How do I cite an unpublished student paper?
Note: This post relates to content in the eighth edition of the MLA Handbook . For up-to-date guidance, see the ninth edition of the MLA Handbook .
A works-cited-list entry for an unpublished student paper should include the author, title of the paper (in quotation marks), and date. The name of the course, the institution for which the paper was prepared, and the type of work can be provided as optional information at the end of the entry:
Leland, Dina. “Designing websites with Preschool Learners in Mind: Two Approaches Compared.” 4 Sept. 2017. User Experience 101, Dunham College, student paper.
In its publications, it is MLA policy to obtain permission from students before quoting from work they produced for class. Note that this does not extend to MA or PhD theses, which are public-facing works.
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MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (9 th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.
The following FAQs address issues in MLA citation and/or formatting. Further information on MLA style and citation can be found at the Purdue OWL’S MLA Formatting and Style Guide page.
I have to write a paper in MLA format. Where can I learn more about writing in MLA?
The Purdue OWL maintains an extensive resource that deals with MLA style. See our MLA Formatting and Style Guide . Additionally, the MLA Style Center is an official resource that provides answers to frequently asked questions, guidance on formatting research papers, documentation tips, and other assistance in writing paper in MLA format.
How do I use MLA citations and list of works cited in a PowerPoint presentation?
To cite sources in a slide presentation, MLA suggests including brief citations on each slide that includes material from your sources, including quotations, summaries and paraphrases, images, or data. Include a works-cited list on a slide at the end of your presentation. MLA also suggests providing your list of sources to your audience, either through a URL or printed copy that you hand out in your presentation. For more details, see the MLA Handbook , 8th ed., pp. 127-28.
How do I cite email?
When you document an email in your list of works cited, make sure t o include a reference to yourself, either by name or as author, as the Title of Source element.
Leon, Patrick. E-mail to the author. 15 February 2023.
Leon, Patrick. E-mail to Aimee Alicia. 15 February 2023.
What is a container?
Containers were first mentioned in the 8th edition of the MLA Handbook . Containers are the larger wholes in which the source is located. For example, if you want to cite a work (e.g. essay, short story, poem) from an anthology, the individual work is the source, while the anthology is the container. The title of the container is usually italicized and followed by a comma, since the information that follows next provides more information about the container. A container could also be a television series, which is made up of episodes, or a website, which contains articles and postings.
Gregerson, Linda. “The Sower against Gardens.” On Louise Glück: Change What You See, edited by Joanne Feit Diehl, University of Michigan Press, 2005, pp. 28-47.
“The Pontiac Bandit.” Brooklyn Nine-Nine , created by Dan Goor and Michael Schur, performance by Andy Samberg, season 1, episode 12, Fremulon, 2014.
What is a DOI?
A DOI, or digital object identifier, is a series of digits and letters that permanently leads to the location of an online source. Articles in journals are often assigned DOIs by the publisher to ensure that the source is locatable, even if the URL changes. Typically, the DOI is considered better than the URL. However, there are advantages and disadvantages to using URLs and DOIs, so the preference of you instructor, institution, or publisher is most important.
Imada, Adria L. “Transnational Hula as Colonial Culture.” The Journal of Pacific History , vol. 46, no. 2, Sept. 2011, pp. 150-176. EBSCO , doi: 10.1080/00223344.2011.607260.
Do I need to include a URL when I document online sources in my list of works cited?
The MLA Handbook (9 th edition) prefers the DOI to the URL. However, it also recognizes that the URL can provide information of where the work was found and link your audience to your sources in digital works. If you’re unsure about whether to include the URL, double check with your instructor. Different instructors may have different preferences.
Gay, Roxane. “Who Gets to be Angry?” The New York Times , 10 June 2016, www.nytimes.com/2016/06/12/opinion/sunday/who-gets-to-be-angry.html?_r=0
When the title of a newspaper begins with an article (the, a, an) do I need to include it when I list the title in my citation?
This change was first introduced in the eighth edition handbook. Previously, MLA did not require the article in the title of a periodical (newspaper, journal, magazine), but the updated handbook states that the article should now be considered part of the title. The article should be capitalized and italicized. For example, refer to The New York Times , (rather than New York Times ), when citing it in your text or works-cited list.
For more information on this, check out the MLA Style Center’s page on What’s New in the Eighth Edition.
How do I cite e-books or Kindle books?
An e-book is considered a version, so it should be listed after the title of the book, before the publication information. If you know the type of e-book you used (such as Kindle or Ebook library), be sure to specify that. Avoid using device-specific numbering systems, since they will vary among different devices. If the book has chapters, sections, or other stable numbering systems, it is permissible to identify parts of the text that way.
Theile, Verena and Linda Tredennick, editors. New Formalism and Literary Theory . Kindle ed., Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.
How do I cite a tweet?
The full text of the tweet should be your title. Enclose the text in quotation marks, and include the date, time, and URL.
@loudpositivity. “Accept no one’s definition of your life; define yourself.” Twitter , 27 May 2019, 12:17 p.m., https://twitter.com/loudpositivity/status/1133029562953142273.
If the author’s online handle is different from the account name, provide the handle in square bracket after the name.
Kass, Leon [@pianoman726] “Many (many) more professional photos to come. But this is one of the very few photos I took myself and I mean!” Twitter , 3 Srptember 2017, 3:03 p.m., twitter.com/pianoman726/status/ 752985641261162496.
How do I cite a book that I accessed online?
Cite the book just like you would if it were in print. Then add the name of the database or website you used to access the online book, and add a URL or other location indicator at the end of the citation.
Carroll, Lewis. Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland . Macmillan, 1865. eBook edition (Project Gutenberg). https://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/11.
How do I cite an unpublished manuscript/document?
Author. “Title of Manuscript/Document.”. date of composition (at least year), along with "the name and location of the library, research institution, or personal collection housing the material."
Henderson, George Wylie. Baby Lou and the Angel Bud. 22 July 1991. Collection of Roslyn Kirkland Allen, New York.
How do I cite the US Constitution?
References to the US consitution in the body of your text should be written as “the Constitution.” If you are only discussing it based on general knowledge, you do not need to cite it. However, if you are using a named edition, you should treat it like the title of the book:
The Constitution of the United States, with Case Summaries. Edited by Edward Conrad Smith, 9th ed., Barnes and Noble Books, 1972.
If you use a named edition, your in-text citations should help your readers locate the exact entry in the Works Cited:
( Constitution of the United States, with Case Summaries)
Keep in mind for citations of any constitution, including the US, the country of origin should be specified if the title does not indicate what country the constitution belongs to:
France. Le constitution. 4 October 1958. Legifrance, www.legifrance.gouv.fr/Droit-francais/Constitution/Constitution-du-4-octobre-1958.
For more information on citing legal documents, refer to the MLA Style Center’s page on Documenting Legal Works in MLA Style.
How do I cite a definition from an online dictionary, like Dictionary.com ?
In most cases, a word entry in an online dictionary includes a part of speech and numbered definitions, which should be included in the title. The original source is the container. To indicate the definition came from the web source by including the URL. The access date is optional, but include it if it will best help your readers locate the source.
“Moist, Adj. (1) ” Merrian-Webster, 2023. wwww.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/content . Accessed 15 July 2022.
How do I cite a footnote?
The ninth edition MLA handbook does not address this question, but one entry in the online MLA Style Center does provide a set of directions for this task . This page states that a citation for another author’s footnote in your own text should include the following, in parentheses: author’s name, the page number, the letter n (to indicate note), and the note number.
There are no spaces between the page number, the letter n, and the note number.
If you refer to multiple notes, use nn and separate the note numbers from the page number by using brackets.
(Smith 82 [nn 2, 3, 6])
How do I cite genealogies and birth/death certificates?
Although MLA does not offer any guidelines on how to handle genealogies and birth certificates, a few websites offer their own resources and citation methods to follow:
Genealogy.com offers a method of citing birth/death certificates. Follow the link and scroll down to “Official Records.”
In addition, Archive.gov offers a leaflet called Citing Records in the National Archives of the United States .
How do I cite the information from food nutrition labels?
The MLA does not generally require you to create works-cited-list entries for nutrition labels. You can instead provide a simple description of the product in the sentence or in a note.
Example (in a sentence):
According to a 2019 package of Quaker Steel Cut Oats—a product by the Quaker Oats Company, “3 grams of soluble fiber from oatmeal daily in a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol may reduce the risk of heart disease.
Example (in a note):
As noted on a package of Quaker Steel Cut Oats: “3 grams of soluble fiber from oatmeal daily in a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol may reduce the risk of heart disease.” 1
1. Quaker Steel Cut Oats are sold by the Quaker Oats Company. This package was produced in 2019.
In the event that your writing deals extensively with nutrition (such that nutrition labels serve as important sources of evidence), you may optionally create works-cited and treat them as you would any other source. Make sure to include the core elements, in the proper order, and provide as much information as your readers will need to locate the source.
“Nutrition Label of Quaker Steel Cut Oats.” Quaker Oats Company, Chicago, IL, 2019.
How do I cite an informational plaque or an information card?
Treat informational plaques/cards as you would any other source. Make sure to include the core elements, in the proper order, and provide as much information as your readers will need to locate the source. Use the title of the plaque as the title of your source. If you have experienced an object firsthand, such as in a museum, give the name of the place, the city in which it is located, and the dates of the exhibition.
“Alexander McQueen’s Gothic.” Gothic to Goth: Romantic Era Fashion and its Legacy , Wadsworth Athenaeum , Hartford, Connecticut, March 5-July 10, 2016.
When I am repeatedly quoting or paraphrasing the same source in my paper, do I have to keep citing that source at the end of each sentence?
When you reference the same source more than once in the same paragraph, and no other source intervenes, you may give the in-text citation just once at the end of the paragraph. If, however, this technique creates any ambiguity about your reference, it is better to cite the source every time you reference it.
This makes clear that the first quotation is from the first page number in the parentheses, and the second quotation is from the second number.
There are other ways to do this as well. You may cite the author’s name with the page number after the first direct quotation, and just list the page number after the second quotation.
If I quote from two different sources in the same sentence, how do I cite both?
While the MLA does not prohibit references to more than one source in the same sentence, it is generally best to begin a new sentence when referring to a new source. Your goal is to present your information as clearly as possible so that your readers can best follow your points. With that in mind, if you find yourself attempting to cite two sources in the same sentence, chances are, your ideas will be clearer if you break them into two sentences.
If I “just know” a fact or idea (something I learned in high school, for example), do I have to cite my high school course or textbook?
This question falls under the issue of common knowledge. Common knowledge generally includes biographical information, dates of historical events, and other undisputed, widely available information. If you think that your average, reasonable reader already accepts this information as fact, it is not necessary to document it.
MLA Style Citation Examples
- Images and Media
- Ask a Librarian
(For more examples, see pages 124 and 337 in the ninth edition)
-Brandy Brady emailed Joseph Smith a list of books she used in English class.
-She sent Smith a list of books she used in English class (Brady).
-In an interview with Hannah Christian, she stated that people prefer reading e-books instead of print books.
-She reported that people prefer reading e-books instead of print books (Christian).
-Gale George in her address "Silencing the Dragon" discussed the significance of imagination in writing.
-In "Silencing the Dragon," she discussed the significance of imagination in writing (George).
-In James Jenson's survey he found that many Northwest students use e-books more than print books.
-Northwest students use e-books more than print books (Jenson).
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Citation Guide: How to cite UNPUBLISHED SOURCES
- APA General Guidelines
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- MLA General Guidelines
- Author/Editor ASA Format
- Basic ASA Rules
- How to cite AUDIO/VISUAL MATERIALS
- How to cite BOOKS, eBOOKS, and CHAPTERS
- How to cite ENCYCLOPEDIAS
- How to cite MAGAZINES
- How to cite JOURNALS
- How to cite NEWSPAPERS
- How to cite PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS
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- In-text Citations
- Citation Software - Zotero
Theses and Dissertations
Note : Note number. Author First Last Name, “Title” (Type of dissertation, Location of Publisher, Year of Pub.), pages cited, URL or database (if online).
Sample Note :
43. Afrah Daaimah Richmond, “Unmasking the Boston Brahmin: Race and Liberalism in the Long Struggle for Reform at Harvard and Radcliff, 1945-1990” (PhD diss., New York University, 2011), 211-12, ProQuest Dissertations & Theses.
Author Last, First Name. “Title.” Type of Dissertation, Location of Publisher, Year of Pub. URL or database (if online).
Sample Citation :
Culcasi, Karen Leigh. “Cartographic Representations of Kurdistan in the Print Media.” Master’s Thesis, Syracuse University, 2003.
Lectures or Papers presented at a meeting
Note number. Author First Last Name, “Title” (Sponsor, Location, Year). URL or database (if online).
43. Irineu de Carvalho Filho and Renato P. Colistete, “Education Performance: Was it All Determined 100 Years Ago? Evidence from Sao Paulo, Brazil” (Paper presented at the 70th annual meeting of the Economic History Association, Evanston, IL, September 24-26, 2010). http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/24494/1/MPRA_paper_24494.pdf.
Author Last, First Name. “Title of Speech or lecture.” Sponsor, Location, Year. URL or database (if online).
Crane, Gregory R. “Contextualizing Early Modern Religion in a Digital World.” Lecture, Newberry Library, Chicago, September 16, 2011.
Carvalho Filho, Irineu de, and Renato P. Colistete. “Education Performance: Was it All Determined 100 Years Ago? Evidence from Sao Paulo, Brazil.” Paper presented at the 70 th annual meeting of the Economic History Association, Evanston, IL, September 24-26, 2010. http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/24494/1/MPRA_paper_24494.pdf.
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FAQ: Research Help
How do i cite an unpublished manuscript.
This article says to cite it as an unpublished paper. My paper is in MLA format
According to the Purdue Online Writing Lab you cite an unpublished paper or manuscript in the following format:
Author. Title of Manuscript/Document. date of composition (at least year), along with "the name and location of the library, research institution, or personal collection housing the material."
Henderson, George Wylie. Baby Lou and the Angel Bud. Collection of Roslyn Kirkland Allen, New York.
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FAQ: How should I cite my own work?
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If you want to re-use portions of a paper you wrote for a previous assignment or course, you need to take care to avoid self-plagiarism. The APA Manual (7th edition, p. 21) defines self-plagiarism as “the act of presenting one's own previously published work as original." This includes entire papers, and also slightly altered work. Self-plagiarism is a violation of SNHU’s Academic Honesty Policy ( Online Student Academic Integrity Policy This link opens in a new window , Campus Student Academic Integrity Policy This link opens in a new window ). To avoid self-plagiarism, you should request approval from your instructor to use portions of your prior work, and you also need to provide a proper citation within your paper.
If you are citing your own writing from a paper submitted for a previous course, then you would generally cite it as an unpublished manuscript. Here are specific examples of how it works in the three major citation styles:
Please check with your instructor to verify if you can use a previous work as it may violate academic integrity, honor codes, etc. If you are permitted to quote or paraphrase from earlier work, students should cite the work, following the unpublished work template (Section 10.8, p. 336). You can change “Unpublished manuscript” to “Unpublished paper” or another phrase.
Reference Page General Format
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of the work [Unpublished paper]. Department Name, University Name.
Reference Page Example
Fisher, J. D. (2021). This is the title of my paper [Unpublished paper]. English Department, Southern New Hampshire University.
According to the MLA Style site, authors should cite their work the same way they would cite any other source (book, article, etc.). In the text you can refer to yourself (e.g. "In my work...").
Works Cited General Format
Author Last name, Author First Name. "Title of Your Paper: Subtitle of Your Paper." Date. Name of the Course, Institution, Type of Work.
Works Cited Example
Lee, Cody. "My Student Paper: Why I Like This Subject a Lot." 9 Sept. 2021. New Media: Writing and Publishing, Southern New Hampshire University, student paper.
In-Text Citation Example
See the MLA Style pages Citing Your Own Work This link opens in a new window and How do I cite an unpublished student paper? This link opens in a new window for more information.
Per the Chicago Manual of Style (17th edition), unpublished works such as theses and dissertations are cited like books, with the exception that titles of unpublished works appear in quotations, not italics. Also, the type of paper, the academic institution, and the date follow the title.
For published works, please consult the Chicago Style Table of Contents This link opens in a new window for the type of source and follow the formatting guidelines associated.
Bibliography General Format
Author Last Name, Author First Name. "Title of Paper." Essay, Southern New Hampshire University, Year.
Wendell, Richard. "This Is the Title of My Paper." Essay, Southern New Hampshire University, 2021.
2. Richard Wendell, "This Is the Title of My Paper" (essay, Southern New Hampshire University, 2021), 4.
- Citing Your Sources (Shapiro Library) research guide.
This information is intended to be a guideline, not expert advice. Please be sure to speak to your professor about the appropriate way to cite sources in your class assignments and projects.
To access Academic Support, visit your Brightspace course and select “Tutoring and Mentoring” from the Academic Support pulldown menu.
To access help with citations and more, visit the Academic Support via modules in Brightspace:
- Academic Support Overview: Getting Help with your Schoolwork This link opens in a new window
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- Citation Home
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MLA Style Guide- Unpublished Doc/ Handout
For Citing an Unpublished Document (or material created by a professor) the following information should be provided:
Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Document." Description of document (e.g. flyer, leaflet, memo or handout). Organization associated with document. City of production/distribution. Date of document. (If no date listed, enter: n.d.) Medium.
Note: If any of the above information is not given, leave the information out.
For a Class Handout Quoting Another Source (like a poem or short story) the following information should be provided:
Author of quoted source. "Title of work from a published collection. (e.g. poem or article)." Title of Publication. (book or periodical). "Title of Handout." Handout. Title of course. (Name of instructor.) Name of school. Date of handout. Note: If any of the above information is not given, leave the information out.
Brenner, Eric. "MLA Citation Style." Skyline College Library. Skyline College. 15 Sep. 2015. Web. 21 Sep. 2015.
Sample Citations - Unpublished Doc/ Handout
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MLA Style (9th Edition) Citation Guide: How to Cite: Other
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Table of Contents
Class handouts, cochrane review.
Conference Proceedings or Presentation
Eric document, images / artwork.
Lecture Notes (taken by a student or otherwise not public)
Mintel or Other Corporate Report
Mobile Software Application (App)
Natural medicines (online monograph), personal/unpublished works/blogs, powerpoint slides, review of book, play, movie, poem, etc., simplyanalytics, song or album.
Sound recording / Booklet from Naxos Music Library
Note: For your Works Cited list, all citations should be double spaced and have a hanging indent.
A "hanging indent" means that each subsequent line after the first line of your citation should be indented by 0.5 inches.
"Prompt." ChatGPT, Version, OpenAI, Date, URL.
Works Cited List Example:
“Describe the symbolism of the green light in the book The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald” prompt. ChatGPT , 13 Feb. version, OpenAI, 8 Mar. 2023, chat.openai.com/chat.
In-Text Citation Example:
(Shortened version of prompt)
Example: ("Describe the symbolism")
Instructor's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Handouts/Notes." Name of Course, Date handout was received, University/College, URL. Access date. Class handout.
Easton, Todd. “Model Paper.” Economics 121, 10 Apr. 2019, University of Portland, learning.up.edu/moodle/mod/resource/view.php?id=544855. Accessed 15 May 2019. Class handout.
(Instructor's Last Name)
Example: ( Easton )
Instructor's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Handouts/Notes." Name of Course, Date handout was received, University/College. Class handout.
Doe, Mark. "Critical Analysis." English 100, 4 Sept. 2016, University of Portland. Class handout.
Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Review." Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, vol. Volume Number, no. Issue Number, Date of Publication, pp. First Page Number-Last Page Number. https://doi.org/doi number.
Work Cited List Example:
Lane, Deirdre A., and Gregory Y. H. Lip. "Treatment of Hypertension in Peripheral Arterial Disease." Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 4 Dec. 2013, https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD003075.pub3.
(Author's Last Name)
Example: (Lane & Lip)
Cochrane reviews follow the journal article format.
Provide the name of the database (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews) in italic title case in the works cited list. Do not italicize it elsewhere in your paper.
Different versions of Cochrane reviews include different information, which means the works cited list might vary too. Follow the principle of citing what you see.
- Full-text versions of Cochrane reviews do not include volume numbers, issue numbers, or article numbers. The full-text version displays when you visit the DOI of the article.
- However, the article PDFs show the year as the volume number, an issue number, and an article number.
- It is fine to omit the volume, issue, and article number from the Cochrane review works cited list if the information is missing from your version of the article, but if you do see this information, include it just as you would for any journal article .
Conference Proceedings or Paper
Published Conference Proceedings
Author's Last Name, First Name. Conference Title, Conference Date and Location, Publisher, Date of Publication.
Chang, Steve S., et al., editors. Proceedings of the Twenty-Fifth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, February 12-15, 1999: General Session and Parasession on Loan Word Phenomena. Berkeley Linguistics Society, 2000.
Oral Presentation at Conference
Speaker's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Speech." Title of Conference or Meeting , Day Month, Year, Location of Conference. Descriptor (i.e. Keynote Address, Guest Lecture, Conference Presentation, Address, Lecture, Reading).
Stein, Bob. “Reading and Writing in the Digital Era.” Discovering Digital Dimensions, Computers and Writing Conference , 23 May 2003, Union Club Hotel, West Lafayette, IN. Keynote Address.
Dissertation from Database
Author's Last Name, First Name Middle Name (if given). Title of Dissertation: Subtitle if Given. Year. PhD dissertation. Database Name.
Smith, Junette A. A Bridge to Neuroeducation: A Qualitative Study of Perceptions of Educators of Adult Learners . 2017. PhD dissertation. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global .
(Author's Last Name Page Number)
Example: (Smith 33)
Author's Last Name, First Name Middle Name (if given). Title of dissertation: Subtitle if given. Dissertation Abstracts International, vol. Volume Number, no. Issue Number, Date of Publication, pp. First Page Number-Last Page Number. Name of Database, URL.
Brooks, Mary Patrice. (2008). The History of St. Joseph School and Challenges of Catholic Education in Oregon. Dissertation Abstracts International , vol. 69, no. 6, 2008, pp. 2184–2185. America: History & Life, login.uportland.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ahl&AN=46957249&login.asp%3fcustid%3ds8474154&site=ehost-live&scope=site.
(Author Page Number)
Example: (Brooks 2185)
Author's Last Name, First Name Middle Name (if given). "Title of document: Subtitle if given." Date of Publication. Database Name. (ERIC document number).
Kubota, Kenichi. “‘Soaking’ Model for Learning: Analyzing Japanese Learning/Teaching Process from a Socio-Historical Perspective.” 2007. ERIC (ED498566).
Example: (Kubota 4)
Note: this document is a PDF so page numbers are available.
Image from a Website
Artist's Last Name, First Name. Title of Work: Subtitle if Any. Year, Location of Work, URL.
Goya, Francisco. The Family of Charles IV . 1800. Museo del Prado, museodelprado.es/en/the-collection/art-work/the-family-of-carlos-iv/f47898fc-aa1c-48f6-a779-71759e417e74.
(Artist's Last Name)
Note: For images found online, do not list a page number.
If the artist is not named, use a shortened version of the title (usually just 1-2 significant words): (“Title").
Image from a Book
When you refer to a photographic reproduction of an artwork, the citation is made up of two parts:
- Part 1: Lists the original artist's name, the name of the work, and the date the work was created.
- Part 2: Cites where you found the reproduction of the work such as a book.
Artist's Last Name, First Name. Title of Work: Subtitle if Any. Year, Location of Work. Book Title , by Author's First Name Last Name, Publisher Name often shortened, Year of publication, p. number.
Cassatt, Mary. Mother and Child . 1889, Wichita Art Museum, Wichita, KS. American Painting,1560-1913 , by John Pearce, McGraw, 1964, Slide 22.
(Artist's Last Name, Page Number)
If the artist is not named, use a shortened version of the title (usually just 1-2 significant words): (“Title," Page Number).
Example: (Cassatt, slide 22)
Image from a Library Database
Artist's Last Name, First Name. Title of Work: Subtitle if Any. Year, Location of Work. Database Title , URL.
Monet, Claude. The Parc Monceau . 1878. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City. Artstor , library.artstor.org/library/secure/ViewImages?id=%2FDFMaiMuOztdLS0wdD5%2BR3su&userId=gDhMeDUs&zoomparams=.
If the artist is not named, use a shortened version of the title (usually just 1-2 significant words): (“Title"). Example: ("Sunday Afternoon")
Beck, Aaron T., et al. “Beck Depression Inventory–II.” PsycTESTS, 1996. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1037/t00742-000.
Example: (Beck et al. 1996)
Jazz Discography (by Tom Lord)
The Jazz Discography uses session numbers (example: E1254) to refer to recording sessions. Include the session number in your citation.
Lord, Tom. "F2031: The Duke Ellington Song Book." The Jazz Discography, www.lordisco.com/tjd/WordDetail?id=7&mode=detail&rid=49863.
Since this is an online source page numbers are not needed.
Instructor's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Lecture." Name of Course, Date lecture occurred, University/College. Class lecture.
Aihiokhai, Simon. “Christian Spirituality.” THE 105, 18 Jan. 2017, University of Portland. Class lecture.
Lippincott Advisor (7th ed)
"Title of Article." Date Month Year of Latest Update, Lippincott Advisor . Retrieved Date, URL.
Note: include "Retrieved" followed by the date for web pages that may be updated over time and that are not archived
"Anemia (Aplastic)". 12 Jul. 2019, Lippincott Advisor. Retrieved 17 Oct. 2019, advisor.lww.com/lna/document.do?bid=4&did=791392.
("First Word Or Two of Article Title," Year)
Example: ("Anemia (Aplastic)," 2019)
Note: Because online resources typically do not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings, this information is left out of the in-text citation.
Lippincott Advisor mobile app:
"Title of Article." Date Month Year of Latest Update, Lippincott Advisor . Retrieved Date, advisor.lww.com. Mobile App.
"Anemia (Aplastic)". 12 Jul. 2019, Lippincott Advisor. Retrieved 17 Oct. 2019, advisor.lww.com. Mobile App.
Note: Because mobile apps typically do not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings, this information is left out of the in-text citation.
Mintel or Other Corporate Report
Mintel Group Ltd. “Car Rentals – US.” Mintel Reports , July 2018, clients.mintel.com.
Mobile Application Software (App)
Name of Company that created the application or Creator's Last Name, First Name. Middle Initial if given. Name of Application, Publisher Name or App Store, Version number if given, Release Date of Current Version of the Application, Mobile App, URL application was downloaded from.
National Geographic Society. National Parks by National Geographic, App Store, vers.1.2, 2012, Mobile App. www.apple.com/itunes/.
(Name of Company or Author's Last Name)
Example: (National Geographic Society)
Note: Because apps typically do not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings, this information is left out of the in-text citation.
Composer Last Name, First Name. Title of Work. Version, Publisher, Publication Date.
Beethoven, Ludwig van. Corolian Ouverture: op. 62 . Heugel, 1951.
(Composer's Last Name Page Number)
"Guided Imagery." Natural Medicines , 2015, Monograph , naturalmedicines.therapeuticresearch.com/ health-wellness/professional.aspx?productid=1238.
(Author, if none then name of monograph)
Example: ("Guided Imagery")
Note: Because online monographs from Natural Medicines typically do not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings, this information is left out of the in-text citation.
Author's Last Name, First Name or Username if real name not provided. "Title of Blog Post." Name of Blog, Blog Network/Publisher if given, Day Month Year of blog post, URL of blog post. Accessed Day Month Year blog was visited.
Brussat, Frederic. “Beyond Ideas of Wrongdoing and Rightdoing.” Civility & Spirituality , 11 Dec. 2014, www.spiritualityandpractice.com/blogs/posts/civilityspirituality/301/beyond-ideas-of-wrongdoing-and-rightdoing. Accessed 12 Jan. 2017.
Host's Last Name, First Name, host. "Title of Podcast Episode." Title of Overall Podcast , season number if given, episode number if given, Web Site Hosting If Different From Podcast Title, Day Month Year of Episode, URL of episode. Accessed Day Month Year podcast was downloaded/played.
Orton, Tyler, and Patrick Blennerhassett, hosts. "Lessons From the Brexit." BIV Podcast , episode 18, Business Vancouver, 28 June 2016, www.biv.com/article/2016/6/biv-podcast-episode-18-lessons-brexit/. Accessed 2 July 2016.
(Host's Last Name Start Time of Revelant Section-End Time of Section)
(Orton and Blennerhassett 00:01:15-00:02:22)
PowerPoint Slides from Moodle
Instructor's Last Name, First Name. "Title of PowerPoint Presentation." Title of Course, Date of PowerPoint presentation, Name of University. Microsoft PowerPoint presentation.
Works Cited List Example
Smith, John. "BIO 110: Week 2: Cells." Biology 110, 15 Jan. 2016, University of Portland. Microsoft PowerPoint presentation.
In-Text Citation Example
Example: (Smith, slide 5)
Note: include the slide number in your in-text citation if you know it. If not, leave it out
PowerPoint Slides from a Website
Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of PowerPoint Presentation." Website publisher, Creation Date, URL. Microsoft PowerPoint presentation.
Kunka, Jennifer Liethen.. "Conquering the Comma." Purdue University Writing Lab, owl.purdue.edu/owl/general_writing/punctuation/conquering_the_comma_presentation.html. Microsoft PowerPoint presentation.
(Author's Last Name)
Example: (Kunka, slide 2)
You can find reviews in multiple source types (newspapers, magazines, journals, etc.); please see elsewhere on this guide for guidance on creating a citation for a specific source. The below citation example is for a play review that appeared on a newspaper website.
This template is for a review in general:
Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Review: Subtitle if Any." Review of Play (Book, Movie, etc.) Title , by Playwright (Author, Director, etc.). Name of Periodical , Date of Publication, p. Page number.
Note: Titles of plays, books, and movies are italicized as shown here; do not italicize titles of articles, poems, and short stories. Instead, put them in quotation marks, e.g., Review of "The Revenant," by Billy Collins.
Note: If the author's name is not listed, begin the citation with the title of the article.
Brantley, Ben. "Dear Audiences of 'Tiny Beautiful Things,' Prepare to Cry." Review of Tiny Beautiful Things , by Nia Vardalos. New York Times , www.nytimes.com/2016/12/07/theater/tiny-beautiful-things-review.html. Accessed 8 Apr. 2020.
Following guidance for a newspaper article from a website : (Review Author's Last Name)
Note : If there is no author listed, the in-text citation would include the first word or words of the title of the article in quotation marks, e.g. ("Dear Audiences").
"Name of Data File." SimplyAnalytics Database. Producer, date of data file.
Works Cited List Examples:
"Census 2010 Current Estimates Data." SimplyAnalytics Database. Geographic Research, Inc., 2013.
"2016 Current Estimates Data." SimplyAnalytics Database. U.S. Census, 2017.
"Map with 2016 consumer expenditure data." SimplyAnalytics Database . SimplyAnalytics, 2017.
- Obtain the data file name from the Metadata
- If you produced a map, SimplyAnalytics is the producer.
Music can be cited multiple ways. Mainly, this depends on the container that you accessed the music from. Generally, citations begin with the artist name. They might also be listed by composers or performers. Otherwise, list composer and performer information after the album title. Put individual song titles in quotation marks. Album names are italicized. Provide the name of the recording manufacturer followed by the publication date.
If information such as record label or name of album is unavailable from your source, do not list that information.
Rae Morris. “Skin.” Cold , Atlantic Records, 2014. Spotify, open.spotify.com/track/0OPES3Tw5r86O6fudK8gxi.
Online Album Example:
Beyoncé. “Pray You Catch Me.” Lemonade , Parkwood Entertainment, 2016, www.beyonce.com/album/lemonade-visual-album/.
Nirvana. "Smells Like Teen Spirit." Nevermind , Geffen, 1991.
Sound recording / Booklet from Naxos Music Library
Orff, Carl. “Fortuna Imperatrix Mundi: O Fortuna.” Carmina Burana. Performed by the London Philharmonic Orchestra, conducted by Hans Graf, LPO, 2012, Naxos Music Library , portland.naxosmusiclibrary.com/catalogue/item.asp?cid=5099960230652.
(Creator's Last Name)
If there is no creator, use a shortened form of the title (just one or two significant words): (“Title")
Cite the author of the booklet / liner notes (the author's name often appears at the end of the text).
Works Cited List Example:
Prince, David. Booklet. Sophisticated Lady , by Ella Fitzgerald and Joe Pass. Pablo Records, 2001, Naxos Jazz Music Library , cdn.naxosmusiclibrary.com/sharedfiles/booklets/FAC/booklet-PACD-5310-2.pdf.
Example: (Prince 2)
Source of data. Title of document: Subtitle if given . Date of publication, Statista , URL.
Note: since Statista is the name of the publisher and the name of the database, cite Statista only as the database name at the end of the citation.
National Park Service. Most visited national parks in the United States in 2018. 13 May 2019, Statista , www.statista.com/statistics/378920/most-visited-national-parks-us.
(Source of data)
Example: (National Park Service)
Twitter Handle (First Name Last Name if Known). "The Entire Tweet Word-for-Word." Twitter, Day Month Year of Tweet, Time of Tweet, URL.
@ReallyVirtual (Sohaib Athar). "Helicopter Hovering Above Abbottad at 1AM is a Rare Event." Twitter, 4 Jan. 2013, 3:58 p.m., twitter.com/reallyvirtual/status/64780730286358528?lang=en.
Note: Write out the actual Tweet in the citation and keep spelling and grammar the same as in the original, even if there are errors. When quoting the Tweet, beside grammatical and spelling errors in the original Tweet, write [sic] in square brackets to indicate the errors are not your own. E.g., if the Tweet was "It isn't you're fault the media is violent", write: "It isn't you're [sic] fault the media is violent."
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