environment. For example, according to research at the University of California, farm animals are the number one cause of global warming, greater than emissions from cars and gasses released from industries. This essay believes that the environmental impact of the vegetarian lifestyle outweighs the drawbacks.

In conclusion, if a large population of a country turns vegetarian, a certain group might lose their income, but this essay believes that the advantages of positive environmental impact outweigh the drawbacks.

Most high-ranking positions in companies are being filled by men, despite that more than 50 per cent of the employees are women in a lot of high-income countries. Companies should be forced to dispense a certain proportion of these posts to women. This essay totally agrees with this statement because, by doing this, the relative level of competence in the company as well as the ability to cooperate would increase. 

By allocating a certain per cent of high-level positions to women, companies would reach a higher competence level. This is because a lot of women with the right competence are overlooked, since the tradition of male executives are very strong. Allocated recruitment would result in women with high competence rather than mediocre men in those high-level positions. For example, an audit of the relative competence level in one of the biggest investment banks in Sweden showed a significant increase after they decided to allocate at least 40 per cent of their leading positions to women. 

Companies with gender equality show better cooperation. In other words, both male and female leaders are needed in a company because men and women contribute with different aspects to the group dynamics. For example, in space shuttles the crew is always formed with a certain per cent of both female and male crewmembers, since cooperation is so vital. 

In conclusion, this essay totally agrees with the statement that companies should be obliged to recruit women for a certain percentage of the leading positions because this is a way of increasing both the level of competence and the cooperation in the company.

There is an increasing trend for people in some nations to have vegetarian foods for their meals. This essay thinks that the benefits do not outweigh the drawbacks because although vegetarian diets can reduce carbon footprints, consuming vegetables only may lead to nutritional deficiencies.

The main advantage of having a vegetarian diet is that carbon emissions can be reduced. Animal agriculture accounts for a significant portion of carbon footprints because animal feed has to be transported a long way to farmers, and animals release a large amount of carbon dioxide after they eat the feed. For example, a research by the University of Australia found that around 35% of carbon emissions around the world is from animal agriculture, and if everyone eats vegetables, carbon footprint in animal agriculture can be reduced by one third. However, this essay argues that people may not be able to get nutrients which is available only in meats if they solely consume vegetables.

One disadvantage is that vegetarian diets may cause nutritional deficiencies. That is because vegetables do not contain nutrients or minerals that are available in meats, and in the long run vegetarian may suffer from diseases caused by nutritional deficiencies. For instance, meats provide minerals such as iron to strengthen the red blood cells. If people do not gain enough iron, their immune systems will be weakened, and in most serious case, brain functions will be impaired. Therefore, this essay believes that a balanced diet with meats and vegetables should be followed.

In conclusion, although eating vegetables solely can reduce carbon emissions, unbalanced diets with only vegetables may lead to nutritional deficiency.

Nowadays, people are travelling more than at any time in the past. The main reason for this is that it is cheaper to travel now, and the main benefits of travelling for the traveller are that they can expose to different cultures and expand their social network. 

One of the main reasons people are travelling more now is that it is not as expensive as before. That is to say that there are many new travel transportation companies exist now, such as flight and bus companies, while there were only a few of them in the past. As a result, there is a big competition between these companies to attract more customers, which results in massive price reduction. For example, Ryanair, a famous flight company in Europe, sells tickets starting from $15 during the sale, from London to European countries. 

One of the main benefits of travelling for the traveller is that they can understand different cultures better. This is because when people travel to a new country, they have a chance to spend time with locals and experience their traditions. Also, museums and monuments are mainly visited by tourists to learn more about the country’s culture. Furthermore, being able to enlarge their social circle is another benefit of travelling. Visitors can meet a plethora of people from different nations while travelling. For instance, people who are using Couchsurfing app, which allows people to stay at locals’ houses when travelling, are making friends from all around the globe. 

In conclusion, the principal reason why people are travelling more than ever before is that it is less costly now, and the main advantages of this are that travellers can learn about different cultures and can meet with people from all around the world.

Some would argue that certain fields, such as sport or music are meant only for naturally talented children, while others believe that it is something which can be learned by anyone. While kids with the aptitude for certain skills are given a head start in life, this essay argues that such skill sets can be mastered by working hard.

On the one hand, children who are gifted with a particular inborn talent often achieve their goal early in their lives. This is because when someone is very good at what they are doing, it usually does not take much effort for them to strive for excellence in that specific area. For instance, there are many talented singers who have already established a successful singing career before they even become teenagers. However, I believe that talent alone does not guarantee success in the long-run, and that a person can only reach the highest level in their profession if they combine their innate ability with hard work.

On the other hand, many people think that anything is achievable in this life through practice and training. That is to say that it may take extra time and energy for an individual with average potential to harness a skill, but success is possible as long as one has the will, determination and the passion to work for it. For example, the world is filled with many star athletes who start off as a mediocre in the beginning, but they challenge and push themselves to their limit, which ultimately help them to attain the greatest version of themselves. I believe this view point is more practical because majority of the people are born average, and hard work beats talent in many cases. 

In conclusion, although it is easier for children with extraordinary ability to accomplish their dreams at the beginning of their lives, this essay finds that hard skills, even though time taking to master, can be earned by coaching and experience.

The multinational type of companies is increasing in the developed nations. While the advantages of such phenomenon are economical as these companies create large number of jobs and invest significant capitals for their operations, the effects on the environment and the over exploitation of natural resources are the disadvantages.

The advantages of these companies are economical, and one of the benefits is creating job vacancies. Owing to the nature of these companies and their high standard, their operations are carried out under certain standards that require significant number of employees. As a result, they tend to employ many people from local communities. In addition, those Firms usually invest huge capital in order to establish their local presence and facilities such as headquarters and accommodation for their staff. For example, IBM, a computer manufacturer, invested hugely in China as part of their plan to establish their manufacturing plants there.

On the other hand, one of the disadvantages of these companies are their bad effects on the environment. For those multinational firms, in most cases, making profit precedence over any other consideration including the nature and the environment. Their activities usually produce enormous amount of toxic chemicals and gases that cause global warming. In addition, in order to meet their large production capacity, they consume the natural resources in a sustainable way, cause irreversible damage to the nature. For instance, mutlinational mining companies seeking marble in the mountains of Italy have severely devastated the area and these highlands.

To conclude, the benefits of multinational companies are economical as they create job vacancies and invest significant liquidity, whereas the effects on the environment and the exhaustion of natural resources are the disadvantages resulting from such companies.

Music, art, and drama are deemed by some to be of the same importance as other subjects, particularly in primary school. This essay agrees with the statement because these subjects have a tremendous impact on students’ creativity at this age, and they might help some to choose a career path.

The inclusion of fine art in the primary school curriculum positively affects pupils creative thinking. During these classes, not only do students have an opportunity to paint, sing or act, but also their creativity is challenged. This is because one correct outcome does not exist when painting or playing an instrument; thus, students discover that engagement in music, art, and drama offers them a plethora of ways of expressing themselves. In Scandinavia, for example, where primary schools offer a sound number of these types of classes, young people demonstrate outstanding ability to be creative, which reflects in a number of designers and architects coming from this region. 

Having an opportunity to participate in music, art, and drama classes could potentially help some youngsters figure out what they are really passionate about. As a result, this passion could turn into a career path. Should primary school offer frequent exposure to fine art, then it could create empowering atmosphere, where pupils feel encouraged to believe that they can become artists. To illustrate, most of the famous artists decided to pursue this type of career due to a primary school teacher who awoke this interest in them. 

In conclusion, I personally agree with a belief that the importance of fine art in the primary level of education is equal to other subjects because it stimulates creativity, and in some cases, empowers youth to become painters, sculptresses, or actors.

While some people argue that watching TV is beneficial for learning new things, others are convinced that it is only a source of entertainment. This essay believes that television can do both as it helps people to unwind, but it also presents complicated information in an easily digestible form. 

For many people watching TV programmes is the easiest way to distract from the everyday routine and relax after a hard-working day. This is because one just needs to switch on the TV, and he or she will have immediate access to the programmes that could easily spark the brightest emotions, forcing them to laugh out loud or have a good cry. Besides, entertainment programmes account for the largest portion of the content on television. For these reasons, some people use it only for relaxation. However, I disagree that this is the only way that people use it as, in the modern world, television is much more than that. 

Television provides not only plain information but also audio and video content that helps to remember information in an easier way. For instance, if one watches a documentary about the history of London, sound and picture will help to engross a viewer into the atmosphere of the city and the way people behaved themselves. This might contribute to remembering the information for a longer time than if one just reads an article about it. For this reason, I believe that television can foster the learning process.

To conclude, even though for some people television is just a source of amusement, I believe that it is not the only useful way to use it. This is because through television people can also learn new things about the world in a way that is easy to comprehend.

Details of politicians’ private lives should not be publicized in the media. This essay completely agrees with this statement because keeping the private lives of politicians away from the media helps them to maintain a sound mental health and also helps to protect them from danger.

Keeping the private lives of politicians away from the public helps their mental health. Politicians are usually stressed mentally as a result of the pressure that comes with their jobs. Making their private lives open to the public adds to the level of pressure they experience because it is during their private times that they engage in activities that help to relieve them of stress. Therefore, making this important time of their life open to the public is dangerous to their mental health. For instance, in Nigeria, in order to maintain a sound mind, politicians keep their occasions private so that they can be themselves without being pressured to behave in a certain way.

Protection from danger is another reason why private lives of politicians should not be made public. Due to the high rate of insecurity in some countries, activities of politicians which are not for the service of the people should not be disclosed. This is because these individuals have opponents who are ready to harm them when given an opportunity therefore giving out information about their private lives is an easy way to expose them to danger. For instance, in Nigeria a governor’s house was burnt and it was discovered that the criminals who did this got his home address from social media.

In conclusion, the details of politicians’ private life should be kept away from the media because it benefits their mental health and helps to secure them from danger.

Because of technology, many men and women today interact with each other in new ways. This essay will suggest that people have more regular contact, and that the interaction has changed from physical to digital due to technology. I believe this is a negative development because humans need physical contact as part of their interaction to stay healthy.

Technology has made it possible for people to have more regular contact with each other through social media. This is because smartphones have applications, like Facebook and WhatsApp, which are designed to make it easy to talk, write messages and send pictures to other people. As a result of this, the interaction between humans has also changed from mainly physical to mostly digital. For example, an average Swedish person interacts with 15 friends every day through social media but only have physical contact with two. 

This development must be seen as negative, because physical meetings are needed for human health. It is important to meet other humans in person, because it creates an environment where people can interact in a more complex way. This is because all senses can be used, making it is possible to touch, smell and hear things that would be impossible through an application. For example, during the Corona-pandemic, many people work from home and Swedish doctors have noticed an increase in the number of patients with mental illness due to the lack of physical contact with friends and colleagues.

In conclusion, people´s interactions have changed because of technology and the relationships nowadays are more regular but less physical. I believe this is a negative development because humans need physical meetings to feel good.

Some people prefer to live in a house, while others feel that there are more advantages to living in an apartment. Are there more advantages than disadvantages of living in a house compared with living in an apartment?

Some people feel that it is better to live in a house, while it is the view of others that living in an apartment is more advantageous. Although it is more expensive to live in a house, I believe that there are more advantages than disadvantages of living in a house because houses are bigger in size.

Living in a house is less cost-effective in comparison to living in an apartment. This is because houses are usually bigger in size and offer more privacy to its inhabitants, as a result, the cost of owing or renting and maintaining a house is usually higher than for an apartment. For example, in Nigeria, people who live in houses spend on average three times more money than those who live in apartments because of the higher cost of mortgages and maintenance, such as utility bills, involved in living in houses. However, I believe that with appropriate planning and financial discipline, this extra expense can easily be paid off. 

An advantage of living in a house is that houses are more spacious. Houses are usually built to be more accommodating than apartments, and this is an important factor to consider, especially for large families who require playgrounds and gardens for their children. To illustrate, in Nairobi, the average size of a house measures around 700 square meters, which is large enough to accommodate a private car park, a garden and children’s playground, as compared to an apartment, which does not have enough space for these amenities. Therefore, I believe that there are more advantages than there are disadvantages of residing in a house than in an apartment.

In conclusion, even though it costs more to live in houses than in apartments, I believe that there are more benefits than drawbacks to living in a house because houses are more accommodating.

At present, travelling is more popular than it was in the past. This essay will discuss that this is because nowadays flying is cheaper and that the benefits of travelling are learning about new cultures and experiencing new adventures. 

People are travelling more than ever because flying has become more economic. This is because now there are many low-cost airline companies that offer cheap flight tickets to visit several countries, and this did not exist two decades ago. As a result, more people have the opportunity to travel to new places without spending a huge amount of money, while in the past flying was only affordable for rich people. For example, Ryanair is a low-cost company that provides extremely cheap flight tickets to visit countries around Europe, sometimes for the cost of 10 euros. 

One benefit of travelling is that people can learn about other countries’ culture. That is to say, when people visit a new nation, they go to local shops, eat typical food and visit museums where they can learn about the history of that country. Another advantage that travelling has is that travellers can live new adventures. This is because people who travel often choose to do activities that they cannot do in their own country. For example, is very common for travellers that visit South Africa to do a safari in Kruger, one of the biggest national parks to visit wild animals in the world, since this is an activity that most countries do not offer. 

In conclusion, travelling has become more popular because flying is cheaper than it was in the past and the advantages that this gives to travellers is the possibility to learn about new cultures and experience new adventures.

Some companies require their employees to wear uniforms at all times. The advantages of this are, it helps promote the company and helps customers distinguish the roles of staffs. However, employees may find it difficult to wear uniforms at all times and most company do not provide enough sets of uniforms.

Having staff wear uniforms at all times helps distinguish a company. It promotes a company’s identity to help customers differentiate it from other entities. Another benefit is that companies can better classify their services by the type or color of uniforms they wear which helps improve the customer experience. For example, in my hospital workplace, all patients are able to better distinguish which is a nurse or a doctor, because all nurses are only required to wear a blue scrub suit, meanwhile all doctors wear maroon scrub suits.

On the other hand, employees may find it uncomfortable to wear a uniform. Some uniforms are uncomfortable and poorly fitted that it adds to an employee’s unhappiness. Another disadvantage is that most companies do not provide enough uniforms for their employees. It becomes a financial burden for the employee because he may need to purchase a new set of uniform. For example, my brother who works twelve hours a day and six days a week, paid two thousand pesos to a local tailor just to make him three sets of custom fit uniforms because his employer only gave him two sets.

In conclusion, having a staff to wear uniforms at all times is a great way to promote a company and helps their customers distinguish their employees. On the other hand, employees may find it distracting to wear a uniform and companies may pass the burden of expense to their staff to buy extra uniforms.

Newspapers should not issue stories of politicians’ private lives. I totally disagree with the statement because it is in the public interests to publish, and some readers get interested in politics after reading the stories.

Printing the details of politicians’ private lives in newspapers is in the public interests. Readers can understand more on politicians’ values through the stories, and it gives voters information who have the same values with them. For example, some lawmakers put their families in first priority and they often do volunteer work with their children. If voters see these stories in newspapers and if they have the same values with them, they are likely to vote them in the next election because the politicians may propose laws that protect the values of family. Therefore, I completely disagree that stories of politicians’ private lives should not be published.

After reading stories of politicians’ private lives in newspapers, some readers become more interested in politics. Readers who get interested in stories of politicians will read further on things that are related to the politicians, and this leads them to become more interests in politics. For example, the former US President Donald Trump appeared in newspapers several time during his presidency, and the stories covered his relationship with the First Lady. Some readers found these stories interesting and they started following policy that Trump proposed to make, and later on demonstrations of support were held by them. Therefore, I totally disagree with the statement that newspapers should not issue the stories of politicians’ private lives.

In conclusion, I completely disagree that stories of politicians’ private lives should not be printed because it is in the public interests, and some readers become more interested in politics after reading the stories.

Economic growth is prioritized above all other concerns by the state, in many nations. The advantages of this are, improved quality of life of people and good infrastructure. The disadvantages of prioritizing economic growth above all other concerns are unaffordable cost of living and more environmental damage.

The main advantage of giving importance to economic growth is, it improves the quality if life of people. This is because with economic progress, states generate lots of revenue which can be used to provide high quality services such as free education, good public transportation and sophisticated health care system. Another advantage is developing good infrastructure. When a government prioritizes economic growth, they would build a good infrastructure to attract both domestic and foreign investments. So infrastructure in a nation is usually developed when economic growth is prioritized. For example, in India many highways and an international airport is built in the National Capital Region which attracted thousands of companies to establish a branch in that region.

One of the main disadvantages of prioritizing economic growth is unaffordable cost of living. That is to say, with economic growth, prices of consumer products and real estate increases rapidly making it difficult for low-income families to afford the cost of living. Another disadvantage is more environmental damage. This is because, to develop the industries and to get maximum profits, nations tend to use the most accessible and locally available sources of energy. This leads to more and more use of fossil fuels and thus causing more environmental damage. For example, coal is widely used in China to supply energy to its industries because it is cheap and can be mined within the country. 

In conclusion, the advantages of the prioritizing economic growth above all other concerns are improved quality of life of people and good infrastructure. The disadvantages are unaffordable cost of living and more environmental damage.

In many places around the world, people are choosing to follow a vegetarian diet. The disadvantages are that meat related businesses are being badly impacted and it causes protein deficiency in people. The advantages are that fewer animals are being butchered and it protects people from meat related deceases. This essay argues that the advantages outweigh the disadvantages.

On the one hand, meat related businesses are badly impacted. When people follow a vegetarian diet, it decreases the demand of meat, which forces the businesses to lower the meat prices. Another disadvantage is that vegetarian people develop protein deficiency. That is to say that meat has significantly more protein than vegetables, and it is difficult to consume a sufficient amount of protein just from vegetables. For example, in Mumbai, people eat only vegetarian food and consume less protein, and this is the primary reason for their lethargy. However, this essay believes that people can fulfil their daily protein needs from vegetables if they consume more nutritious vegetables everyday. 

On the other hand, lesser number of animals are being killed. When people decide not to consume meat, it plummets the demand, which results in lesser number of animals killed. Another advantage is that vegetarian people are less prone to the meat related deceases. A vegetarian diet prevents people from any meat related virus going inside the body and develop any sickness. For example, in Sudan, people don’t consume meat and the country has the lowest number of people with medical conditions. In my opinion, a vegetarian diet should be preferred because it prevents a person from many deceases in the long run. 

In conclusion, while vegetarian diet is not good for meat related businesses and people tend to develop protein deficiency, lesser number of animals are being killed and prevents people from meat related deceases. This essay believes that advantages outweigh the disadvantages.

The majority of the chief positions in business organizations are occupied by males, despite the fact that more than half of the workforce in numerous developed nations is made up of women. It is believed that corporations should be asked to designate a certain portion of high-level roles for females. This essay completely disagrees with this statement because selecting employees should be based on merit, and companies need to focus on profit. 

The main reason is that candidates should be selected according to meritocracy. This is to say that employees should be recruited for their work experience, their qualifications and their soft skills, rather than their gender. In other words, the high-profile positions should be given to the candidates who deserve them the most. For example, if a man and a woman apply for the same position, a woman should not have a priority over a man, but a fair selection on merit should be conducted to find out who is the most suitable person for the advertised role, considering skills, abilities and knowledge.

Another reason why I disagree is that the main goal for companies is profit. This is to say that if a company wants to thrive, it needs to have the best possible employees which are not necessarily one gender or the other. If companies were to select staff members on gender, they could end up putting at risk the smooth running of the business and causing financial losses. Therefore, choices should be made by the human resources team only by bearing in mind which candidate would be an asset for the business. For example, in Italy soccer teams are almost exclusively run by men because they usually know more about this business.

In conclusion, I strongly believe that companies should not be asked to allocate a certain number of executive positions to women because candidates should be selected considering merit, and profit is the top priority for a business.

In recent years, there has been a rise in the popularity of second-hand clothing amongst the younger generation. Why is this happening? Do you think it’s a positive or negative development?

In recent years, buying used clothes has become popular among youngsters. This is because many adolescents try to be like famous people, and I think it is a positive development because teenagers can save money for other useful things. 

Many adolescents buy used clothes because they want to be like famous people. That is to say that they need different outfits for any occasion and that is expensive. That is because they cannot cope with the financial burden of buying new clothes from stores, such as Prada or Gucci. As a result, many youngsters buy second-hand clothes. For example, in the United States, many teenagers buy used Gucci products in order to wear them and be like their idols. 

I think it is a positive development because teenagers who buy used shirts or pants can save money for other useful things, such as a computer or a car. That is to say that, if these adolescents have a computer, they could use it for the school or even to work in computer related jobs. For example, many teenagers can work as a freelancer in many jobs that do not require high skills to do it, such as making presentations or translating works from other language and as a result earn money and save it. 

In conclusion, many adolescents are buying used clothes because they want to be like their idols, and I think it is a positive development because they can use the money they do not spend in useful things.

In many countries today, more and more people are following a vegetarian diet. Although it causes a deficiency of important nutrients in the body, I believe that the advantage of a reduction in the number of obese people due to this outweighs any disadvantage it may have.

Following a vegetarian diet leads to a lack of vital nutrients. Many vitamins, especially vitamins B12 and B6, are sourced majorly from meat, which is not part of the vegetarian diet. As a result of this, vegetarians will be deficient in these nutrients, thereby predisposing themselves to illnesses associated with the deficiency of these nutrients. For example, according to a report by the health ministry of Brazil, vegetarians in the country account for the highest percentage of pernicious anemia and sensory nervous disorders due to a deficiency of vitamin B12 in their diet. However, I believe that these vitamins and many other nutrients which are absent in vegetarian diets can be gotten from supplements in vitamin tablets.

Vegetarian diet causes a decrease in the prevalence of obesity. As obesity is a risk factor for many cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, following a vegetarian diet, which is low in calories and fat, will mean that there will be a decline in the weight of people, which therefore reduces the risk of these diseases in people. To illustrate, in Japan, where a large number of people abstain from meat and eat mostly vegetables, the rate of obesity related illnesses is one of the lowest globally. Therefore, I believe that it is of greater advantage for more people to follow a vegetarian diet.

To conclude, even though adhering to a vegetarian diet leads to a lack of vital nutrients in the body, I believe that the advantage of reducing the problem of obesity outweighs any advantage this may have.

In some corporations, it is mandatory for employees to wear a uniform. The main benefits of wearing a uniform are that it brings uniformity to the workplace and helps to increase the output of companies; however, the increase in the expenditure of organizations and monotony among employees are the main drawbacks of compulsory uniforms.

The first main positive of a mandatory uniform is that it creates equality among workers. When employees wear uniforms, they do not know each other’s socio-economic background because they all look the same, and as a result, they treat each other equally. Furthermore, uniforms help companies to enhance their overall sales. This is because uniforms help people to develop good relationships with others, and when people have a good bonding with others, they usually help each other, and it increases the output of corporations. For example, In India, the sales of those automobile companies are higher where uniforms are mandatory because, in these corporations, people have good relationships with others.

The main disadvantage of the compulsory uniform is that it creates monotony among workers. When employees have to wear the same clothes regularly, they feel bored and sometimes, it has a negative impact on their productivity. Furthermore, the obligation to wear a uniform also increases the expenses of organizations. This is to say that in those corporations, where uniforms are mandatory, companies have to allocate some money for new and worn-out uniforms. For instance, the spending of the famous footwear company, Bata, is around 5% more than its rival companies because in this company a uniform is mandatory, and the company allocates some money for uniforms. 

In conclusion, the main advantages of the compulsory uniform are that it brings uniformity among employees and increases companies’ overall sales, and the main disadvantages are boredom among workers and an increase in the expenditure of corporations.

Some think that in most people’s lives the happiest moment are the time when they were teenagers while other people think that, despite taking up more responsibilities, adult life is happier. I agree with the latter statement that, although teenagers generally do not need to worry about their finances, adults can do everything they want legitimately.

Most people in the teenage years do not need to take care of their finances. That is because teenagers are usually supported by their families financially, and their parents pay all kinds of expenses for them. For example, most parents in Hong Kong give their teenage children US$20 a week pocket money. Their parents also buy new video games they want or they pay for tuition fees of interest classes. Despite the fact that most people do not need to worry about their finances when they were teenagers, I consider that, in spite of more responsibilities, adult life is happier because adults can do legally whatever they want.

Adults can do anything they like as allowed by law. They can get married and have their own families, and they can create their own childhood joys. Of course, the adults have greater responsibility as they need to support themselves and their families, and they need to take care of their spouses and children. For instance, people work so hard to make a living and they are usually exhausted when they leave the office. But when they come home, their cheerful spouse and children are there to support them and they feel loved and cared for. Therefore, I think that there is more happiness in adult life.

In conclusion, although teenagers generally do not need to worry about their finances, being adults are happier even though they have greater responsibility, because they can do anything they want legally.

Some would argue that people are happiest during adolescence, while others believe that adulthood offers more happiness, irrespective of the numerous responsibilities. Although some people think that teenagers are because of the care and support from their family members, I feel that adult life avails people the most happiness, regardless of having multiple roles due to an immense sense of accomplishment.

On the one hand, some believe that people are happiest during the teenage years because adolescents enjoy family support. Parents and relatives are so concerned about teenagers’ welfare, and they do not have to think about how to eat or wear clothing because their parents provide for their needs, which makes them happy with little or no responsibilities. For example, a group of teenagers in my community responded that they were full of happiness because of the family support. However, I believe that one can still be happy during adulthood because of a sense of accomplishment.

On the other hand, some feel that adult life enables people to be full of happiness because of achievement, despite responsibility. That is to say that when people realize what they achieve in life, like higher qualifications, good partners, and children, and as a result, they are pleased. For example, many married couples in my school club confirmed that they are happier because of their fulfillment, even though they have many roles. For this reason, I believe that individuals are more contented during adulthood than in adolescence.

In conclusion, although adolescents tend to be happier because they enjoy support from their families, I believe that adult life brings more joy because of life fulfillment, irrespective of more responsibilities.

Nowadays, many people are commuting more than past. This is because people now can afford travel expenses. There are two main benefits of traveling such as people can gain knowledge and embrace other cultures.

One of the main reasons why the number of tourism has increased is that travel is much more affordable than it used to be. This is partly because of salary rises and partly because the price for essential goods such as food and clothing has fallen. Many families now have two income earners rather than one, they have fewer kids and often have a car. All of these factors increase the likelihood of people becoming tourists. For example, in the past, it might have cost the average person a year’s salary to travel from India to Singapore, but these days it is possible for Indian tourists to enjoy their holidays in another country for the cost of half a month’s pay. 

This growth in travel means that many people can now enjoy the benefits of traveling, Firstly, traveling can help to broaden people’s horizons and adds upon knowledge. People can travel to different places and can gain knowledge of other religions, cultures, and western lifestyles. Meeting different people from vast cultures and societies provides an education that is impossible to get in a traditional school, college, or a university. Secondly, one can explore and embrace the good qualities of other cultures through traveling. For example, foreigners visiting India are often fascinated by Indian customs and traditions and always try to imitate these valuable traditions.

In conclusion, greater affordability is the main reason for increased travel, and the benefits for travelers include enhanced knowledge and increased appreciation of other cultures.

While some think that adding more and and more sport centers is the most beneficial way to improve people’s health, others think that there are better ways to do this. Although increasing the the number of gyms would motivate people to exercise more and become healthier, educating them about health is far more effective. 

On the one hand, building more sport centers would encourage people to start doing physical activities. People will have no excuse if there is a gym next to their work place or house. That is why increasing the number of sports facilities will ensure that the vast majority of people have easy access to sport centers and this would eventually improve their health. For example, in 2016, fifty new gyms were opened in Baghdad and a large number of people started exercising for the first time in their lives and they became healthier. However, I think that this is a temporary fix and better steps should be taken. 

On the other hand, educating people about the importance of health is a better, long-lasting solution. The media should focus more on encouraging people to take good care about their health and warn them about the possible health diseases such as heart failure and diabetes. Even in schools, young children should be educated about health from a young age in order to grow as healthy adults. For example, people in Japan are one of the healthiest people in the world because they teach their students about the importance of health. I therefore believe that this is the best way to maintain and improve health. 

In conclusion, while increasing the number of sports facilities can encourage people to exercise more and improve their health, educating them about health is better because it lasts longer.

In some nations, despite declining rates of dangerous crimes, people tend to feel less secure compared to the past. The most obvious causes are previously committed crimes and detailed description of such scenes on news can make people feel less safe, and the most viable solutions are more safety measures in place and detailed description of any serious crimes should be banned on news channels.

Sometimes, previously committed crimes can make people feel less protected. This is because they still have memories of horrible crimes in their minds and make them feel frightened. As a result, they find it difficult to trust anyone and feel less secure in strengers’ presence. In addition, watching detailed descriptions of any dangerous crimes on television can have a destructive effect on people’s mental health. In other words, a negative visualization of such crimes can result in crime happening in people’s heads and making them feel less safe. For example, 1 in every 30 adults in the UK feel frightened after watching detailed news of serious crimes on television, and not wanting to go out.

A possible solution to this issue is to put more safety measures in place in order for people to feel safe. This gives them a sense of security and a way to seek help if in any danger. Another possible solution is a ban on a detailed description of any serious crimes on television. This will help people keep away from a negative visualisation and their damaging effects on their mental health to make them feel unsafe. For example, recently in India a show called ‘crime patrol’ was prohibited on news channels because it had a negative psychological impact on people after watching it.

In conclusion, previously committed crimes and detailed news on any serious crimes can lead to people feeling less safe. However, this can simply be prevented by putting extra safety measures in place and compelling news channels to stop showing comprehensive details of dangerous crimes.

Some companies make their workers always wearing uniforms. The main benefits of this is that companies are shown as reliable for their clients and their workers feel safe wearing them. However, the key drawbacks are that their staff can feel uncomfortable on hot days and demotivated by wearing the same every day.

Companies in which uniforms are always worn show their clients that they can trust them. When employees look neat wearing their uniforms, clients trust in the services that are provided by a company because it shows professionalism and order. Another advantage is that workers feel protected. In some types of jobs, employees who work with dangerous products can feel safe wearing their uniforms all day because they prevent them from getting hurt. For example, builders demand their uniforms as a basic element for their protection before starting a construction. 

However, employees can feel uncomfortable in days with high temperatures. On hot days, wearing uniforms can reduce worker’s comfort because they cannot change their clothes to avoid the heat. Another key drawback is that repeating the same clothing can demotivate workers. Employees can feel tired of always looking the same because they cannot choose what they want to wear. For instance, a recent survey showed that 60.3% of people who wear uniforms do not like to wear them, and they would like to make decisions about their outfit at work. 

In conclusion, although having uniforms for staff makes a company looks reliable for its clients and provides safety for its workers, they can feel uncomfortable on hot days and unmotivated due to the fact that they constantly have to wear the same clothing.

In some nations, following a vegetarian diet is becoming more popular. Although having a vegetarian diet can help to protect animals, I believe that the disadvantages outweigh the advantages because they do not incorporate all the nutrients they need. 

One benefit of not eating meat is that animals are being protected. That is to say, if more people start opting to eat meals that do not include meat, fewer animals will be tortured and killed. This is because animals are reproduced, kept in small and uncomfortable places, and then killed and sold to supermarkets and butchers for human consumption. For example, cow’s meat in Argentina is the basis of people’s nutrition, so thousands of cows are reproduced and killed every year just for human consumption. However, I believe that avoiding eating meat will not make a significant difference on animals’ protection. 

One drawback of having a vegetarian diet is that the nutrients incorporated through this diet are insufficient. This is because meat has several vitamins and other important components, such as iron, that are very difficult to replace with fruits and vegetables. If people are not aware of this and do not visit a specialist, it can be dangerous and lead to several diseases. For example, many vegetarian people are anemic because of the lack of iron in their diet, so they need to be supplemented with iron tablets. Therefore, I believe that having a healthy and complete diet is more important than any other thing. 

In conclusion, although animals can be protected if more people start following a vegetarian diet, I believe that having a balanced diet with all the nutrients and vitamins that a person needs is far more important. Therefore, I consider that the drawbacks of a vegetarian diet outweigh the benefits.

In many nations, governments give precedence to economic growth over other issues. The advantages of this are that numbers of employed residents will increase and residents’ standards of living will be improved. However, this can cause serious environmental problems and health problems.

One major benefit of prioritising economic development is that numbers of employed citizens will significantly increase. In other words, countries, where their economies are growing, require substantial workforces to produce sufficient supplies of goods in order to meet markets’ demand. As a result, more and more citizens are in employment. Moreover, this will also offer citizens a better quality of life. This is because, when economies are growing, governments will gain more taxes from trading and can spend them on people’s welfare. For example, Singapore has been improved its economy for the last 40 years. As a result, Singaporeans have excellent public transports and the well-organised health care system. 

On the other hand, focusing only on economic development results in serious environmental damage. This is because, manufacturing processes generate CO2 and other fumes, sewage, and industrial waste which are released to environments and cause air, water and soil pollution. Furthermore, industrial pollution will negatively affect people’s health by precipitating respiratory diseases as well as some types of cancer. For example, Beijing, a big city in China, is facing smog which comes from manufacturing and incomplete combustion of logistic vehicles. This leads to an increase in the number of asthma-exacerbated patients.

To conclude, while prioritisng economic development will result in an increase in employment and a better quality of life, the serious downsides that come with this are environmental pollution and residents’ health issues.

Some organizations force their employees to wear uniforms whenever they are at work. The advantages of this approach are creating a sense of discipline and displaying their professionalism. The disadvantages are that it may hurt employees’ confidence and cause them to feel stressed.

One benefit of this measure is that it would result in them being more disciplined. Every time they put on that suit or dress, they would be reminded that they are working as part of the company and that they have a job to take care of, making them more responsible. Moreover, these employees will come across as more professional when they meet clients. This is because uniforms are often designed to be more suitable for business than casual clothes. For example, how appropriate staff members’ outfits are is often cited by clients as one of the reasons they choose to do or not do business with a company.

One drawback of this policy is that it tends to make each individual feel less confident. This is because they all have their own styles of fashion, so they may feel uncomfortable putting on something that had been chosen for them. This is compounded by the fact that they must wear these outfits daily, which can be highly stressful. In other words, it is terribly frustrating having to wear the same thing in a long period of time. For instance, many major companies in Vietnam have a scheme to change the design of their uniforms every six months to slightly reduce the frustration caused by wearing the same outfit repeatedly.

In conclusion, while having a dress code can instill a sense of discipline in the workforce and make them appear more professional in the eyes of customers, this may also come with a drop in employees’ self-esteem and an increase in their levels of frustration.

In many nations, governments put more focus on improving their economies than improving other sectors. Although, residents’ earnings will increase, I personally believe that the main drawback outweighs the main benefit as this will cause environmental pollution.

The main benefit of prioritising economic growth rather than other issues by governments is that people will earn higher income. This is because governments will support companies to run their businesses more effectively. As a result, companies will gain more profits and consequentially pay their employees bigger bonuses or higher wages. For instance, In China, businesses make huge revenue due to its strong economy. Therefore, Chinese citizens are paid higher and can spend money on luxuary products and travelling abroad. However, I personally believe that earning more money cannot offset pollution problems that happen after economic growth prioritisation.

The primary downside of putting more focus on economic development than other concerns by governments is that environments will be polluted. This is because there will be far more new-built factories for supporting the economic expansion. Without ecological concerns, the air will be polluted from carbon dioxide and fumes which are emitted from these factories, and rivers will be polluted by industrial sewage from manufacturing and chemical processes. For example, Beijing, China, is facing a hazardous level of the air pollution caused by fuel burning and chemical reactions from industrial areas. As a clean environment is extremely vital for a human life, I therefore think that the main drawback outweighs its key benefit.

To conclude, although people will earn higher income if the government prioritises the economic sector rather than other sectors, the serious drawback as pollution problems far outweighs the advantage.

In recent years, advancements in technology have changed how people connect with each other. This has turned people into making much more friends but has also reduced the depth of those relationships. In my opinion, this is a harmful change due to the fact that it makes human less able to communicate their personal feelings.

Technology’s influence has enabled people to make much more friends than they possibly could in the past. This is largely owing to social media, which revolutionizes communication and helps people to keep touch with each other regardless of their geographical locations. Another change in human relationships caused by modern technology is that the number of intimate relationships made has been substantially less significant. With so many people to care about, social media deters users from strengthening bonds. For instance, a stark difference can be observed in Vietnam, where most young adults 20 years ago – when the internet was underdeveloped, had much deeper connections than their modern counterparts.

The changes made to the types of relationships people make nowadays is largely a disadvantageous one, for it deters people from having deep connections. Lacking valuable bonds means that they have almost no one to confide during depressive episodes that are inevitable for most humans, and thereby increase the possibility of making unwise decisions. Examples of this can be found all over the world, where the cases of depression that cause suicidal behaviors are becoming more and more common, and one of the primary contributing factors is victims having no one to share their burdens with. 

In conclusion, despite having much more ability to connect, people are making less meaningful relationships; thus, the quality of relationships diminishes and harms their wellbeing.

Nowadays, passion for a journey from one place to another has been increasing among people. This essay will first discuss that an increasing number of tour packages is the prominent reason behind this, and it will then explain that cultural awareness and being healthy are the two prime advantages of this.

Many tour companies around the world are enticing people to travel more than ever before. That is to say, people are being offered appealing and discounted tour packages, especially during the holiday season, to explore other places. Whereas in the past travelling was very expensive and people could not afford it; however, these companies have made it possible to visit one place to another by spending a small chunk of money. For example, Travel Magazine estimated that more than 40% of Australian people travelled nationally and internationally, in the year 2019, because of cheap tour deals they grabbed from the Flight centre.

The first major benefit of travelling is that it allows a traveller to know about different cultures. By visiting other parts of the world, people get an opportunity to experience the various culture, cuisines and languages. The other significant advantage is stress relaxation through holidays. This is especially true for a significant number of people who are working many hours a week to earn their livings. During holidays, they choose to travel to different destinations around the world, and this greatly helps them to relieve their stress and keep their health in a sound condition. For example, a recent study by the Indian Medical Institute concluded that frequent travellers are happier and more satisfied with their life than those who do not.

In conclusion, people travel more often than in the past because of the tour deals they are being offered, and travelling does not only provide a traveller with knowledge about a different culture, but it also helps them to stay away from a hectic schedule

In recent years, the operation of big corporations is ubiquitous in developing nations. The essay will first suggest that economic growth is the prime benefit, while the excessive use of emergent nations’ natural resources is the main drawback.

One evident benefit of the operation of transitional companies in less developed countries is the prosperity of the local economy. That is to say, multination companies provide an inflow of capital into developing countries. This investment not only creates job opportunities for the people in developing nations, but it also helps to build better infrastructure, such as bridges, roads, and transportation facilities, for them. For example, the role of Foreign Direct Investment in the year 2010 was undeniable because it uplifted the Indian economy so fast and increased GDP and created so many jobs for locals. 

The prime disadvantage is that these companies use the natural resources of developing nations recklessly, which affects the environment. In other words, Smaller, less developed governments often trade an increase in revenue for access to natural resources. This extraction of raw materials, such as oil, diamond, rubber and fuel, can cause environmental externalities- polluted rivers and loss of natural landscape. For instance, many Chinese private enterprises have been heavily criticised for using the resources of countries like Vietnam, Thailand and the Philippine and for polluting the environment.

In conclusion, huge global companies benefit less developed nation economically is the prime advantage of this, and the extraction of raw materials for the sake of profit is the main disadvantage.

How To Use IELTS Writing Task 2 Sample Essays

IELTS Writing Task 2 sample essays can be a great resource for students preparing for the test. However, it’s important to use them correctly in order to get the most out of them. Here are some steps students can take to make the most of these samples:

  • Understand the question: Before looking at any sample essays, make sure you understand the question you’ll be answering on the test. This will help you focus on the relevant parts of the sample essays and understand how to apply the strategies used in them to your own writing.
  • Analyze the structure: Look at the structure of the sample essays, paying close attention to how the writer has organized their ideas. Make note of the introduction, body paragraphs, and conclusion and how they are linked.
  • Study the vocabulary: Take note of the vocabulary used in the sample essays and try to incorporate similar words and phrases into your own writing.
  • Practice with different topics: Use sample essays on different topics to get a feel for the different types of questions you might encounter on the test.
  • Don’t copy: It is important to remember that you must not copy the sample essays word for word. This will lead to plagiarism and can result in a low score. Instead, use the sample essays as inspiration and practice for your own writing.

In conclusion, IELTS Writing Task 2 sample essays can be a valuable resource for students preparing for the test. However, it’s important to use them correctly in order to improve your score. Use them as a guide, not as a final answer key. Remember to stay original, use them to understand the question and structure, analyze vocabulary and practice different topics. Remember, you will be marked on your ability to clearly communicate in English, not on your ability to memorise answers.

IELTS Task 2 Sample Essays Next Steps

If you need more help, please check out our further Writing Task 2 resources here .

If you wish to view the Official Marking Criteria for IELTS Writing Task 2, you can do so here .

IELTS Preparation with Liz: Free IELTS Tips and Lessons, 2024

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100 IELTS Essay Questions

Below are practice IELTS essay questions and topics for writing task 2. The 100 essay questions have been used many times over the years. The questions are organised under common topics and essay types. IELTS often use the similar topics for their essays but change the wording of the essay question.

In order to prepare well for writing task 2, you should prepare ideas for common topics and then practise applying them to the tasks given (to the essay questions). Also see model essays and tips  for writing task 2.

Below you will find:

  • Essay Questions By Topic
  • Essay Questions by Essay Type

Please also note that my new Grammar E-book is now available in my store along with my Ideas for Essay Topics E-book and Advanced Writing Lessons. To visit store, click here: Liz’s Store

1) Common IELTS Essay Questions

IELTS practice essay questions divided by topic. These topics have been reported by IELTS students in their tests. Essay questions have been recreated as accurately as possible.

  • Art   (5 essay questions)
  • Business & Money   (17 essay questions)
  • Communication & Personality   (17 essay questions)
  • Crime & Punishment   (12 essay questions)
  • Education   (17 essay questions)
  • Environment   (12 essay questions)
  • Family & Children   (8 essay questions)
  • Food & Diet (8 essay questions)
  • Government (6 essay questions)
  • Health   (9 essay questions)
  • Housing (4 essay questions)
  • Language (2 essay questions)
  • Leisure (1 essay question)
  • Media & Advertising   (12 essay questions)
  • Reading  (5 essay questions)
  • Society   (10 essay questions)
  • Space Exploration (3 questions)
  • Sport & Exercise   (6 essay questions)
  • Technology  (6 essay questions)
  • Tourism   (6 essay questions)
  • Transport  (7 essay questions)
  • Work (16 essay questions)

2) IELTS Essay Questions by Essay Type 

There are 5 main types of essay questions in IELTS writing task 2 (opinion essays, discussion essay, advantage/disadvantage essays, solution essay and direct question essays). Click on the links below to see some sample essay questions for each type.

  • Opinion Essay Questions
  • Discussion Essay Questions
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sample of essay exam

20 English Essay Topics/Questions | B2 First (FCE)

sample of essay exam

The language of an English essay should be formal . Also, make sure that you justify all your ideas and that you use appropriate connectors to link your sentences and paragraphs .

How to write B2 First (FCE) essay?

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B2 First (FCE) Essay: Example Topics / Questions

Below is a sample list of academic essay writing topics/tasks for B2-level (intermediate) students. You can use them to practice writing English essays or to prepare for the Cambridge B2 First (FCE) exam

B2 - Essay Topic / Question 1 | First (FCE)

You have watched a documentary about young children in poor areas who leave school to work. Your English teacher has asked you to write an essay.

Write an essay using all the notes and give reasons for your point of view.

Teenagers are dropping out of school to find a job. How can we help them to continue their education?

Write about:

  • family problems
  • financial difficulties
  • …………… (your own idea)

B2 - Essay Topic / Question 2 | First (FCE)

In your social studies course, you have watched a documentary on the potential effects of too much pollution on the air quality of city centres. Your professor has assigned you an essay to write.

Keeping the air quality in city centres at healthy levels for their residents is a concern for many places. How can we solve the problem of pollution in city centres?

  • automobiles
  • ………………  (your own idea)

B2 - Essay Topic / Question 3 | First (FCE)

In your education class, you have listened to a lecture on the importance of teaching foreign languages in school. Your teacher has asked you to write an essay.

Learning a foreign language helps students develop a set of important skills. Why should foreign languages be taught in schools?

  • new cultures
  •  employment
  • …………. (your own idea)

B2 - Essay Topic / Question 4 | First (FCE)

You have listened to a radio programme about the problem of widespread starvation in many parts of Africa. Your English teacher has asked you to write an essay.

In many parts of Africa, people are dying of starvation and lack of freshwater. Can these problems be solved?

  • lack of organised farming
  • …….. …….. (your own idea)

B2 - Essay Topic / Question 5 | First (FCE)

You have watched a video on a non-profit organisation working to stop the use of animals for testing medicines used by human beings. Now, your professor has asked you to write an essay.

Testing on animals is a standard in scientific research. What is the best way to deal with this problem?

  • animals suffer
  • outdated form of research
  • …… ……..  (your own idea)

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B2 - essay topic / question 6 | first (fce).

You have listened to a radio programme about deforestation, the cutting down of trees in many wild areas around the world. Now, your English teacher has asked you to write an essay.

Many forests around the world are being destroyed for agricultural, commercial, or housing use without allowing time for the forests to regenerate themselves. What can be done to improve the situation?

  • what contributes to the greenhouse effect
  • ………. (your own idea)

B2 - Essay Topic / Question 7 | First (FCE)

In your English class, you have been talking about endangered species, animals or plants that will likely become extinct. Your English teacher has asked you to write an essay.

Around the world, many wildlife species are in danger of extinction. How can we protect endangered animals?

  • hunting wild animals
  • ………..  (your own idea)

B2 - Essay Topic / Question 8 | First (FCE)

You have watched a Youtube video about the problem of computer game addiction in children. Your English teacher has asked you to write an essay.

More and more young people spend most of their time playing computer games. How can we help children to overcome this addiction?

  • bad grades at school
  • no social life
  • ………… (your own idea)

B2 - Essay Topic / Question 9 | First (FCE)

You have listened to a radio programme about the impact of smoking on people’s health. Now, your English teacher has asked you to write an essay.

Smoking is responsible for many health problems throughout the world. Do you think it should be made illegal?

  • lung cancer
  •  passive smoking
  • ……………… (your own idea)

FCE, CAE, CPE

More than practice tests, b2 - essay topic / question 10 | first (fce).

In your English class, you have been talking about the problem of obesity in young people. Now your English teacher has asked you to write an essay.

In Europe and the USA a lot of young people have an obesity problem. What can be done to solve this problem?

  • (your own idea)

B2 - Essay Topic / Question 11 | First (FCE)

Has technology made a positive contribution to sport today?

  • The use of technology to improve performance
  • The use of technology in refereeing decisions

B2 - Essay Topic / Question 12 | First (FCE)

It is better to work at home than in an office. Do you agree?

  • Contact with people
  • Working hours

B2 - Essay Topic / Question 13 | First (FCE)

Life is harder for young people now than in the past. Do you agree?

B2 - Essay Topic / Question 14 | First (FCE)

Is it better to go shopping in small local businesses or large out-of-town shopping centres?

  • Where things are cheaper
  • Where service is better

B2 - Essay Topic / Question 15 | First (FCE)

Is it better to spend a summer holiday in the countryside or on the coast?

  • Leisure options

B2 - Essay Topic / Question 16 | First (FCE)

Your teacher has asked you to write your response to the following statement taken from a recent newspaper article:

Do you agree that community service works better than fines?

  • effort and time
  • lesson learned
  • ………………(your own idea)

B2 - Essay Topic / Question 17 | First (FCE)

Is it true that we help the environment when we plant a tree?

  • clear the air
  •  ………….( your own idea)

B2 - Essay Topic / Question 18 | First (FCE)

Nowadays children are suffering from obesity, that was once considered to be meant for adults only. What are its causes and what solutions can be offered?

  • busy lifestyle

B2 - Essay Topic / Question 19 | First (FCE)

Is it better to be the oldest or the youngest in a family?

  • role of older sibling

B2 - Essay Topic / Question 20 | First (FCE)

Modern lifestyles can seriously endanger our health.

Do you agree?

  • physical activity
  • …….. (your own choice)

B2 First (FCE) Essay: Download (PDF)

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B2 first (fce) essay: assessement criteria.

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CBSE Class 10 Hindi board exam 2024: Check full question paper here

Check out the full question paper for the cbse class 10 hindi board exam 2024 here..

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CBSE Class 10 Hindi board exam 2024 full question paper

The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) has successfully conducted the CBSE Class 10 Hindi board exam today, February 21, 2024. As per the initial reactions, students found the paper was moderate in terms of difficulty level. The paper was held for three hours, and students were given another 15 minutes to go through it.

"The paper was slightly lengthy. The questions weren't anything that hadn't been practised in class before. The grammar section was moderate and the topics that had come for the writing section weren't anything too different from those in the sample papers" said Saanvi Singh, a Class 10 student from Seth Anandram Jaipuria School, Lucknow.

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CBSE 10th, 12th boards 2024 Live: Class 10 Hindi papers end, check analysis

  • 1 Hr 42 Min CBSE Class 10 Hindi course B paper analysis: What Lucknow students said
  • 2 Hrs 5 Min CBSE Hindi course B paper analysis by teacher
  • 2 Hrs 27 Min CBSE Class 10 Hindi course A paper analysis: Chandigarh student says one question wrong
  • 2 Hrs 43 Min CBSE Class 10th board exam 2024: Hindi paper analysis soon
  • 3 Hrs 15 Min CBSE Class 10th Hindi papers end
  • 3 Hrs 57 Min CBSE board exam 2024: Class 12 English exams tomorrow
  • 5 Hrs 15 Min CBSE Class 10th, 12th exams of February 21 underway, analysis after papers end
  • 7 Hrs 33 Min CBSE Board Exam 2024 Live Updates: List of Class 12 papers scheduled for today
  • 8 Hrs 58 Min CBSE Board Exam 2024: Class 10 Hindi papers scheduled for today

CBSE Board Exams 2024 Live: Class 10th, Class 12th exam updates

CBSE Board Exam 2024 Live Updates: The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) conducted the Class 10 Hindi Course A and Hindi Course B papers along with Class 12 Hindustani Music, Automotive, Health Care and Cost Accounting papers today, February 21. All these papers started at 10:30 am. While appearing for examinations, candidates had to wear their uniforms and carry school-issued identity cards and exam admit cards to their examination centres. ...Read More

CBSE Class 12th and Class 10th papers and students' reactions are below. Follow this live blog for latest updates on CBSE Class 10th and 12th board examinations.

CBSE Hindi A analysis: Teacher expects students to score between 95-100 per cent

Today's CBSE Hindi A (002) question paper was good. The 80-mark question paper had two sections: Section I - Multiple Choice Questions (40 marks) and Section II - Descriptive Questions (40 marks). The students solved the skill and value-based questions with intelligence. The questions from the supplementary book Kritika were skill and value-based. All 17 questions were based on the syllabus, the options for the unseen prose and poetry were confusing. The questions on grammar and creative writing were of a high standard. The students will score between 95% and 100%. The students took more time to solve the question paper.

– Dr. Arvind Kumar - PGT HINDI, VidyaGyan Dulhera

CBSE Class 10 Hindi course B paper analysis: What Lucknow students said

In Lucknow, the majority of CBSE class 10 board examinees found the question paper of Hindi well structured and the difficulty level. They felt that the language section was a bit lengthy and the literature section had some tricky Multiple Choice Questions.

According to Sohum, Ujjwal and Aarna, all students of GD Goenka Public School said, "The paper was well structured with moderate difficulty. Comprehension passage was tough".

Ayush Singh, a student from the same school found the Question paper easy but bit lengthy. Athrav of GD Goenka said said, "The unseen passage was difficult but the literature and language part was easy. Overall a good paper".

Nitya, Stuti and Ishani also from the same school found the question paper easy. For Bharat, the question paper was little difficult as he was not able to recognise some words in the literature section.

Shreya and Arushi said that in the literature part the MCQs were difficult. Overall the paper was well received and well attempted by the students. The language section was bit lengthy and literature section had some tricky MCQs.

– HT Correspondent, Lucknow

CBSE Hindi course B paper analysis by teacher

The CBSE Class 10 HINDI Course B paper was simple and well-balanced. As per students the level of difficulty was moderate. The question paper was a balanced mix of knowledge, analysis and application-based questions. Most of the students were able to complete the paper well in time.

Hindi Course B exam was for 80 marks, to be attempted within 3 hours.

The paper was divided into Section A and Section B

Section A: Unseen Passage (10 marks); Grammar & Literature MCQ (30 marks)

Section B: Literature Subjective part & Creative Writing with options(40 marks).

Both the sections in the paper were relatively easy. Regarding difficulty level, Section A Passages were not tricky but the questions were value based however the second passage required resolute focus of the students. Grammar Section was simple with direct answers in Set 1 & 2. However, in Set 2 a few questions were different from set 1.In Writing Skills, Questions of Paragraph Writing and short story writing were very easy. The Literature part was easy but it expected the learner to have thorough knowledge of the topics as well as subtopics with understanding of the themes, characters and literary techniques used in the text. Most students should have been able to tackle the long-answer questions effectively.

There was no error found in the question paper. Questions in Set 1, 2 and 3 were similar, but few questions of the Literature section were different.

Overall an easy to average paper as far as the difficulty level is concerned, with a balanced approach for all kinds of students. It was entirely based on NCERT. Language was very easy and proper reading of Questions will make it accessible for the students.

– Shikha, TGT, KIIT World School, Gurugram

CBSE Class 10 Hindi course A paper analysis: Chandigarh student says one question wrong

At the centre at Government Model Senior Secondary School, Sector 46, Harman Singh, a student of Ajit Karam Singh International Public School, Sector 41 said that the exam was easy and along expected lines. Yatin, a student of Guru Nanak Khalsa Senior Secondary School in Sector 30 said that while the exam was along expected lines, he felt that one of the comprehension questions was wrong.

(Rajanbir Singh, Chandigarh)

CBSE Class 10th board exam 2024: Hindi paper analysis soon

Analysis of the CBSE Class 10 Hindi papers and students' reactions will be shared here soon.

CBSE Class 10th Hindi papers end

CBSE Class 10 Hindi course A and course B papers ended at 1:30 pm. Stay tuned for more updates.

CBSE board exam 2024: Class 12 English exams tomorrow

CBSE will conduct Class 12 English papers tomorrow, February 22. There is no exam for Class 10 students on February 22.

CBSE Class 10th, 12th exams of February 21 underway, analysis after papers end

CBSE Class 10 Hindi Course A and Hindi Course B papers and Class 12 Hindustani Music, Automotive, Health Care and Cost Accounting papers started at 10:30 am. Students can check the analysis of these papers will be shared here when the exams end.

CBSE Class 10th Hindi exam from 10:30 am

Class 10 Hindi course A and Hindi course B papers of the CBSE will start at 10:30 am. The duration of both papers are three hours. Exams will end at 1:30 pm.

CBSE Board Exam 2024 Live Updates: List of Class 12 papers scheduled for today

Class 12 February 21 papers:

  • Hindustani Music
  • Health Care
  • Cost Accounting

CBSE Board Exam 2024: Class 10 Hindi papers scheduled for today

The CBSE will hold Class 10 Hindi Course A and Hindi Course B papers today, February 21. The two papers will be held from 10:30 am to 1:30 pm.

CBSE Board 2024: Exam timing

CBSE Class 10 and Class 12 final exams are being held in single shifts, starting at 10:30am. Depending on the length of the papers, these exams continue till 1:30 pm or 12:30 pm.

CBSE Board Exam 2024: New notice released

Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) has released a new notice on the official website. The notice urges the Centre Superintendents to ensure strict compliance of instructions provided by board during the February 21 examinations. Direct link to check notice.

CBSE Board exam 2024: 39 lakh candidates appearing for exam

Over 39 lakh students from India and 26 other countries will appear for the Class 10th and 12th board exams this year.

CBSE board exams 2024: Exam dates

Both CBSE Class 10th and CBSE Class 12th final examinations started on February 15. Class 10 examinations will end on March 13 and Class 12 exams on April 2

CBSE board exams 2024: Paper analysis will be shared here

Students can check theanalysis of CBSE Class 10 and Class 12 papers here after the end of the exams.

CBSE board exams 2024: Papers underway

CBSE Class 10th and 12th final exams scheduled for February 20 are underway. Some papers will end at 12:30 pm and the others will continue till 1:30 pm.

CBSE Class 10th, 12th final exam 2024: Wear uniform, carry ID card

Candidates should wear their school uniforms with ID cards while appearing for the examination. They have to carry printouts of their admit cards, without which entry will not be given inside the exam hall.

CBSE Board Exams 2024 Live Updates: Class 12th papers scheduled for today

February 20 Class 12 papers:

Class 12th Food Production, Office Procedures and Practices, Design and Electronics & Hardware.

CBSE Board Exams 2024 Live Updates: Class 10th papers scheduled for today

February 20 Class 10 papers:

Urdu, Bengali, Tamil, Telugu, Marathi, Gujarati, Manipuri and French.

CBSE 12th Exam 2024: Papers tomorrow

• Food Production

• Office Procedures and Practices

• Electronics and Hardware

CBSE Class 10 Exam 2024: Papers tomorrow

  • Urdu Course A
  • Urdu Course B

CBSE 12th Exam 2024: Hindi paper easy to moderate

CBSE 12th Exam 2024 Hindi paper concluded. The Class 12 eamination Hindi Paper was easy to moderate.

CBSE Board exam 2024: Student reaction from Chandigarh

Students of Class X and Class XII after their CBSE exams for Hindi and Sankrit at Kerala School in New Delhi on Monday (Vipin Kumar/HT photo)

Manisha, a student at Government Model Senior Secondary School (GMSSS) Sector 18 who was present at GMSSS Sector 16 for the exam said that the exam was easier than she had expected. “It was easier than the sample papers. However, the passage in the exam was quite hard. After this exam I feel that the other exams will also be on the easier side.”

(Inputs from Rajanbir Singh, Chandigarh)

CBSE Board Exam 2024 Live Updates: Students' reaction on Class 12 Hindi paper

Malika Arora, a student of Lucknow Public School South City said, “Overall, it was a balanced paper and more or less based on concept application of the theory, and options were very close.” Aparna Singh, another student of LPS South City felt that the paper was moderate.

She said, “Objective questions were a bit confusing so it took a lot of time to figure out the correct answer but the writing section was very easy.” Sangeeta and Nidhi, again from LPS, South City said, “Overall the paper was average with only 2 or 3 tough questions and a bit lengthy.”

Manisha Tiwari, Hindi teacher of LPS South City said, “The overall quality of the board question paper was satisfactory. The writing and the comprehension sections were easy to attempt. In a nutshell, it was a moderate and scoring paper.”

Falak Faroouqui and Astha Omar of St Anjani's Public School Rajajipuram found the Hindi Class 12 Question paper unnecessarily lengthy. They said, “Questions did not follow the pattern of sample papers on the Board website and we were really under pressure in certain tricky ones. But overall it went smoothly because we were well prepared."

(HT Correspondent, Lucknow)

CBSE Class 12 Hindi paper analysis

The question paper was for 80 marks. The paper was moderate, balanced and average. The questions were mainly based as per CBSE guidelines. The questions were average. The paper pattern was similar to the CBSE Sample Paper for the Session 2023-24. MCQs were mostly easy.

– Shipra Das ( TGT Sanskrit ) at Silverline Prestige School, Ghaziabad

CBSE Class 12 Hindi Core analysis: Moderate paper with tricky MCQs

CBSE class 12 students in Lucknow were of the view that the Hindi core question paper was easy but the multiple-choice questions were tricky.

Students of GD Goenka Public School, Lucknow, were of the view that the question paper was largely easy. According to Saundrya D Nair, a student of class 12, "Paper was easy, but the MCQs were tricky and took time to be answered. Similar kinds of options were a little confusing. Overall, a standard paper".

Another student Yash said, "Objective questions were a bit tough but subjective questions were very easy, and all from the syllabus. Practice of sample papers developed the speed that helped in completing the paper on time".

Nancy also said that subjective questions were very easy but MCQs were tricky. Overall, they found the paper to be of moderate difficulty. Students attempted the paper well.

CBSE Class 10, 12 Board Exam 2024: Concludes

CBSE Class 10 Sanskrit and Class 12 Hindi papers have concluded. The examination was started at 10.30 am and ended at 1.30 pm today.

CBSE Board exams 2024 live updates: Paper analysis

Analysis of the CBSE Class 10 Sanskrit and Class 12 Hindi papers will be shared here after the examinations end.

CBSE board exam 2024: Paper timings

CBSE Class 10 Sanskrit and Class 12 Hindi papers started at 10:30 am. Both examinations will end at 1:30 pm.

CBSE Board Exam 2024 Live Updates: Board's notice to schools on how to send observations

Read: CBSE asks schools to send observations on board exam question papers

CBSE Board Exam 2024 Live Updates: Bring admit cards, wear uniforms

Students are advised to wear uniforms and bring their identity cards, along with their admit cards to the examination venue.

CBSE Board Exam 2024 Live Updates: Class 10th Sanskrit papers today

For Class 10 students, the board will conduct Sanskrit and Sanskrit (Communicative) papers from 10:30 am to 1:30 pm.

CBSE Board Exam 2024 Live Updates: Class 12th Hindi papers today

CBSE will hold the Class 12th final examination for Hindi Core and Hindi Elective subjects today, February 19. These examinations will begin at 10:30 am and end at 1:30 pm.

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CBSE Class 12 Board Exams 2024 start with English paper tomorrow; here are tips to score high marks

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CBSE Class 12 Board Exams 2024 begin tomorrow with the English paper. Tips for scoring well include focusing on comprehension, vocabulary, sentence structure, literary devices, and practising sample papers to manage time effectively.

If students are prepared well and have the correct focus for the English exam, they can score well in this paper (Pixabay)

CBSE Class 12 Board Exam 2024: The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) class 12 exams are scheduled to begin tomorrow, February 22, with the English paper.

English is the common subject for all streams, be it science, commerce or humanities. The subject is considered to be among the highest-scoring exams and has the potential to improve the overall Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) significantly.

If students are prepared well and have the correct focus for the English exam, they can score a good grade on this paper.

Here are a few last-minute tips for tomorrow's English board exam 2024 to help students score their best.

Know your vocabulary

The first, 20 marks section of the CBSE English exam is typically based on comprehension, vocabulary, and inference. You can't mug up the entire dictionary a night before the exam, therefore, it is best to stick with your NCERT book. Read your chapters and try to remember some jargon to help you frame your answers. 

Ensure that you are not stuck on a passage for too long. Managing time is the key to any board exam.

Revise grammar thoroughly

Structuring the sentences properly is essential in an English exam . Be it the comprehension part or literature, wrong sentence structures can bring your score down.

Reinforce the following five patterns to construct your sentence and create an understanding of these:

  • Subject–Verb
  • Subject–Verb–Object
  • Subject–Verb–Adjective
  • Subject–Verb–Adverb
  • Subject–Verb–Noun

Brush up your literary devices like metaphors, similes, irony, and formats for different styles of writing as mentioned in your syllabus. This will help you cover the 30-mark writing section.

Avoid rote memorization

For the 30-mark literature section, it is important to read your lessons thoroughly. Focus on the plot, character sketches, and the central themes for each chapter. The section will analyse your skills and knowledge of the subject matter. Rote learning will not help you score in an English exam.

Long questions often require more detailed responses, and hence, you should begin with them.

Solve sample papers

To get a better understanding of what you'll be faced with tomorrow in the English exam, it is best to try out a few sample papers. It will not only help you to manage your time well but will also help you practice your subject from the exam point of view.

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OpenAI teases an amazing new generative video model called Sora

The firm is sharing Sora with a small group of safety testers but the rest of us will have to wait to learn more.

  • Will Douglas Heaven archive page

OpenAI has built a striking new generative video model called Sora that can take a short text description and turn it into a detailed, high-definition film clip up to a minute long.

Based on four sample videos that OpenAI shared with MIT Technology Review ahead of today’s announcement, the San Francisco–based firm has pushed the envelope of what’s possible with text-to-video generation (a hot new research direction that we flagged as a trend to watch in 2024 ).

“We think building models that can understand video, and understand all these very complex interactions of our world, is an important step for all future AI systems,” says Tim Brooks, a scientist at OpenAI.

But there’s a disclaimer. OpenAI gave us a preview of Sora (which means sky in Japanese) under conditions of strict secrecy. In an unusual move, the firm would only share information about Sora if we agreed to wait until after news of the model was made public to seek the opinions of outside experts. [Editor’s note: We’ve updated this story with outside comment below.] OpenAI has not yet released a technical report or demonstrated the model actually working. And it says it won’t be releasing Sora anytime soon. [ Update: OpenAI has now shared more technical details on its website.]

The first generative models that could produce video from snippets of text appeared in late 2022. But early examples from Meta , Google, and a startup called Runway were glitchy and grainy. Since then, the tech has been getting better fast. Runway’s gen-2 model, released last year, can produce short clips that come close to matching big-studio animation in their quality. But most of these examples are still only a few seconds long.  

The sample videos from OpenAI’s Sora are high-definition and full of detail. OpenAI also says it can generate videos up to a minute long. One video of a Tokyo street scene shows that Sora has learned how objects fit together in 3D: the camera swoops into the scene to follow a couple as they walk past a row of shops.

OpenAI also claims that Sora handles occlusion well. One problem with existing models is that they can fail to keep track of objects when they drop out of view. For example, if a truck passes in front of a street sign, the sign might not reappear afterward.  

In a video of a papercraft underwater scene, Sora has added what look like cuts between different pieces of footage, and the model has maintained a consistent style between them.

It’s not perfect. In the Tokyo video, cars to the left look smaller than the people walking beside them. They also pop in and out between the tree branches. “There’s definitely some work to be done in terms of long-term coherence,” says Brooks. “For example, if someone goes out of view for a long time, they won’t come back. The model kind of forgets that they were supposed to be there.”

Impressive as they are, the sample videos shown here were no doubt cherry-picked to show Sora at its best. Without more information, it is hard to know how representative they are of the model’s typical output.   

It may be some time before we find out. OpenAI’s announcement of Sora today is a tech tease, and the company says it has no current plans to release it to the public. Instead, OpenAI will today begin sharing the model with third-party safety testers for the first time.

In particular, the firm is worried about the potential misuses of fake but photorealistic video . “We’re being careful about deployment here and making sure we have all our bases covered before we put this in the hands of the general public,” says Aditya Ramesh, a scientist at OpenAI, who created the firm’s text-to-image model DALL-E .

But OpenAI is eyeing a product launch sometime in the future. As well as safety testers, the company is also sharing the model with a select group of video makers and artists to get feedback on how to make Sora as useful as possible to creative professionals. “The other goal is to show everyone what is on the horizon, to give a preview of what these models will be capable of,” says Ramesh.

To build Sora, the team adapted the tech behind DALL-E 3, the latest version of OpenAI’s flagship text-to-image model. Like most text-to-image models, DALL-E 3 uses what’s known as a diffusion model. These are trained to turn a fuzz of random pixels into a picture.

Sora takes this approach and applies it to videos rather than still images. But the researchers also added another technique to the mix. Unlike DALL-E or most other generative video models, Sora combines its diffusion model with a type of neural network called a transformer.

Transformers are great at processing long sequences of data, like words. That has made them the special sauce inside large language models like OpenAI’s GPT-4 and Google DeepMind’s Gemini . But videos are not made of words. Instead, the researchers had to find a way to cut videos into chunks that could be treated as if they were. The approach they came up with was to dice videos up across both space and time. “It’s like if you were to have a stack of all the video frames and you cut little cubes from it,” says Brooks.

The transformer inside Sora can then process these chunks of video data in much the same way that the transformer inside a large language model processes words in a block of text. The researchers say that this let them train Sora on many more types of video than other text-to-video models, varied in terms of resolution, duration, aspect ratio, and orientation. “It really helps the model,” says Brooks. “That is something that we’re not aware of any existing work on.”

“From a technical perspective it seems like a very significant leap forward,” says Sam Gregory, executive director at Witness, a human rights organization that specializes in the use and misuse of video technology. “But there are two sides to the coin,” he says. “The expressive capabilities offer the potential for many more people to be storytellers using video. And there are also real potential avenues for misuse.” 

OpenAI is well aware of the risks that come with a generative video model. We are already seeing the large-scale misuse of deepfake images . Photorealistic video takes this to another level.

Gregory notes that you could use technology like this to misinform people about conflict zones or protests. The range of styles is also interesting, he says. If you could generate shaky footage that looked like something shot with a phone, it would come across as more authentic.

The tech is not there yet, but generative video has gone from zero to Sora in just 18 months. “We’re going to be entering a universe where there will be fully synthetic content, human-generated content and a mix of the two,” says Gregory.

The OpenAI team plans to draw on the safety testing it did last year for DALL-E 3. Sora already includes a filter that runs on all prompts sent to the model that will block requests for violent, sexual, or hateful images, as well as images of known people. Another filter will look at frames of generated videos and block material that violates OpenAI’s safety policies.

OpenAI says it is also adapting a fake-image detector developed for DALL-E 3 to use with Sora. And the company will embed industry-standard C2PA tags , metadata that states how an image was generated, into all of Sora’s output. But these steps are far from foolproof. Fake-image detectors are hit-or-miss. Metadata is easy to remove, and most social media sites strip it from uploaded images by default.  

“We’ll definitely need to get more feedback and learn more about the types of risks that need to be addressed with video before it would make sense for us to release this,” says Ramesh.

Brooks agrees. “Part of the reason that we’re talking about this research now is so that we can start getting the input that we need to do the work necessary to figure out how it could be safely deployed,” he says.

Update 2/15: Comments from Sam Gregory were added .

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