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- How to Write a Summary | Guide & Examples
How to Write a Summary | Guide & Examples
Published on November 23, 2020 by Shona McCombes . Revised on May 31, 2023.
Summarizing , or writing a summary, means giving a concise overview of a text’s main points in your own words. A summary is always much shorter than the original text.
There are five key steps that can help you to write a summary:
- Read the text
- Break it down into sections
- Identify the key points in each section
- Write the summary
- Check the summary against the article
Writing a summary does not involve critiquing or evaluating the source . You should simply provide an accurate account of the most important information and ideas (without copying any text from the original).
Table of contents
When to write a summary, step 1: read the text, step 2: break the text down into sections, step 3: identify the key points in each section, step 4: write the summary, step 5: check the summary against the article, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about summarizing.
There are many situations in which you might have to summarize an article or other source:
- As a stand-alone assignment to show you’ve understood the material
- To keep notes that will help you remember what you’ve read
- To give an overview of other researchers’ work in a literature review
When you’re writing an academic text like an essay , research paper , or dissertation , you’ll integrate sources in a variety of ways. You might use a brief quote to support your point, or paraphrase a few sentences or paragraphs.
But it’s often appropriate to summarize a whole article or chapter if it is especially relevant to your own research, or to provide an overview of a source before you analyze or critique it.
In any case, the goal of summarizing is to give your reader a clear understanding of the original source. Follow the five steps outlined below to write a good summary.
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You should read the article more than once to make sure you’ve thoroughly understood it. It’s often effective to read in three stages:
- Scan the article quickly to get a sense of its topic and overall shape.
- Read the article carefully, highlighting important points and taking notes as you read.
- Skim the article again to confirm you’ve understood the key points, and reread any particularly important or difficult passages.
There are some tricks you can use to identify the key points as you read:
- Start by reading the abstract . This already contains the author’s own summary of their work, and it tells you what to expect from the article.
- Pay attention to headings and subheadings . These should give you a good sense of what each part is about.
- Read the introduction and the conclusion together and compare them: What did the author set out to do, and what was the outcome?
To make the text more manageable and understand its sub-points, break it down into smaller sections.
If the text is a scientific paper that follows a standard empirical structure, it is probably already organized into clearly marked sections, usually including an introduction , methods , results , and discussion .
Other types of articles may not be explicitly divided into sections. But most articles and essays will be structured around a series of sub-points or themes.
Now it’s time go through each section and pick out its most important points. What does your reader need to know to understand the overall argument or conclusion of the article?
Keep in mind that a summary does not involve paraphrasing every single paragraph of the article. Your goal is to extract the essential points, leaving out anything that can be considered background information or supplementary detail.
In a scientific article, there are some easy questions you can ask to identify the key points in each part.
If the article takes a different form, you might have to think more carefully about what points are most important for the reader to understand its argument.
In that case, pay particular attention to the thesis statement —the central claim that the author wants us to accept, which usually appears in the introduction—and the topic sentences that signal the main idea of each paragraph.
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Now that you know the key points that the article aims to communicate, you need to put them in your own words.
To avoid plagiarism and show you’ve understood the article, it’s essential to properly paraphrase the author’s ideas. Do not copy and paste parts of the article, not even just a sentence or two.
The best way to do this is to put the article aside and write out your own understanding of the author’s key points.
Examples of article summaries
Let’s take a look at an example. Below, we summarize this article , which scientifically investigates the old saying “an apple a day keeps the doctor away.”
Davis et al. (2015) set out to empirically test the popular saying “an apple a day keeps the doctor away.” Apples are often used to represent a healthy lifestyle, and research has shown their nutritional properties could be beneficial for various aspects of health. The authors’ unique approach is to take the saying literally and ask: do people who eat apples use healthcare services less frequently? If there is indeed such a relationship, they suggest, promoting apple consumption could help reduce healthcare costs.
The study used publicly available cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants were categorized as either apple eaters or non-apple eaters based on their self-reported apple consumption in an average 24-hour period. They were also categorized as either avoiding or not avoiding the use of healthcare services in the past year. The data was statistically analyzed to test whether there was an association between apple consumption and several dependent variables: physician visits, hospital stays, use of mental health services, and use of prescription medication.
Although apple eaters were slightly more likely to have avoided physician visits, this relationship was not statistically significant after adjusting for various relevant factors. No association was found between apple consumption and hospital stays or mental health service use. However, apple eaters were found to be slightly more likely to have avoided using prescription medication. Based on these results, the authors conclude that an apple a day does not keep the doctor away, but it may keep the pharmacist away. They suggest that this finding could have implications for reducing healthcare costs, considering the high annual costs of prescription medication and the inexpensiveness of apples.
However, the authors also note several limitations of the study: most importantly, that apple eaters are likely to differ from non-apple eaters in ways that may have confounded the results (for example, apple eaters may be more likely to be health-conscious). To establish any causal relationship between apple consumption and avoidance of medication, they recommend experimental research.
An article summary like the above would be appropriate for a stand-alone summary assignment. However, you’ll often want to give an even more concise summary of an article.
For example, in a literature review or meta analysis you may want to briefly summarize this study as part of a wider discussion of various sources. In this case, we can boil our summary down even further to include only the most relevant information.
Using national survey data, Davis et al. (2015) tested the assertion that “an apple a day keeps the doctor away” and did not find statistically significant evidence to support this hypothesis. While people who consumed apples were slightly less likely to use prescription medications, the study was unable to demonstrate a causal relationship between these variables.
Citing the source you’re summarizing
When including a summary as part of a larger text, it’s essential to properly cite the source you’re summarizing. The exact format depends on your citation style , but it usually includes an in-text citation and a full reference at the end of your paper.
You can easily create your citations and references in APA or MLA using our free citation generators.
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Finally, read through the article once more to ensure that:
- You’ve accurately represented the author’s work
- You haven’t missed any essential information
- The phrasing is not too similar to any sentences in the original.
If you’re summarizing many articles as part of your own work, it may be a good idea to use a plagiarism checker to double-check that your text is completely original and properly cited. Just be sure to use one that’s safe and reliable.
If you want to know more about ChatGPT, AI tools , citation , and plagiarism , make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.
- ChatGPT vs human editor
- ChatGPT citations
- Is ChatGPT trustworthy?
- Using ChatGPT for your studies
- What is ChatGPT?
- Chicago style
- Types of plagiarism
- Avoiding plagiarism
- Academic integrity
- Consequences of plagiarism
- Common knowledge
A summary is a short overview of the main points of an article or other source, written entirely in your own words. Want to make your life super easy? Try our free text summarizer today!
A summary is always much shorter than the original text. The length of a summary can range from just a few sentences to several paragraphs; it depends on the length of the article you’re summarizing, and on the purpose of the summary.
You might have to write a summary of a source:
- As a stand-alone assignment to prove you understand the material
- For your own use, to keep notes on your reading
- To provide an overview of other researchers’ work in a literature review
- In a paper , to summarize or introduce a relevant study
To avoid plagiarism when summarizing an article or other source, follow these two rules:
- Write the summary entirely in your own words by paraphrasing the author’s ideas.
- Cite the source with an in-text citation and a full reference so your reader can easily find the original text.
An abstract concisely explains all the key points of an academic text such as a thesis , dissertation or journal article. It should summarize the whole text, not just introduce it.
An abstract is a type of summary , but summaries are also written elsewhere in academic writing . For example, you might summarize a source in a paper , in a literature review , or as a standalone assignment.
All can be done within seconds with our free text summarizer .
Cite this Scribbr article
If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.
McCombes, S. (2023, May 31). How to Write a Summary | Guide & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved November 23, 2023, from https://www.scribbr.com/working-with-sources/how-to-summarize/
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How to Write Article Summaries, Reviews & Critiques
Writing an article summary.
- Writing an article REVIEW
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When writing a summary, the goal is to compose a concise and objective overview of the original article. The summary should focus only on the article's main ideas and important details that support those ideas.
Guidelines for summarizing an article:
- State the main ideas.
- Identify the most important details that support the main ideas.
- Summarize in your own words.
- Do not copy phrases or sentences unless they are being used as direct quotations.
- Express the underlying meaning of the article, but do not critique or analyze.
- The summary should be about one third the length of the original article.
Your summary should include:
- Give an overview of the article, including the title and the name of the author.
- Provide a thesis statement that states the main idea of the article.
- Use the body paragraphs to explain the supporting ideas of your thesis statement.
- One-paragraph summary - one sentence per supporting detail, providing 1-2 examples for each.
- Multi-paragraph summary - one paragraph per supporting detail, providing 2-3 examples for each.
- Start each paragraph with a topic sentence.
- Use transitional words and phrases to connect ideas.
- Summarize your thesis statement and the underlying meaning of the article.
Adapted from "Guidelines for Using In-Text Citations in a Summary (or Research Paper)" by Christine Bauer-Ramazani, 2020
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How to Write a Summary - Guide & Examples (from Scribbr.com)
Writing a Summary (from The University of Arizona Global Campus Writing Center)
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- Last Updated: Aug 16, 2023 11:47 AM
- URL: https://libguides.randolph.edu/summaries
How to Create a Summary Slide in PowerPoint?
Creating a summary slide in PowerPoint is an essential part of putting together a presentation that grabs and holds your audience's attention. Not only does it help to reinforce the key themes of your presentation, but it also serves as a powerful tool for summarizing complex information and data in an easy-to-understand format for your audience. In this article, we will explore the importance of a summary slide in PowerPoint presentations, how to plan and design an effective summary slide, and some best practices and tips for creating an engaging and informative summary slide.
Table of Contents
The Importance of a Summary Slide in PowerPoint Presentations
One of the key reasons why a summary slide is so important in PowerPoint presentations is its ability to reinforce the main themes and ideas of your presentation. By highlighting the most important points and takeaways, a summary slide can help to ensure that your audience remembers your presentation long after it is over. Additionally, a summary slide provides a clear and concise way to summarize complex data or information, helping to make your presentation more accessible and engaging for your audience.
Another benefit of including a summary slide in your PowerPoint presentation is that it can serve as a roadmap for your audience. By providing a clear overview of the topics covered in your presentation, a summary slide can help your audience to follow along and stay engaged throughout the entire presentation. This can be especially helpful for longer presentations or those that cover a lot of complex information.
Finally, a summary slide can also be a useful tool for reinforcing your call to action or key message. By summarizing the main points of your presentation and highlighting the key takeaways, you can help to ensure that your audience understands the importance of your message and is motivated to take action. This can be particularly important in business or marketing presentations, where the ultimate goal is to persuade your audience to take a specific action or make a purchase.
Understanding the Purpose of a Summary Slide in Your Presentation
Before you start creating your summary slide, it's essential to understanding its purpose in your overall presentation. The summary slide is typically the last slide of your presentation, and it should summarize the most important points covered in your presentation along with a memorable final thought. For example, if you're delivering a sales pitch, your summary slide should highlight the key benefits of your product or service and provide a clear call to action for your audience.
Another important aspect of a summary slide is that it helps your audience to remember the key takeaways from your presentation. By providing a concise summary of the main points, your audience is more likely to retain the information and be able to recall it later. Additionally, a well-crafted summary slide can also serve as a visual aid to reinforce your message and leave a lasting impression on your audience.
Planning Your Summary Slide: What to Include and What to Leave Out
When planning your summary slide, it's important to strike the right balance between including enough information to summarize your presentation effectively while also avoiding overwhelming your audience with too much detail. Some key elements to consider including in your summary slide include the main themes and ideas covered in your presentation, key data points or statistics, any notable quotes or testimonials, and a final call to action. However, be sure to leave out any extraneous information that isn't directly relevant to your main message or themes.
Another important factor to consider when planning your summary slide is the visual design. Your summary slide should be visually appealing and easy to read, with clear and concise text and graphics. Use a consistent color scheme and font throughout your presentation to create a cohesive and professional look. Additionally, consider using visual aids such as charts, graphs, or images to help illustrate your main points and make your summary slide more engaging for your audience.
Step-by-Step Guide to Creating a Summary Slide in PowerPoint
Creating a summary slide in PowerPoint is a straightforward process that can be accomplished using a few simple steps. First, choose the template or design for your summary slide. Most PowerPoint templates include a suitable summary slide layout, so you don't need to start from scratch. Next, consider the key message and themes of your presentation and decide what information to include in your summary slide. Be sure to keep your text concise and focused, and use bullet points or other visual aids to help keep things clear and easy to understand. Finally, add any relevant images, charts, or graphs to your summary slide, and make sure to use fonts and colors that are consistent with your overall presentation design.
It's important to note that the summary slide should be the last slide in your presentation. This slide should provide a quick overview of the key points and takeaways from your presentation. It's also a good idea to include a call to action or next steps on this slide, so your audience knows what to do next. Remember, the summary slide is often the slide that your audience will remember the most, so make sure it's clear, concise, and visually appealing.
Designing an Eye-Catching Summary Slide for Your Presentation
While the content of your summary slide is essential, the design also plays a crucial role in creating an engaging and memorable summary slide. To design an eye-catching summary slide, consider using bold colors and fonts, incorporating relevant images or graphics, and using animations or slide transitions to help emphasize key points. Remember to keep your design consistent with your overall presentation theme and style.
Another important aspect to consider when designing your summary slide is the placement of information. You want to make sure that the most important information is prominently displayed and easy to read. This can be achieved by using larger font sizes or bolding key words. Additionally, consider using bullet points or numbered lists to break up information and make it easier to digest.
Finally, don't forget about the importance of white space. A cluttered summary slide can be overwhelming and difficult to read. Leave enough space between elements to create a clean and organized design. This will not only make your summary slide more visually appealing, but it will also make it easier for your audience to understand and remember the information presented.
Tips and Tricks for Creating an Effective Summary Slide in PowerPoint
When creating your summary slide, there are a few tips and tricks that can help you to ensure its effectiveness. First, consider using a strong headline or tagline that sums up the main message or takeaway from your presentation. Second, use bullets or numbers to break down complex information into manageable chunks, making it easier for your audience to understand. Finally, use visuals like images or charts to help illustrate your key points, making them more memorable and engaging for your audience.
Another important tip to keep in mind when creating a summary slide is to keep it simple and concise. Avoid cluttering the slide with too much information or unnecessary details. Stick to the most important points and use clear and concise language to convey your message effectively.
Additionally, it can be helpful to include a call to action on your summary slide. This could be a request for feedback, a call to visit your website or social media pages, or an invitation to continue the conversation after the presentation. Including a call to action can help to keep your audience engaged and interested in your message beyond the presentation itself.
How to Customize Your Summary Slide with Animations and Transitions
PowerPoint offers a wide range of options for customizing your summary slide with animations and transitions. Animations can be used to bring attention to key points or data, while transitions can help to create a seamless flow between slides. When using animations and transitions, be sure to use them sparingly and consistently throughout your entire presentation.
Best Practices for Using Images and Graphics on Your Summary Slide
Images and graphics can be powerful tools for enhancing the impact of your summary slide. When using images and graphics, be sure to choose visuals that are relevant to your presentation and that help to reinforce your main message or themes. Additionally, use high-quality images and graphics that are visually appealing and easy to understand for your audience.
Adding Charts and Graphs to Your Summary Slide: A Comprehensive Guide
If your presentation includes complex data or information, charts and graphs can be an effective way to present it in a clear and easy-to-understand format. When adding charts and graphs to your summary slide, consider using simple designs and labels that are easy to read and interpret. Additionally, be sure to only include the most important data points or information on your summary slide, leaving out any unnecessary information that could confuse your audience.
Creating a Memorable Conclusion with Your Summary Slide
The last slide of your presentation should leave a lasting impression on your audience. To create a memorable conclusion with your summary slide, consider including a final call to action or memorable quote that reinforces your presentation's main message. Additionally, use images, graphics, or animations to help emphasize your main points and leave a lasting impression on your audience.
How to Use a Summary Slide to Engage Your Audience
A summary slide can also be an effective tool for engaging your audience throughout your presentation. By previewing your summary slide at the beginning of your presentation, your audience will have a clear understanding of what to expect and will be more engaged and attentive throughout the rest of your presentation. Additionally, use your summary slide to encourage audience participation by asking questions or soliciting feedback on your key messages.
Examples of Amazing Summary Slides: Inspiration for Your Next Presentation
Looking for some inspiration for your next summary slide? There are plenty of examples of amazing summary slides that you can draw inspiration from. Some great examples include TED Talks and other presentations from thought leaders in your industry. Take note of how they use visuals, text, and other design elements to create engaging and memorable summary slides.
Common Mistakes to Avoid When Creating a Summary Slide in PowerPoint
When creating your summary slide, there are a few common mistakes to avoid. These include including too much information or detail, using fonts or colors that are difficult to read, and failing to use visuals or other design elements effectively. Additionally, be sure to proofread your summary slide carefully to avoid any spelling or grammatical errors that could detract from your message.
Wrap Up: Final Thoughts on Creating a Perfect Summary Slide in PowerPoint
Creating an effective summary slide is a crucial part of any PowerPoint presentation. By following the tips and best practices outlined in this article, you can create a summary slide that not only reinforces the key themes and ideas of your presentation but also engages and informs your audience in a memorable and effective way.
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How To Write A Summary Of An Article: Guidlines, Structure, Examples
29 Dec 2021
What is an article summary, steps in writing a summary of an article, here are the key steps to writing a top-notch summary with ease:, structure of an article summary, sample structure for a summary of an argumentative article:, sample structure for a summary of an empirical article:, article summary examples.
Almost every student feels confused when he faces this task for the first time which is why it is important to clarify the definition of an article summary before we go on to the main steps in article review writing .
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An article summary is a brief paper that focuses on a specific scientific article. While it usually has the same structure and goal there may be certain differences in its content depending on the type of work you are summarizing. For example, if you are working on an argumentative piece, your paper has to detect, clarify, and analyze the given thesis and all arguments provided in its support. However, the requirements are different for an empirical article. In the case of an empirical article, you will have to do the same steps, but your main focus will be not the thesis and arguments but rather the research methods, main questions, and findings.
Why is it a responsible task? Although this paper is so short that it rarely significantly influences your academic performance, it is still an important part of your education as it is a clear indicator of a student’s reading and writing skills. This kind of task is given to students in order to help them improve critical thinking skills , as well as learn how to read and analyze a text, how to read while focusing on the main points, and how to clearly organize your ideas in a short paper.
Why do you need to write it, and what is its purpose? Writing a summary of an article as a part of an educational program at a college or university may have three key goals:
- To present a large volume of information in a clear and concise manner;
- To provide arguments against the article author’s opinion;
- To use the scientific article as a resource that supports your ideas and arguments in another work;
This task can be assigned to students or research assistants. However, its purpose is usually the same. This paper’s main goal is to provide a comprehensive yet brief descriptive comment on a particular article, telling your readers about the author’s main focus in his work and the key points of it.
If you want to summarize an article effectively, it is important to do your college essays in a relevant way and include new information to make the summary more comprehensive. First, read the article carefully, noting the text's main points and any new facts that you may find useful for your paper. Summarize the main points in your own words, elucidating any new concepts or information that may not have been included in the original article. To create a meaningful summary, be sure to include all of the essential information from the article while also adding your own insights and opinions.
Create a summary of your text
When you understand the meaning and goals of this task, it is just time to learn the most efficient ways to cope with it. How to write a summary of an article? It is easier than you think before you get to it!
- Read the article closes with an eye on its main focus;
- Make notes as you read to save yourself some time;
- Identify the key ideas or questions of the text;
- Keep an eye on the text’s key arguments or methods (depending on the type of article you are reading);
- Make a list of questions that you have to answer in your paper;
- Make an outline;
- Write your summary;
- Review and edit your paper before submitting it.
What if you can’t handle it? Do not worry if you still have no idea how to summarize an article! Often, if you do not get how to handle this task, it is just enough to find a clear and quality article summary example to see how it should look. However, even if this does not help much, there is one more solution that can save you frustration – you can take advantage of using an blog article writing service from our website and get the paper you need fast and with no effort! This way, you will surely receive a high grade and save lots of time.
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In order to write a good summary, you have to follow a clear and appropriate structure. As a rule, such work is given in paragraph form. Therefore, they usually do not require including subheadings. Also, it is important to keep each section of your work brief, straight to the point, and clear – there is no need for making smooth transitions between your paper’s sections, just keep in mind that it is a concise and focused scientific paper. Below you can find an example of a good structure.
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- Providing general info about the article, including its topic, the main question, or describing the author’s individual approach to the topic;
- Statement of the author’s thesis:
- Provide and clarify the key ideas that the author presents in support of his thesis;
- Share a few examples that the author has used;
- Discuss how the given ideas and examples support the thesis;
- Discuss how the author explains the relevance and significance of his work;
- Tell the readers about the topic of a study;
- State the main research question;
- Clarify the given hypotheses and variables;
- Describe the design of any experiments;
- Indicate what materials were used;
- Tell about participants;
- Describe the obtained results and discuss whether they support the hypotheses or not;
- Tell about the applications or implications of a particular study;
- Highlight the main limitations of this study;
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How to Summarize a PPT?
It’s hard to summarise a PowerPoint presentation. So many slides, so much information! You have summarise small points of an idea, it will not gonna easy, right?
The good news is that there are some handy tips to help you create a summary of your work. It’s not as difficult as it seems.
In this article, we will share our top tips on how to summarise a PowerPoint presentation (PPT). However, first, you need to know the following to get a clear idea of what you are tackling.
What is a summary?
A summary is a condensed version of something—usually a book, movie, article, or speech. It offers an overview of the main points and key takeaways in a concise form. Summaries are often used for purposes like increased understanding or getting up to date with what’s happening in the world. They can also be helpful when you have little time to read, but still want to know what an article or book is about before reading it from start to finish.
Benefits of summary
- Helps you “get the big picture” of a topic
- Helps you decide if something is worth reading or watching
- Allows you to get up to speed on what’s happening in the world without spending too much time reading or watching something
What is a Presentation summary?
A presentation summary is a written summary of the content and idea of the PowerPoint presentation. It helps you focus on the main points and provides you with a quick way to review the main points before you listen to the full presentation.
You can follow the below steps to write a perfect summary of a PPT.
Tips on How to Summarize a PPT
1. Start with the general overview:
Look for significant points or trends mentioned in each slide. Highlight what those points mean or demonstrate each point on the screen by using an example from the text on the slide. Look for transitions and links between slides that may be helpful in understanding your next point of discussion; underline them, highlight them, or use bold text for emphasis.
2. Points and sub-points are important:
Make a list of main points, sub-points, and examples relating to these two things . Then write a concise statement explaining each point on a separate card. These cards can then be arranged in order to come up with a summary paragraph for each slide.
3. Compare against the original text:
Make sure you check your cards against the original PowerPoint presentation before you prepare the final draft. If it doesn’t fit then change it! However, make sure to keep the general theme of the presentation correct.
To make sure you’re doing this correctly, compare each sentence on your cards with the sentences on each slide and make any necessary adjustments (such as deleting extra words).
4. Read the whole thing first:
It’s easiest to write a summary when you know all the details and main points of the original text. If it helps, underline or highlight important parts as you read through. Taking notes while you are reading is another useful way of making sure you don’t forget what you have read.
5. Make a list of key points:
Once you have read the text, try to write down all the main points and key sentences. Don’t worry about order or making everything perfect; just get them down as quickly as possible.
6. Use numbered steps:
If you have a large amount of information to summarize, it can be difficult to remember the way things are organised. Instead, breaking the main points down into several “steps” will help make them easier to follow. First, in a separate sheet break the points. After this, write the summary.
To summarise from a PowerPoint presentation, use the above 6 tips and you’ll soon be able to do it easily! Just remember, you have to cover all the main points that are mentioned in the PPT without dragging them.
How to summarise a news article.
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Paragraph summarisation is a common skill in many fields of study. A paragraph summariser can greatly improve the effectiveness of a summary by reducing potential ambiguity and exposing the key points. As a result, this person may be able to recapitulate the thesis statement within one or two sentences and/or distill it into one or…
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Summarizing a text means telling the core concept and main points in 50-100 words. It should show the crux of the discussion in the main writing piece without losing the main point. It shouldn’t overemphasize any idea, though. Summarizing helps the reader to understand the purpose of any write-up. It should be devoid of any…
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How To Write a Summary of an Article - Guide & Examples
Learn how to summarize an article, where to start, what to include, and how to keep it short and interesting through this practical guideline.
Jan 24, 2023
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Have you ever considered why article summaries yield so much attention online?
And why it matters so much to writers?
It would be demoralizing to pour a great deal of effort and enthusiasm into an article only to have it end in a banal, trite manner.
It's like a well-made film with a vague ending.
A poor summary of an article isn't just detrimental to the piece overall, it can also leave you feeling like your precious time has been squandered.
This post will go over some guidelines on how to summarize an article, such as where to start, what to include, and how to keep it short and interesting.
Moreover, we will offer some tried-and-true solutions that can help you speed up the summarizing process.
But before we get into that, let's figure out why we have to summarize articles in the first place.
Why Do We Need to Summarize Articles?
When you need to convey the gist of a lengthy article to someone who still needs to read it, a summary is your best bet.
It allows readers to get the brief of an article quickly without having to read it cover to cover. Your readers can easily remember and retain the main points of an article if they are correctly summarized.
What's more, article summaries are a time-saving technique that can be used when:
✅ Writing the last part of an article .
✅ Writing a review of a book .
✅ When getting ready for a presentation in class .
✅ When conducting research for a project .
✅ When getting ready for an interview .
✅ When preparing for a test .
✅ When writing a blog post .
✅ When making a report for a customer .
✅ When writing news summaries for a website .
✅ If you are writing a speech .
Now that you know where to use it, let’s learn how to write a summary of an article in 5 simple steps. .
You’ll be surprised when you discover that you were probably unconsciously using all these techniques already.
How To Write a Summary of an Article In 5 Steps
1. read the article.
The first step in writing a summary of an article is, of course, to read the article carefully.
Even though this step might seem obvious, you might be surprised by how many people think a quick overview is all they need to understand a concept fully.
That may be true, but if you want people to take your summary seriously, take the time to read the article carefully and pay attention to the main points, its details, and the structure of the tex t.
That way, you can ensure you're covering the essentials of the article, which serve as your summary's backbone.
2. Identify The Main Ideas of The Article
Let’s not beat around the bush: a quick glance at the article's outlines will reveal its central arguments .
Outlines of articles emphasize everything of utmost importance for the subject at hand.
However, if the article doesn’t have outlines, you can extract the main ideas by looking for the topic sentence in each paragraph.
3. Write Your Understanding of The Topic
The third step in writing a summary of an article is to write its main points in your own words .
The question you should ask yourself when you write an article's summary is this:
🎯 What are the most important points that your readers should remember?
At this point, you are free to use more than just a simple statement.
Think about the big picture and focus on conveying the general impression of the argument.
Your summary argument can be more convincing by including specifics directly connected to the main idea.
4. Define Your Thesis Statement
Now that you've laid out your arguments, what do you think of your findings as a whole?
The summary boils down to your assessment.
🎯 What is the bottom line message you are trying to convey?
Unfortunately, there is no silver bullet for putting your ideas into words, therefore we are limited in the advice we can provide you.
Just be yourself when you write it — your audience will enjoy the authenticity and originality that comes from your voice .
If a reader doesn't care about what he just read, that's the worst possible reaction, right?
Thus, whether they agree or disagree, you've accomplished your goal as a writer if your audience is engaged with your content.
5. Rewrite The Summary
Once you've completed the four steps outlined above, you have your first draft of the summary, which needs additional tweaking to make it coherent and effective.
To successfully summarize an article, you will need to rewrite it (either the entire output or just fragments of it) to strengthen your context .
You can get the most out of your sentences by using a rewriting technique that primarily focuses on shifting the working order and experimenting with synonyms.
The following are the essential components of powerful sentences:
🎯 They are clear and easy to read .
🎯 They maintain a consistent and logical line of thought .
🎯 They are engaging .
Moreover, there are two additional factors that necessitate rewriting the original article summary draft:
📍To make sure we are not repeating ourselves .
📍To avoid plagiarism .
Ok, you’re all set. Now we should test what you’ve learned from the example.
A Summary of An Article From The Example
Reading instructions is one thing, but doing what you read is entirely different.
I'll demonstrate 4 writing strategies that can help you quickly and effectively summarize any piece of writing by applying them to the same section of the article.
Here is the piece I’ll be using in the following text:
Additionally, you'll learn how to use AI-enabled tools to produce summary output even more quickly.
1. Summarizing Technique
The art of summarizing allows you to condense a lengthy piece of writing down to its essentials.
Simplifying a text means getting rid of all the fluff and focusing on the core concepts while ignoring the supporting details.
To be effective at summarizing, it's crucial that the summary maintain the same tone and point of view as the original text.
Summarizing Output Example
Tools, such as the TextCortex add-on , can help you quickly and effortlessly summarize large portions of text.
Just highlight your text , and from the rewriting menu that appears at the bottom, hit the “ Summarize ” button.
You can use TextCortex within 30+ online platforms such as Facebook, LinkedIn, Google Docs, Hemingway, Notion etc.
This means you don’t have to switch between the tabs to tweak your text — leverage AI writing assistance within your chosen platform's textbox.
2. Rewriting Technique
The rewriting method allows you to alter a sentence's form without changing its meaning.
You can rewrite sentences to make them more understandable, shorter, or engaging.
Rewriting techniques can also make your sentence sound more interesting or sophisticated by switching out a few words for synonyms..
Rewriting Output Example
The TextCortex add-on, also offers the “ Rewriting ” feature in its arsenal.
Again, highlight the sentences or paragraphs in bulk, and choose the option from the rewriting menu.
From this point, you can either copy and paste the output, or click on it to apply changes.
If you are not satisfied with the quality of your output, just click on “ Load more ” to get additional suggestions.
3. Changing the Tone of Voice Technique
One way to change the narrative and style of your writing is by adjusting the tone of voice .
This writing technique requires a writer to experiment with various sentence structures.
In other words, changing the writer's tone of voice allows you to set the mood and evoke a certain reaction from the audience.
Encouraging Tone of Voice Output Example
You guessed it right.
The TextCortex add-on also provides you with the “ Tone ” feature that enables you to switch between different narrative styles such as “encouraging”, “casual”, “decisive”, and so on.
You can access this feature either from the rewriting menu or by hitting the purple bubble that prompts the creator suite with 60+ AI templates to choose from.
The final version of your summary must endure at least one additional writing technique: proofreading .
You can use it to find and fix typos and other mistakes in grammar, punctuation, spelling, style, and capitalization.
A proofreading technique ensures a clear, concise, and accurate summary as a result.
The " Text-to-speech " feature is a great way to check your work for errors when using the TextCortex add-on.
There aren't enough ways to describe how tedious it is to spot your own mistakes in writing. With this feature, you can have AI read your content aloud, allowing you to gauge its overall impact and spot errors with greater precision.
The " Text-to-speech " function can be activated by selecting the text you wish be read aloud and then selecting the appropriate option from the rewriting menu.
After a short wait, the " play " button will become available, and you can press it to hear the final version of your content.
What Is The Easiest Way To Summarize An Article?
Congratulations! You have successfully completed a brief course on how to write a summary of an article.
As for the question on what is the easiest way to summarize an article, my answer is clear — utilize AI writing tools to do that for you.
There comes a point in every creative person's life when inspiration dries up, and a deadline looms without mercy.
A smart move to get the ball rolling again and avoid the torture of writer's block is to invest in software that can cut down on your writing time while providing a significant breakthrough in your writing.
With the TextCortex add-on , you can accomplish all that and even more:
👍Rewrite original sentences without changing the meaning.
👍Expand the sentences to add more details in your paragraphs.
👍Summarize the original text for a brief output.
👍 Change the tone of voice to play with different narratives.
👍 Autocomplete your sentences from random thoughts.
👍 Generate long-form posts from a 5-word concept.
👍 Transform bullets into emails .
The TextCortex tool is easily accessible, enabling you to use its features on more than 30 widely used platforms.
Furthermore, its 60+ AI templates will help you write various content forms like a pro.
Interested in boosting your writing skills for free?
Get your TextCortex free account today to claim your 10 free daily creations and explore a different side of AI-writing power.
What are The 3 Elements of The Summary?
1. Introduction — A quick overview of the article's main points.
2. Body — A detailed description of the main ideas (including evidence and arguments).
3. Conclusion — An overall evaluation of the provided solutions.
How Many Paragraphs Are In The Summary?
How many paragraphs an article summary has will depend on how long the article is and what the purpose of the summary is.
In general, a summary will have between 1 and 4 paragraphs .
However, if the article is very long, it may need more than 4 paragraphs.
6 Effective Tricks To Rewrite Content And Improve Its Quality
Paraphrasing Vs. Summarizing: The Difference And Best Examples
6 Techniques To Change Tone In Writing Easily
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10 Easy Steps: How to Write an Article PPT in 2024
Step 1: Understanding the Importance of Article PPTs
Article PPTs, or PowerPoint presentations, are an effective way to present information in a visually appealing and engaging manner. They can be used for various purposes, such as educational presentations, business proposals , or even personal projects. Creating an article PPT allows you to convey your message in a concise and organized format, making it easier for your audience to understand and retain the information.
Why are Article PPTs important?
Article PPTs are important because they help you communicate your ideas effectively. They allow you to present information in a visually appealing way, making it easier for your audience to understand and remember the key points. Article PPTs also help you structure your content in a logical manner, ensuring that your message is clear and concise
Step 2: Planning Your Article PPT
Before you start creating your article PPT, it's important to plan and organize your content. This will help you stay focused and ensure that your presentation flows smoothly. Here are some steps to help you plan your article PPT:
1. Define your objective
Start by defining the objective of your article PPT. What do you want to achieve with this presentation? Are you trying to educate your audience, persuade them to take action, or simply inform them about a specific topic ? Clearly defining your objective will help you structure your content accordingly.
2. Identify your target audience
Next, identify your target audience. Who are you creating this article PPT for? What are their interests, needs, and preferences? Understanding your audience will help you tailor your content to their specific requirements, making it more engaging and relevant.
3. Research your topic
Once you have defined your objective and identified your target audience, it's time to research your topic. Gather relevant information, statistics, and examples that support your main points. This will help you create a well-informed and credible article PPT.
4. Outline your content
Based on your research, outline the main points and subtopics that you want to cover in your article PPT. This will help you organize your content and ensure that you include all the necessary information. Consider using bullet points or numbered lists to make your presentation more structured and easy to follow.
Example where I'm using AtOnce's AI bullet point generator to explain complex topics in a few bullet points:
Step 3: Choosing the Right Template
Choosing the right template for your article PPT is crucial as it sets the overall look and feel of your presentation. Here are some factors to consider when selecting a template:
1. Design and layout
Look for a template that has a clean and professional design. Avoid templates that are too cluttered or distracting, as they can take away from the content of your presentation. The layout should be easy to navigate and should highlight your key points effectively.
2. Color scheme
Choose a color scheme that complements your content and enhances readability. Avoid using too many colors or contrasting colors that make it difficult to read the text. Stick to a few colors that create a cohesive and visually appealing look.
Select fonts that are easy to read and visually pleasing. Avoid using fancy or decorative fonts that may be difficult to decipher. Stick to a consistent font style throughout your presentation to maintain a professional look.
Step 4: Creating Engaging Slides
Now that you have planned your content and chosen the right template, it's time to create engaging slides for your article PPT. Here are some tips to make your slides more captivating:
1. Use visuals
Incorporate relevant visuals, such as images, charts, or graphs, to support your main points. Visuals not only make your presentation more visually appealing but also help your audience understand complex information more easily.
2. Keep it concise
Avoid overcrowding your slides with too much text. Keep your content concise and to the point. Use bullet points or short sentences to convey your message effectively. Remember, your slides should complement your presentation, not replace it.
3. Use animations and transitions
Add animations and transitions to your slides to make them more dynamic and engaging. However, use them sparingly and purposefully. Too many animations can be distracting and take away from the content of your presentation.
Step 5: Writing Clear and Concise Content
Clear and concise content is essential for an effective article PPT . Here are some tips to help you write content that is easy to understand and remember:
1. Use simple language
Avoid using jargon or technical terms that may confuse your audience. Use simple and straightforward language that is easy to understand. If you need to use technical terms, make sure to explain them in a clear and concise manner.
Example where I'm using AtOnce's AI language generator to write fluently & grammatically correct in any language:
2. Break down complex information
If you need to present complex information, break it down into smaller, more manageable chunks. Use bullet points or numbered lists to highlight the main points. This will make it easier for your audience to follow along and grasp the key concepts.
3. Use visuals to support your content
As mentioned earlier, visuals can help support your content and make it more engaging. Use relevant images, charts, or graphs to illustrate your main points. This will not only enhance the visual appeal of your presentation but also help your audience understand the information better.
Step 6: Adding Transitions and Animations
Transitions and animations can add a dynamic element to your article PPT. Here are some tips for using transitions and animations effectively:
1. Use transitions to create a smooth flow
Transitions help create a smooth flow between slides and sections of your presentation. Use transitions that are subtle and not too distracting. This will help your audience stay focused on the content without being overwhelmed by flashy effects.
2. Use animations to highlight key points
Animations can be used to draw attention to specific elements on your slides. For example, you can use animations to reveal bullet points one by one or to emphasize important data. However, use animations sparingly and purposefully to avoid distracting your audience.
3. Test your transitions and animations
Before finalizing your article PPT, test your transitions and animations to ensure they work smoothly. Make sure they enhance the overall presentation and do not hinder the understanding of your content. Adjust the timing and effects as needed to create a seamless and engaging experience for your audience.
Step 7: Rehearsing and Practicing Your Presentation
Rehearsing and practicing your presentation is crucial to ensure a smooth and confident delivery. Here are some tips to help you prepare:
1. Familiarize yourself with the content
Make sure you are familiar with the content of your article PPT. Understand the main points and be prepared to explain them in detail. This will help you feel more confident and knowledgeable during your presentation.
2. Practice your delivery
Practice delivering your presentation multiple times. Pay attention to your tone of voice, body language, and pacing. Practice in front of a mirror or record yourself to identify areas for improvement.
3. Seek feedback
Ask a trusted colleague or friend to provide feedback on your presentation. They can offer valuable insights and suggestions for improvement. Take their feedback constructively and make necessary adjustments to enhance your presentation.
Step 8: Revising and Editing Your Article PPT
Once you have created your article PPT and practiced your presentation, it's time to revise and edit your content. Here are some tips to help you refine your article PPT:
1. Review for clarity and coherence
Review your content to ensure it is clear and coherent. Make sure your main points are well-supported and your ideas flow logically. Remove any unnecessary or redundant information that may confuse your audience.
2. Check for grammar and spelling errors
Proofread your article PPT for grammar and spelling errors. Use spell-check tools or ask a colleague to review your content. Correct any mistakes to maintain a professional and polished presentation.
Example where I'm using AtOnce's AI review response generator to make customers happier:
3. Seek feedback from others
Ask for feedback from colleagues or friends who have not seen your presentation before. They can provide fresh perspectives and identify areas that may need improvement. Consider their feedback and make necessary revisions to enhance your article PPT.
Step 9: Delivering Your Article PPT with Confidence
Now that you have prepared and refined your article PPT, it's time to deliver it with confidence. Here are some tips to help you deliver a successful presentation:
1. Be prepared
Arrive early and set up your presentation equipment in advance. Familiarize yourself with the venue and test your equipment to ensure everything is working properly. Being prepared will help you feel more confident and reduce any last-minute stress.
2. Engage with your audience
Engage with your audience by maintaining eye contact, using gestures, and asking questions. This will help create a connection and keep your audience engaged throughout your presentation. Be open to answering questions and encourage interaction.
Example where I used AtOnce's AI answer generator to answer FAQs:
3. Stay calm and confident
Stay calm and confident during your presentation. Take deep breaths and speak slowly and clearly. Remember that you are the expert on your topic, and your audience is there to learn from you. Trust in your knowledge and expertise.
By following these 10 easy steps, you can create an impressive article PPT in 2024. Remember to plan your content, choose the right template, create engaging slides, write clear and concise content, add transitions and animations, rehearse and practice your presentation, revise and edit your article PPT, and deliver it with confidence. With these steps, you'll be able to create a compelling and impactful article PPT that effectively communicates your message to your audience.
Over 15,763 SEO agencies and brands are using AtOnce to rank higher on Google.
It lets you write hundreds of articles on any topic, giving you more clicks to your site.
Get more traffic and sales — without wasting months of your time.
1. What are the key elements to include in an article PowerPoint presentation?
An article PowerPoint presentation should include a catchy title, an introduction, main points or sections, supporting evidence or examples, a conclusion, and references or citations if applicable.
2. How should I structure my article PowerPoint presentation?
To structure your article PowerPoint presentation, start with a clear introduction that grabs the audience's attention. Then, organize your main points or sections in a logical order, using bullet points or visuals to enhance understanding. Finally, conclude with a summary of the key takeaways and any final thoughts or recommendations.
3. What tips can you provide for writing an effective article PowerPoint presentation?
To write an effective article PowerPoint presentation, keep the content concise and focused, using clear and concise language. Use visuals, such as images or graphs, to enhance understanding and engagement. Practice your presentation to ensure a smooth delivery, and consider incorporating interactive elements, such as polls or Q&A sessions, to engage the audience further.
Asim is the CEO & founder of AtOnce. After 5 years of marketing & customer service experience, he's now using Artificial Intelligence to save people time.
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Summarization by simplification, summarize text/pdf/docx, highlight summary points in pdf.
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How does AI-summarizer work?
Whether you are reading an academic article or a business report or a blog, you may want to go through the text fast without skipping any sentence. Intellippt splits long sentences and abridges them, so that you can go through the content very fast.
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More info on Summarization
Elements of a good summary.
- The first sentence should contain both title and author's name.
- The first sentence should also hold the thesis statement of the text. It also needs to cover the core ideas that the presenter showcases in their works.
- The length of the summary varies based on the size of the primary source document. Every short text needs to be reduced to a single paragraph, and ensure to make your writing short if you find your text quite long.
- Every summary needs to have arguments that are biased on the thesis statement. It needs to be in the text, and the critical thing you need to know here is you should not express your opinion. Instead, you need to make it based on the author's opinion.
- All your highlighting evidence needed to be showcased in single sentences should be represented in a one-paragraph summary.
- In case you have a multi-paragraph summary, you need to ensure every paragraph holds the topic sentence in its starting line.
- The conclusion needs to be in a way that conveys the complete text you have explained and highlights the critical information.
- Ensure your summary is not half longer than the original document to make is a summary. Omit some unwanted examples and details and make it short from the source materials; probably one-third would be the perfect pick.
- You need to note down before writing a summary to highlight the essential phrases, keywords, key points, topic sentences, conclusions, and outline every paragraph in the margin.
Types of Summaries
- Abstract: It belongs to the summary type and is mostly used for scientific papers. It holds rules and fixed structures that are considered to be strict when compared to other summaries. The abstract is essential when it comes to publishing a research paper, and also, you can find different automatic abstract generators come in handy.
- Executive Summary: This type of summary is used in political contexts or business. It's also represented as an official document that highlights every report fundamental so that it's easy for people to get stuck with the long paper.
- Synopsis: A brief summary is represented as a synopsis. It is mostly used in art context or literature. It usually contains the primary point of the provided story and concise plot versions. Most of the publishers use this summary for marketing.
- Outline: It highlights any document's basic framework. It deals with essential ideas but lacks discussion and examples. For instance, a writer plans an overview before composing the complete paper to organize their thoughts.
Summary & conclusion generators today
Why our online pdf article summarizer tool is a must for you, online pdf article summarizer's five practical advantages.
- 1.There is no chance of missing any important information from the provided text. Our summarizer tool scans the complete text and takes just the key points. It means you get the full and clear picture of your provided text in the shorter version.
- 2.The online PDF article summarizer tool works instantly; you need to copy and paste the text in the summary box and then summarize the text.
- 3.Our summarizer tool provides you accurate and precise points as short snippets, and therefore, it increases your total productivity.
- 4. The result of study sessions is often the summaries, written answers, and notes. It means the summarizer tool can quickly boost your study process.
- 5. Summary generators are becoming the best part of every review session and play an essential role when preparing for your exam or tests.
The three essential summary types of conclusion generators.
- 1. Extraction based: The summarizer tool extract snippers from the complete provided text without altering or changing them in any way. The process works the same as extracting key phrases, and the primary purpose of this deals with individual words or phrases which can be used as tags for the document or text. As a whole, an extraction-based summarizer takes the essential information from the preliminary test and collects the pieces to create a detailed summary.
- 2. Abstraction based: The next stage of extraction is based on an advanced summary. This state's main thing is paraphrasing the text parts that you put into the summarizer tool initially. This type of summary efficiently delivers results that work best when compared to the extraction-based summaries. Currently, most of the generating tools are extraction-based.
- 3. Aided summarization: The summary tool of these type of merge findings from the fields of information retrieval, text mining, and machine learning to enhance the automatic summary generation process
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Identify the important ideas and facts
To help you summarize and analyze your argumentative texts , your articles, your scientific texts, your history texts as well as your well-structured analyses work of art, Resoomer provides you with a "Summary text tool" : an educational tool that identifies and summarizes the important ideas and facts of your documents. Summarize in 1-Click, go to the main idea or skim through so that you can then interpret your texts quickly and develop your syntheses .
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Writing the Journal Article Summary - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Writing the Journal Article Summary
Your goal is to present the main ideas from a recent computer-related ... ticketmaster article. e-mail attachment article. strengths: clear, professional tone ... – powerpoint ppt presentation.
- Lee University Writing Center
- Presented by Rachel Reneslacis
- September 1, 2003
- Your goal is to present the main ideas from a recent computer-related article.
- Choose an article that discusses an interesting issuean issue you think would interest your peers
- Do not present your opinion of the article.
- First, read the article carefully.
- If it contains technical terms or words you dont understand, look them up before you start to write.
- Articles are written in short paragraphs.
- Each paragraph will have a main idea that you should identify.
- These main ideas become your summary.
- Do limit your summary to one-half of a typed, double-spaced page.
- Do present the articles ideas in terms your classmates will understand.
- Dont try to include all the detail from the article. Only stress the most important points.
- Dont try to summarize an article you dont understand.
- Do use a few quotes, if they are particularly good.
- Do include a correct APA heading for each article.
- Dont copy long sections of the article. You should summarize the main points in your own words.
- Basic format for articles includes
- Year of publication
- Title of article
- Title of journal or magazine
- Volume and issue numbers
- Page numbers
- Good length
- Interesting Article
- Open-ended, personal conclusion
- Grammar problems
- Clear, professional tone
- Accurate heading
- Appropriate length
- Occasional plagiarism
- Unclear pronoun references in paragraph 2
- Interesting, practical article
- Mostly correct heading
- Personal opinion
- Unclear sentences
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Writing an Article Summary
Oct 17, 2011
200 likes | 928 Views
Writing an Article Summary. Article Summaries are due on Fridays. Where can you find science articles?. Magazines Newspapers Internet The topic must be science, and related to this class. A Science Article Summary. Is thoughtful Summarizes the article’s content
- science articles
- science research
- bibliographical information
- double spaced
- combined purpose
- science article summary
Writing an Article Summary Article Summaries are due on Fridays.
Where can you find science articles? • Magazines • Newspapers • Internet The topic must be science, and related to this class.
A Science Article Summary • Is thoughtful • Summarizes the article’s content • Discusses the article’s effectiveness • Your points are supported by quotes. • 1.5 typed pages, double spaced.
Format • Bibliographical Information • Tell the purpose of the article • Summarize the content • Identify the writer’s strategy • Evaluate the effectiveness of the article (accuracy, clarity, organization) • Use a quote from the article to support your point(s). • What was your reaction to this article?
Bibliographical information • Author (s) • Article title • Magazine/newspaper/web title • Date
Purpose of the Article • Why was this article written? • A report on science research • A news story - informational • An explanation of an idea or concept • A warning • Persuasive or presents an argument • Instructional - How to do something • Entertainment • Combined purpose
Summarize the content • Is there a hypothesis, procedure and conclusions? Identify each one • Does the writer have a point to make? What is it? • It it a news story? What’s up?
Definition Illustrations Examples Classification Comparison and Contrast Analysis Describes of a Process Narration Cause/Effect Analysis Identify the writer’s strategy How did the writer achieving their purpose?
Evaluate effectiveness • How does the writer do on… • Accuracy? • Clarity? • Organization? • Strengths or weaknesses? • Is the article… • Factual? • Logical? • Objective? • Confrontational? • Exaggeration?
What is your reaction? Did you learn something? Did you find it interesting? Do you believe it? Were you surprised? Did you discuss it with friends? Why?
Guidelines • Articles are due on Fridays • Due during the class period • 1.5 pages, double spaced • Correct grammar and spelling • Variety of vocabulary
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SUMMARY WRITING. WHAT IS A SUMMARY. â€œSummarizing is the process of distilling information down to its most salient points to aid in understanding, memorizing, and learning the relevant material.â€ Classroom Instruction that Works, 2 nd Ed. p. 78. Summary Writing. SUMMARIZING IMPROVES:
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An appetizer for the article writing course. Charlotte Leboeuf-Yde , DC , MPH, PhD Professor in Clinical Biomechanics SDU. Why write an article ?. Because you must To make your findings known to others To look good and become famous The Nobel Prize.
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Writing an Objective Summary. Introductory Unit: What Lies Ahead?. Writing an Objective Summary. Writing an objective summary involves recording the main ideas of a text while showing your understanding of the topic. Objective means: No opinions No reactions No personal connections
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Chapter 4. Summary Writing. http://unit.xjtu.edu.cn/yyb/jpkc/data/jxms/86/1pyq/second_xiezuo_p/Chapter%205%20Summary%20Writing/Summary%20Writing.ppt. Objectives. Give an appropriate definition for a summary Know the characteristics of a good summary Learn the techniques in summary writing
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دانشکده مهندسي پزشكي. Article Writing. By: Fereshteh Lagzi Motahareh Moghtadaei Nafiseh Erfanian Saeedi Sara Ranjbar. Introduction. Research Purpose. Pushing back the frontiers of science. Spreading abroad. Introduction. First Journals published in 1665 : Journal des sçavans
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Readout of President Joe Biden’s Meeting with President Xi Jinping of the People’s Republic of China
President Joseph R. Biden, Jr. today held a Summit with President Xi Jinping of the People’s Republic of China (PRC), in Woodside, California. The two leaders held a candid and constructive discussion on a range of bilateral and global issues including areas of potential cooperation and exchanged views on areas of difference.
President Biden emphasized that the United States and China are in competition, noting that the United States would continue to invest in the sources of American strength at home and align with allies and partners around the world. He stressed that the United States would always stand up for its interests, its values, and its allies and partners. He reiterated that the world expects the United States and China to manage competition responsibly to prevent it from veering into conflict, confrontation, or a new Cold War.
The two leaders made progress on a number of key issues. They welcomed the resumption of bilateral cooperation to combat global illicit drug manufacturing and trafficking, including synthetic drugs like fentanyl, and establishment of a working group for ongoing communication and law enforcement coordination on counternarcotics issues. President Biden stressed that this new step will advance the U.S. whole-of-government effort to counter the evolving threat of illicit synthetic drugs and to reduce the diversion of precursor chemicals and pill presses to drug cartels.
The two leaders welcomed the resumption of high-level military-to-military communication, as well as the U.S.-China Defense Policy Coordination Talks and the U.S.-China Military Maritime Consultative Agreement meetings. Both sides are also resuming telephone conversations between theater commanders.
The leaders affirmed the need to address the risks of advanced AI systems and improve AI safety through U.S.-China government talks.
The two leaders exchanged views on key regional and global challenges. President Biden underscored the United States’ support for a free and open Indo-Pacific that is connected, prosperous, secure, and resilient. The President reaffirmed the United States’ ironclad commitment to defending our Indo-Pacific allies. The President emphasized the United States’ enduring commitment to freedom of navigation and overflight, adherence to international law, maintaining peace and stability in the South China Sea and East China Sea, and the complete denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula .
President Biden reaffirmed that the United States, alongside allies and partners, will continue to support Ukraine’s defense against Russian aggression, to ensure Ukraine emerges from this war as a democratic, independent, sovereign, and prosperous nation that can deter and defend itself against future aggression. Regarding the Israel-Hamas conflict, the President reiterated U.S. support for Israel’s right to defend itself against terrorism and emphasized the importance of all countries using their influence to prevent escalation and expansion of the conflict.
President Biden underscored the universality of human rights and the responsibility of all nations to respect their international human rights commitments. He raised concerns regarding PRC human rights abuses, including in Xinjiang, Tibet, and Hong Kong. On Taiwan, President Biden emphasized that our one China policy has not changed and has been consistent across decades and administrations. He reiterated that the United States opposes any unilateral changes to the status quo from either side, that we expect cross-strait differences to be resolved by peaceful means, and that the world has an interest in peace and stability in the Taiwan Strait. He called for restraint in the PRC’s use of military activity in and around the Taiwan Strait. President Biden also raised continued concerns about the PRC’s unfair trade policies, non-market economic practices, and punitive actions against U.S. firms, which harm American workers and families. The President emphasized that the United States will continue to take necessary actions to prevent advanced U.S. technologies from being used to undermine our own national security, without unduly limiting trade and investment.
The President again emphasized that it remains a priority to resolve the cases of American citizens who are wrongfully detained or subject to exit bans in China.
The two leaders reiterated the importance of ties between the people of the United States and the People’s Republic of China, and committed to work towards a significant further increase in scheduled passenger flights early next year, in parallel with actions to restore full implementation of the U.S.-China air transportation agreement, to support exchanges between the two countries. The two leaders also encouraged the expansion of educational, student, youth, cultural, sports, and business exchanges.
The two leaders underscored the importance of working together to accelerate efforts to tackle the climate crisis in this critical decade. They welcomed recent positive discussions between their respective special envoys for climate, including on national actions to reduce emissions in the 2020s, on common approaches toward a successful COP 28, and on operationalizing the Working Group on Enhancing Climate Action in the 2020s to accelerate concrete climate actions. President Biden stated that the United States stands ready to work together with the PRC to address transnational challenges, such as health security and debt and climate finance in developing countries and emerging markets.
Building on the November 2022 meeting in Bali where they discussed the development of principles related to U.S. – China relations, the two leaders acknowledged the efforts of their respective teams to explore best practices for the relationship. They stressed the importance of responsibly managing competitive aspects of the relationship, preventing conflict, maintaining open lines of communication, cooperating on areas of shared interest, upholding the UN Charter, and all countries treating each other with respect and finding a way to live alongside each other peacefully. The leaders welcomed continued discussions in this regard.
The two leaders agreed that their teams will follow-up on their discussions in San Francisco with continued high-level diplomacy and interactions, including visits in both directions and ongoing working-level consultations in key areas, including on commercial, economic, financial, Asia-Pacific, arms control and nonproliferation, maritime, export control enforcement, policy-planning, agriculture, and disability issues.
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