Health and Fitness Essay for Students and Children

500+ words essay on health and fitness.

We have always heard the word ‘health’ and ‘fitness’. We use it ourselves when we say phrases like ‘health is wealth’ and ‘fitness is the key’. What does the word health really mean? It implies the idea of ‘being well’. We call a person healthy and fit when he/she function well physically as well as mentally.

Health And Fitness Essay

Factors Affecting our Health and Fitness

Good health and fitness is not something which one can achieve entirely on our own. It depends on their physical environment and the quality of food intake. We live in villages, towns, and cities.

In such places, even our physical environment affects our health. Therefore, our social responsibility of pollution-free environment directly affects our health. Our day-to-day habits also determine our fitness level. The quality of food, air, water all helps in building our fitness level.

Role of Nutritious Diet on our Health and Fitness

The first thing about where fitness starts is food. We should take nutritious food. Food rich in protein, vitamins, minerals, and carbohydrates is very essential. Protein is necessary for body growth. Carbohydrates provide the required energy in performing various tasks. Vitamin and minerals help in building bones and boosting our immune system.

However, taking food in uneven quantity is not good for the body. Taking essential nutrients in adequate amount is called a balanced diet. Taking a balanced diet keep body and mind strong and healthy. Good food helps in better sleep, proper brain functioning and healthy body weight.

Include vegetables, fruits, and pulses in daily diet. One must have a three-course meal. Having roughage helps in cleaning inner body organs. Healthy food habit prevents various diseases. Reducing the amount of fat in the diet prevents cholesterol and heart diseases.

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Impact of Exercise on our Health

Routine exercise helps improve our muscle power. Exercise helps in good oxygen supply and blood flow throughout the body. Heart and lungs work efficiently. Our bones get strong and joints have the pain free movement.

We should daily spend at least twenty minutes in our exercise. Daily morning walk improves our fitness level. We should avoid strenuous Gym activities. Exercise burns our fat and controls the cholesterol level in the body. Various outdoor games like cricket, football, volleyball, etc keeps our body fit. Regular exercise maintains our body shape.

Meditation, Yoga, and Health

Meditation and yoga are part of our life from ancient time. They not only make us physically fit but mentally strong as well. Meditation improves our concentration level. Our mind gets relaxed and thinking becomes positive.

A healthy mind is key for a healthy body. Yoga makes us stressfree and improves the endurance power of the mind. Yoga controls our blood pressure. With yoga, a strong bond with nature is established. Meditation is considered the best way to fight depression.

A person stays happier when he/she is fit and healthy. A fit and healthy person is less prone to chronic diseases. The healthy mind reacts better in a pressure situation. The self-confidence of a person is increased. Risk of heart failure is reduced drastically. With the increased immunity power body could fight cancerous cells. The intensity of the fracture is decreased with regular exercise.

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Health and Fitness Essay

The term "health" refers to a condition of complete well-being, not just physically but also mentally and socially. Fitness and good health are interrelated. In order to keep our health in check, we must focus on staying fit. Here are a few sample essays on ‘health and fitness’.

100 Words Essay on Health and Fitness

Fitness and health are intertwined, and neither can be attained without consideration for the other. In order to work properly and live productively, one must maintain good health.

Fitness is essential because it improves our ability to work without difficulty and increases our resistance to germs that cause illness. Maintaining our fitness not only improves our ability to work but also contributes to our happiness and contentment. Diet has a significant impact on our health . We need to consume a balanced diet and adequate amounts of water. By maintaining good health, we can better withstand illnesses like the common cold, viral fever, and other similar conditions. Running, dancing, and jogging are all effective forms of exercise.

Health and Fitness Essay

It's crucial to have a supportive environment that fosters our development into fully realised adults. So, we should never neglect our health and make every effort to stay fit.

200 Words Essay on Health and Fitness

The majority of regular people never comprehend the significance of maintaining fitness and good health. They frequently underestimate the value of good health because they are unaware of its benefits. We all understand that good health is wealth, but few people actually live this out. We can perform our daily tasks more easily when we are healthy and fit. A disease-free body is only one aspect of health; mental calmness is another.

A person cannot have an unhealthy body if they have an unhealthy mind. Being in good physical and mental health enables us to succeed in life and fully enjoy it. We feel more physically and mentally strong and confident when our bodies and minds are both in good health. A strong physical condition aids us in difficult times, whereas a weak physical condition makes us more frail and susceptible to illness.

We must be knowledgeable about every aspect of maintaining our physical and mental health. Even though they are very conscious of how to keep their bodies neat, clean, and healthy, some people harbour mental tensions that prevent them from ever becoming physically fit. The healthy state of the body gradually deteriorates and becomes weak due to mental stress. People who take care of their health and fitness regularly exercise and eat wholesome foods at the appropriate times. They are very concerned about their health and refrain from being lazy, consuming unhealthy foods, and living sedentary lifestyles.

500 Words Essay on Health and Fitness

If we want to live happy lives, we must take care of our health and fitness. There are many benefits to keeping fit. We must first comprehend the causes of the need for fitness before focusing on how to be fit. In general, we now eat out more frequently because of how our way of life has changed. Although home-cooked meals are healthier, because of the places we must travel to for work, we cannot always rely on them.

We must take good care of ourselves by engaging in regular exercise to make up for our lack of a healthy diet. However, exercising does not require us to forgo our favourite foods or spend the entirety of the day in the gym. Most people choose the incorrect diet when trying to lose weight and stay in shape. Diets, such as those that involve eating cabbage soup or onions, are harmful and do more harm than good. People frequently skip meals because they believe that eating less will aid in weight loss.

But experts have emphasised the significance of eating properly time and time again. Skipping meals causes a slow metabolism, which causes additional weight gain. Insufficient calorie intake causes our bodies to start storing any extra calories as fat. Food is not converted into energy as a result, and we become lethargic and frail. Our ability to function properly depends on when we eat.

Dietitians advise us to spread out our food consumption into smaller meals. This aids in the efficient digestion and absorption of food. In addition to plenty of water, we should consume enough green, leafy vegetables. Water controls internal bodily functions and promotes smooth operation. To maintain your fitness, start by eating a balanced diet. All of the essential nutrients—carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals, roughage, and water—should be included in our diet.

A balanced diet keeps us healthy and fortifies our immunity, which wards off disease. Our physical and mental well-being must both be maintained. Because of our hectic schedules, many people do not find the time to exercise. We must therefore devise alternative application techniques. Some ways to stay in shape include walking a certain distance, taking the stairs rather than the elevator, and following a regular sleep schedule. For a healthy and successful life, sleep is essential. Every day, an average of eight hours of sleep is required for every person.

Contrary to popular belief, staying fit also means making the most of our potential. Maintaining emotional fitness is just as important as maintaining physical fitness. Indicators of mental health include lower stress levels and appropriate emotional venting. People who are unable to communicate their feelings experience mental instability and suppressed depression. A breakdown or a panic attack, both of which are harmful to our health, may result from these circumstances.

Therefore, maintaining a healthy lifestyle requires fitness. A healthy individual will be less prone to illness and perform tasks more effectively. This is why it's important to give our health top priority.

Incorporating Fitness and Health

I practise the following to incorporate the idea of health and fitness into my life:

I work out for an hour each day.

I try to maintain a healthy diet.

I try to stay away from foods that are high in sugar and fat.

I go for 20 to 30 minutes of daily walking.

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Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats create and direct original routines for themselves, in addition to developing interpretations of existing routines. The work of circus acrobats can be seen in a variety of performance settings, including circus, reality shows, sports events like the Olympics, movies and commercials. Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats must be prepared to face rejections and intermittent periods of work. The creativity of acrobats may extend to other aspects of the performance. For example, acrobats in the circus may work with gym trainers, celebrities or collaborate with other professionals to enhance such performance elements as costume and or maybe at the teaching end of the career.

Video Game Designer

Career as a video game designer is filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. A video game designer is someone who is involved in the process of creating a game from day one. He or she is responsible for fulfilling duties like designing the character of the game, the several levels involved, plot, art and similar other elements. Individuals who opt for a career as a video game designer may also write the codes for the game using different programming languages.

Depending on the video game designer job description and experience they may also have to lead a team and do the early testing of the game in order to suggest changes and find loopholes.

Radio Jockey

Radio Jockey is an exciting, promising career and a great challenge for music lovers. If you are really interested in a career as radio jockey, then it is very important for an RJ to have an automatic, fun, and friendly personality. If you want to get a job done in this field, a strong command of the language and a good voice are always good things. Apart from this, in order to be a good radio jockey, you will also listen to good radio jockeys so that you can understand their style and later make your own by practicing.

A career as radio jockey has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. If you want to know more about a career as radio jockey, and how to become a radio jockey then continue reading the article.


The word “choreography" actually comes from Greek words that mean “dance writing." Individuals who opt for a career as a choreographer create and direct original dances, in addition to developing interpretations of existing dances. A Choreographer dances and utilises his or her creativity in other aspects of dance performance. For example, he or she may work with the music director to select music or collaborate with other famous choreographers to enhance such performance elements as lighting, costume and set design.


Multimedia specialist.

A multimedia specialist is a media professional who creates, audio, videos, graphic image files, computer animations for multimedia applications. He or she is responsible for planning, producing, and maintaining websites and applications. 

Social Media Manager

A career as social media manager involves implementing the company’s or brand’s marketing plan across all social media channels. Social media managers help in building or improving a brand’s or a company’s website traffic, build brand awareness, create and implement marketing and brand strategy. Social media managers are key to important social communication as well.

Copy Writer

In a career as a copywriter, one has to consult with the client and understand the brief well. A career as a copywriter has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. Several new mediums of advertising are opening therefore making it a lucrative career choice. Students can pursue various copywriter courses such as Journalism , Advertising , Marketing Management . Here, we have discussed how to become a freelance copywriter, copywriter career path, how to become a copywriter in India, and copywriting career outlook. 

Careers in journalism are filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. One cannot afford to miss out on the details. As it is the small details that provide insights into a story. Depending on those insights a journalist goes about writing a news article. A journalism career can be stressful at times but if you are someone who is passionate about it then it is the right choice for you. If you want to know more about the media field and journalist career then continue reading this article.

For publishing books, newspapers, magazines and digital material, editorial and commercial strategies are set by publishers. Individuals in publishing career paths make choices about the markets their businesses will reach and the type of content that their audience will be served. Individuals in book publisher careers collaborate with editorial staff, designers, authors, and freelance contributors who develop and manage the creation of content.

In a career as a vlogger, one generally works for himself or herself. However, once an individual has gained viewership there are several brands and companies that approach them for paid collaboration. It is one of those fields where an individual can earn well while following his or her passion. 

Ever since internet costs got reduced the viewership for these types of content has increased on a large scale. Therefore, a career as a vlogger has a lot to offer. If you want to know more about the Vlogger eligibility, roles and responsibilities then continue reading the article. 

Individuals in the editor career path is an unsung hero of the news industry who polishes the language of the news stories provided by stringers, reporters, copywriters and content writers and also news agencies. Individuals who opt for a career as an editor make it more persuasive, concise and clear for readers. In this article, we will discuss the details of the editor's career path such as how to become an editor in India, editor salary in India and editor skills and qualities.

Linguistic meaning is related to language or Linguistics which is the study of languages. A career as a linguistic meaning, a profession that is based on the scientific study of language, and it's a very broad field with many specialities. Famous linguists work in academia, researching and teaching different areas of language, such as phonetics (sounds), syntax (word order) and semantics (meaning). 

Other researchers focus on specialities like computational linguistics, which seeks to better match human and computer language capacities, or applied linguistics, which is concerned with improving language education. Still, others work as language experts for the government, advertising companies, dictionary publishers and various other private enterprises. Some might work from home as freelance linguists. Philologist, phonologist, and dialectician are some of Linguist synonym. Linguists can study French , German , Italian . 

Public Relation Executive

Travel journalist.

The career of a travel journalist is full of passion, excitement and responsibility. Journalism as a career could be challenging at times, but if you're someone who has been genuinely enthusiastic about all this, then it is the best decision for you. Travel journalism jobs are all about insightful, artfully written, informative narratives designed to cover the travel industry. Travel Journalist is someone who explores, gathers and presents information as a news article.

Quality Controller

A quality controller plays a crucial role in an organisation. He or she is responsible for performing quality checks on manufactured products. He or she identifies the defects in a product and rejects the product. 

A quality controller records detailed information about products with defects and sends it to the supervisor or plant manager to take necessary actions to improve the production process.

Production Manager


A QA Lead is in charge of the QA Team. The role of QA Lead comes with the responsibility of assessing services and products in order to determine that he or she meets the quality standards. He or she develops, implements and manages test plans. 

Metallurgical Engineer

A metallurgical engineer is a professional who studies and produces materials that bring power to our world. He or she extracts metals from ores and rocks and transforms them into alloys, high-purity metals and other materials used in developing infrastructure, transportation and healthcare equipment. 

Azure Administrator

An Azure Administrator is a professional responsible for implementing, monitoring, and maintaining Azure Solutions. He or she manages cloud infrastructure service instances and various cloud servers as well as sets up public and private cloud systems. 

AWS Solution Architect

An AWS Solution Architect is someone who specializes in developing and implementing cloud computing systems. He or she has a good understanding of the various aspects of cloud computing and can confidently deploy and manage their systems. He or she troubleshoots the issues and evaluates the risk from the third party. 

Computer Programmer

Careers in computer programming primarily refer to the systematic act of writing code and moreover include wider computer science areas. The word 'programmer' or 'coder' has entered into practice with the growing number of newly self-taught tech enthusiasts. Computer programming careers involve the use of designs created by software developers and engineers and transforming them into commands that can be implemented by computers. These commands result in regular usage of social media sites, word-processing applications and browsers.

ITSM Manager

Information security manager.

Individuals in the information security manager career path involves in overseeing and controlling all aspects of computer security. The IT security manager job description includes planning and carrying out security measures to protect the business data and information from corruption, theft, unauthorised access, and deliberate attack 

Business Intelligence Developer

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Essay on Health and Fitness 500+ Words

Health and fitness are like the keys to a happy and fulfilling life. They help us grow stronger, stay energetic, and enjoy every moment to the fullest. In this essay, we will explore the significance of health and fitness and how they can positively impact our lives.

Physical Health

One of the most crucial aspects of health and fitness is physical well-being. Our bodies are like machines that require regular maintenance. Exercise is the key to keeping our bodies in good shape. According to the World Health Organization, physical inactivity is a leading cause of many health problems, including heart disease, obesity, and diabetes. Regular physical activity, such as playing sports or going for a walk, can significantly reduce the risk of these issues.

Mental Health

Health and fitness aren’t just about the body; they also play a vital role in our mental well-being. Physical activity releases chemicals in the brain called endorphins, which are often referred to as “feel-good” hormones. These endorphins can help reduce stress, anxiety, and feelings of depression. Studies have shown that people who exercise regularly tend to have better mental health and higher self-esteem.

Healthy Eating Habits

Eating well is another essential aspect of health and fitness. Our bodies need a balanced diet with plenty of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains to function properly. According to nutrition experts, a healthy diet can lower the risk of chronic diseases and boost our immune system. It’s like giving our bodies the right fuel to perform at their best.

Want to live a long and healthy life? Health and fitness are your best allies. Studies have shown that people who prioritize their health and fitness tend to live longer and have a better quality of life in their later years. Regular exercise and a healthy diet can help prevent age-related diseases and keep us active and independent as we grow older.

Increased Energy Levels

Feeling tired all the time can be a real downer. Health and fitness can help boost your energy levels. When you exercise regularly, your body becomes more efficient at using oxygen and nutrients, which can make you feel more energetic throughout the day. So, if you want to be more alert and active, incorporating physical activity into your routine is the way to go.

Improved Sleep

A good night’s sleep is essential for overall health and well-being. Health and fitness can positively impact your sleep quality. Studies have shown that people who exercise regularly tend to fall asleep faster and enjoy deeper, more restorative sleep. Improved sleep can enhance your mood, concentration, and overall quality of life.

Social Benefits

Being healthy and fit can also enhance your social life. Participating in sports and fitness activities can provide opportunities to meet new people and build strong friendships. Team sports, for example, teach important values like teamwork, communication, and cooperation. These skills are not only essential for sports but also for life in general.

Conclusion of Essay on Health and Fitness

In conclusion, health and fitness are essential components of a happy and fulfilling life. They contribute to physical well-being, mental health, longevity, increased energy levels, and improved sleep. By adopting a healthy lifestyle that includes regular exercise and a balanced diet, you can unlock the full potential of your body and mind.

Remember that your health is a valuable asset, and it’s never too early to start taking care of it. As a fifth-grader, you have a fantastic opportunity to develop healthy habits that can last a lifetime. So, make exercise and healthy eating a part of your daily routine, and you’ll be on the path to a healthier, happier future. Your body and mind will thank you, and you’ll be ready to face whatever challenges and adventures life brings your way.

Also Check: Simple Guide on How To Write An Essay

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Physical Activity and Sports—Real Health Benefits: A Review with Insight into the Public Health of Sweden

Christer malm.

1 Sports Medicine Unit, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Umeå University, 901 87 Umeå, Sweden; [email protected]

Johan Jakobsson

Andreas isaksson.

2 Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Solna, Sweden; [email protected]

Positive effects from sports are achieved primarily through physical activity, but secondary effects bring health benefits such as psychosocial and personal development and less alcohol consumption. Negative effects, such as the risk of failure, injuries, eating disorders, and burnout, are also apparent. Because physical activity is increasingly conducted in an organized manner, sport’s role in society has become increasingly important over the years, not only for the individual but also for public health. In this paper, we intend to describe sport’s physiological and psychosocial health benefits, stemming both from physical activity and from sport participation per se. This narrative review summarizes research and presents health-related data from Swedish authorities. It is discussed that our daily lives are becoming less physically active, while organized exercise and training increases. Average energy intake is increasing, creating an energy surplus, and thus, we are seeing an increasing number of people who are overweight, which is a strong contributor to health problems. Physical activity and exercise have significant positive effects in preventing or alleviating mental illness, including depressive symptoms and anxiety- or stress-related disease. In conclusion, sports can be evolving, if personal capacities, social situation, and biological and psychological maturation are taken into account. Evidence suggests a dose–response relationship such that being active, even to a modest level, is superior to being inactive or sedentary. Recommendations for healthy sports are summarized.

1. Introduction

Sport is a double-edged sword regarding effects on health. Positive effects are achieved primarily through physical activity, which is the main part of most sports. Many secondary effects of sport also bring health benefits, such as psychosocial development of both young [ 1 ] and old [ 2 ], personal development [ 3 ], later onset, and less consumption of alcohol [ 4 , 5 ]. Finally, those who play sports have a higher level of physical activity later in life [ 6 ], and through sport, knowledge of nutrition, exercise, and health can be developed [ 7 ]. Negative effects include the risk of failure leading to poor mental health [ 8 , 9 ], risk of injury [ 10 , 11 ], eating disorders [ 12 ], burnout [ 13 ], and exercise-induced gastrointestinal tract discomfort [ 14 ]. In sport, there are unfortunately also reports of physical and psychological abuse [ 15 ]. Negative aspects are more common in elite-level sports, where there is a fine balance between maximum performance and negative health. A somewhat unexpected effect of sport participation is that people submitting to planned training in some cases perform less physical activity compared to those who are exercising without a set schedule. One explanation can be a reduced spontaneous physical activity in the latter group [ 16 ]. Because physical activity is increasingly executed in an organized manner [ 17 , 18 , 19 ], sport’s role in society has become increasingly important over the years, not only for the individual but also for public health.

In this paper, we describe the health effects of sport from a physiological and psychological perspective, related both to physical activity and added values of sport per se. Initially, brief definitions of various concepts related to physical activity and health are given. This is then followed by: (1) A brief description of how physical activity and training affect our body from a physiological perspective; (2) a report on the health effects of physical activity and training; and (3) sport’s specific influences on the various dimensions of health. We chose to discuss the subject from an age-related perspective, separating children/adolescents, adults, and the elderly, as well as separating for sex in each age group.

2. Definitions of Physical Activity, Exercise, Training, Sport, and Health

Definitions and terms are based on “Physical activity in the prevention and treatment of disease” (FYSS, [Swedish] [ 20 ]), World Health Organization (WHO) [ 21 ] and the US Department of Human Services [ 22 ]. The definition of physical activity in FYSS is: “Physical activity is defined purely physiologically, as all body movement that increases energy use beyond resting levels”. Health is defined according to the World Health Organization (WHO) as: “[…] a state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity” [ 21 ].

Physical activity can occur spontaneously (leisure/work/transport) or organized and be divided according to purpose: Physical exercise is aimed primarily at improving health and physical capacity. Physical training is aimed primarily at increasing the individual’s maximum physical capacity and performance [ 23 ]. Physical inactivity is described as the absence of body movement, when energy consumption approximates resting levels. People who do not meet recommendations for physical activity are considered physically inactive and are sometimes called “sedentary”. Sport can be organized by age, sex, level of ambition, weight or other groupings [ 24 ]. Sport can also be spontaneous [ 7 , 17 ] and defined as a subset of exercises undertaken individually or as a part of a team, where participants have a defined goal [ 7 ]. General recommendations for physical activity are found in Table 1 , not considering everyday activities. One can meet the daily recommendations for physical activity by brief, high-intensity exercise, and remaining physically inactive for the rest of the day, thereby creating a “polarization” of physical activity: Having a high dose of conscious physical training, despite having a low energy expenditure in normal life due to high volumes of sedentary time. Polarization of physical activity may lead to increased risk of poor health despite meeting the recommendations for physical activity [ 25 , 26 , 27 ]. During most of our lives, energy expenditure is greater in normal daily life than in sport, physical training, and exercise, with the exceptions of children and the elderly, where planned physical activity is more important [ 28 ].

Recommendations regarding physical activity for different target groups. Note that additional health effects can be achieved if, in addition to these recommendations, the amount of physical activity increases, either by increasing the intensity or duration or a combination of both.

Compiled from FYSS 2017 ( ) and WHO 2017 ( ).

3. Aerobic and Muscle-Strengthening Physical Activity

Physical activity is categorized according to FYSS as: (1) Aerobic physical activity and (2) muscle-strengthening physical activity. Physical activity in everyday life and exercise training is mainly an aerobic activity, where a majority of energy production occurs via oxygen-dependent pathways. Aerobic physical activity is the type of activity typically associated with stamina, fitness, and the biggest health benefits [ 29 , 30 , 31 ]. Muscle-strengthening physical activity is referred to in everyday language as “strength training” or “resistance training” and is a form of physical exercise/training that is primarily intended to maintain or improve various forms of muscle strength and increase or maintain muscle mass [ 32 ]. Sometimes, another category is defined: Muscle-enhancing physical activity, important for maintenance or improvement of coordination and balance, especially in the elderly [ 33 ]. According to these definitions, muscle-strengthening activities primarily involve the body’s anaerobic (without oxygen) energy systems, proportionally more as intensity increases.

Exercise intensity can be expressed in absolute or relative terms. Absolute intensity means the physical work (for example; Watts [W], kg, or metabolic equivalent [MET]), while relative intensity is measured against the person’s maximum capacity or physiology (for example; percentage of maximum heart rate (%HR), rate of perceived exhaustion (RPE), W·kg −1 or relative oxygen uptake in L·min −1 ·kg −1 (VO 2 )). In terms of recommendations to the public, as in Table 1 , the intensity is often described in subjective terms (“makes you breathe harder” for moderate intensity, and “makes you puff and pant” for vigorous intensity) [ 27 ]. While objective criteria such as heart rate and accelerometry will capture the intensity of activity, they may not distinguish between different types of physical activity behaviors [ 34 ]. FYSS defines low intensity as 20%–39% of VO 2 max, <40 %HR, 1.5–2.9 METs; moderate intensity as 40%–59% of VO 2 max, 60–74 %HR, 3.0–5.9 METs, and vigorous intensity as 60%–89% of VO 2 max, 75–94 %HR, 6.0–8.9 METs. Absolute intensity, however, can vary greatly between individuals where a patient with heart disease may have a maximal capacity of <3 MET, and an elite athlete >20 MET [ 35 ].

4. How does the Body Adapt to Physical Activity and Training?

Adaption to physical activity and training is a complex physiological process, but may, in the context of this paper, be simplified by a fundamental basic principle:” The general adaptation syndrome (GAS)” [ 36 , 37 , 38 ]. This principle assumes that physical activity disturbs the body’s physiological balance, which the body then seeks to restore, all in a dose-related response relationship. The overload principle states that if exercise intensity is too low, overload is not reached to induce desired physiological adaptations, whereas an intensity too high will result in fatigue and possibly overtraining. Thus, for adaptation to occur, greater than normal stress must be induced, interspersed with sufficient recovery periods for restoration of physiological balance [ 39 ]. During and immediately after physical exercise/training, functions of affected tissues and systems are impaired, manifested as temporarily decreased performance. You feel tired. In order to gradually improve performance capacity, repeated cycles of adequate overload and recovery are required [ 40 ]. In practice, positive effects can be seen after a relatively short period of a few weeks, but more substantial improvements if the training is maintained for a longer period.

As a rule of thumb, it is assumed that all people can adapt to physical activity and exercise, but the degree of adaptation depends on many factors, including age, heredity, the environment, and diet [ 41 , 42 , 43 , 44 ]. The hereditary factor (genetics) may be the most critical for adaptation [ 45 ]. The degree of adaptation also depends on how the person in question trained previously; a well-trained athlete usually does not have the same relative improvement as an untrained one. Even if training is thought to be specific to mode, intensity, and duration, there are some overlaps. For example, it has been found that strength training in some individuals contributes to a relatively large positive impact on health and endurance, effects previously associated primarily with aerobic exercise [ 46 , 47 ]. The overload principle may, if applied too vigorously in relation to a person’s individual adaptation ability, have detrimental effects, including reduced performance, injury, overtraining, and disease [ 10 ]. Training is a commodity that must be renewed; otherwise, you gradually lose achieved performance improvements [ 48 ], although some capacities, such as muscle memory, seem to persist for life [ 49 ].

General recommendations for health may be stated, but individual predispositions make general training schedules for specific performance effects unpredictable. All exercise training should be adjusted to individual purposes, goals, and circumstances.

5. Health Effects of Physical Activity and Training

Human biology requires a certain amount of physical activity to maintain good health and wellbeing. Biological adaption to life with less physical activity would take many generations. People living today have, more or less, the same requirements for physical activity as 40,000 years ago [ 50 , 51 ]. For an average man with a body weight of 70 kg, this corresponds to about 19 km daily walking in addition to everyday physical activity [ 52 ]. For most people, daily physical activity decreases, while planned, conscious exercise and training increases [ 19 , 53 ]. Unfortunately, average daily energy intake is increasing more than daily energy output, creating an energy surplus. This is one reason for the increasing number of overweight people, and a strong contributor to many health problems [ 54 ]. More sedentary living (not reaching recommended level of physical activity), combined with increased energy intake, impairs both physical and mental capabilities and increases the risk of disease. Despite this, Swedes (as an example) seemed to be as physically active and stressed but had better general health in 2015, compared to 2004 ( Figure 1 ). Compared to 2004–2007, the Swedish population in 2012–2015 reported better overall health (more county-dots are blue) and less fatigue (smaller county-dots) with similar level of physical activity (~65% indicated at least 30 min daily physical activity) and stress (~13% were stressed).

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is sports-07-00127-g001.jpg

Selected physical and mental health indicators of a Sweden cohort, in relation to the degree of physical activity for the period of years 2004–2007 ( N = 29,254) and years 2012–2015 ( N = 38,553). Surveyed subjects are age 16 to 84 years old, with data representing median scores of four years, not normalized for age. Y-axis: Percentage of subjects reporting “stressed”; X-axis: Percentage of subjects indicating physical active at least 30 minutes each day. Each dot represents one County (Län), dot-size indicates self-reported fatigue, and color self-reported healthiness of the County. If 70% of the population states they are having “Good/Very good” health, the dot is blue. If less than 70% states they are having good/very good health, the dot is red. The circle indicated with a black arrow corresponds to nation median. The black line connected to the nation circle represents the movement in the X–Y plane from the year 2004 to 2007, and from 2012 to 2015, respectively. Data retrieved from the Public Health Agency of Sweden 2019-04-22 ( ).

Results in Figure 1 may in part be explained by a polarization of who is physically active: Some individuals are extremely active, others very inactive, giving a similar central tendency (mean/median). As physical activity and mental stress are not changed, but health is, the figure indicates that other factors must be more important to our overall health and fatigue. Recently, a national study of Swedish 11- to 15-year-olds concluded that this age group is inactive for most of their time awake, that is, sitting, standing or moving very little [ 55 ]. Time as inactive increased with age, from 67 percent for 11-year-olds to 75 percent for 15-year-olds. The study states that in all age groups, the inactive time is evenly distributed over the week, with school time, leisure time, and weekend. Further, those who feel school-related stress have more inactive time, both overall and during school hours, than those who have less school-related stress.

People active in sports have, in general, better health than those who do not participate in sports, because they are physically and mentally prepared for the challenges of sports, abilities that in many cases can be transferred to other parts of life [ 56 ].

However, there is a certain bias in this statement. Sport practitioners are already positively selected, because sickness and injury may prevent participation. As many health benefits of sport are related to the level of physical activity, separation of sport and physical exercise may be problematic. Regardless, societal benefits of these health effects can be seen in lower morbidity, healthier elderly, and lower medical costs [ 7 , 57 , 58 ].

Health effects of physical activity in many cases follow a dose–response relationship; dose of physical activity is in proportion to the effect on health [ 59 , 60 ]. Figure 2 depicts the relationship between risk of death and level of physical activity, in a Finnish twin cohort, adjusted for smoking, occupational group, and alcohol consumption [ 59 ]. Odds ratio (OR) for the risk of all-cause mortality in a larger sample in the same study was 0.80 for occasional exercisers ( p = 0.002, 95% CI = 0.69–0.91). This dose–response relationship between risk of all-cause mortality and physical activity is evident in several extensive studies [ 60 , 61 , 62 ]. The total dose is determined by the intensity (how strenuous), duration (duration), and frequency (how often). While Figure 2 shows sex differences in death rates, it is likely that sedentary behavior is equally hazardous for men and women, but inconsistent results sometime occur due to inadequate assessment measures, or low statistical power [ 59 , 63 ]. To obtain the best possible development due to physical exercise/training, both for prevention and treatment purposes, a basic understanding of how these variables affect the dose of activity is required, as well as understanding how they can be modified to suit individual requirements. A physically active population is important for the health of both the individual and society, with sport participation being one, increasingly important, motivator for exercise.

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Object name is sports-07-00127-g002.jpg

Relative risk (odds ratio; OR) of premature death in relationship to level of physical activity, in 286 male and 148 female twin pairs, adjusted for smoking, occupational group, and use of alcohol [ 59 ].

There is strong scientific evidence supporting an association between physical exercise/training and good physical and mental health. For example: A reduction in musculoskeletal disorders and reduced disability due to chronic disease [ 27 , 64 ], better mental health with reduced anxiety [ 65 , 66 ], insomnia [ 67 ], depression [ 31 ], stress [ 68 ], and other psychological disorders [ 69 ]. Physical and mental health problems are related to an increased risk of developing a number of our major public health diseases and may contribute to premature death ( Table 2 ).

Health-related physiological effects of aerobic and muscle strengthening physical activity. Green circle indicates that the activity contributes with an effect, whereas a red circle indicates that the activity has no proven effect. Orange circle indicates that the activity may in some cases be effective.

5.1. Effects on Physical Health

The effects of physical activity and exercise are both acute (during and immediately after) and long-lasting. Effects remaining after a long period of regular physical activity have far-reaching consequences for health and are described below. For example, some muscle enzymes’ activity can be quickly increased by physical exercise/training but just as quickly be lost when idle [ 118 ]. Other changes remain for months or years even if training ends—for instance, increased number and size of muscle fibers and blood vessels [ 49 , 119 , 120 ]. Good health, therefore, requires physical activity to be performed with both progression and continuity. Most of the conducted physical exercise/training is a combination of both aerobic and muscle strengthening exercise, and it can be difficult to distinguish between their health effects ( Table 2 ).

To describe ill-health, indicators of life expectancy, disease incidence (number), and prevalence (how often) are used [ 121 ]. In describing the relationship between physical activity and falling ill with certain diseases, the dose–response relationship, the effect size (the risk reduction that is shown in studies), and the recommended type and dose of physical activity are considered [ 122 ]. Table 3 shows the relative effects of regular physical activity ton the risk of various diseases (US Department of Human Services, 2009). The greatest health gains are for people who move from completely sedentary to moderately active lifestyles, with health effects seen before measurable improvements in physical performance. Previously, most scientific studies collected data only on aerobic physical activity. However, resistance exercise also shows promising health (mental and physical) and disease-prevention effects [ 123 , 124 , 125 , 126 , 127 ].

Disease prevention effects of regular physical activity.

Compiled from US Department of Health and Human Service, [ 62 , 146 ] 1 : Risk reduction refers to the relative risk in physically active samples in comparison to a non-active sample, i.e., a risk reduction of 20% means that the physically active sample has a relative risk of 0.8, compared to the non-active sample, which has 1.0. 2 : In general, general recommendations for PA that are described and referred to herein apply to most conditions. However, in some cases, more specific recommendations exist, more in depth described by the US Department of Health and Human Service, amongst others [ 62 ]. 3 : Evidence is dependent on cancer subtype; refer to US Department of Health and Human Service [ 62 ] for in-depth guidance. PA = Physical.

Aerobic physical activity has been shown to benefit weight maintenance after prior weight loss, reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome, normalize blood lipids, and help with cancer/cancer-related side effects ( Table 2 and Table 3 ), while effects on chronic pain are not as clear [ 29 ].

Muscle-strengthening physical activity has, in contrast to aerobic exercise, been shown to reduce muscle atrophy [ 128 ], risk of falling [ 75 ], and osteoporosis [ 74 ] in the elderly. Among the elderly, both men and women adapt positively to strength training [ 129 ]. Strength training also prevents obesity [ 130 ], enhances cognitive performance if done alongside aerobic exercise [ 131 ], counteracts the development of neurodegenerative diseases [ 132 , 133 , 134 ], reduces the risk of metabolic syndrome [ 135 ], counteracts cancer/cancer-related side effects [ 135 , 136 ], reduces pain and disability in joint diseases [ 137 ], and enhances bone density [ 137 , 138 ]. The risk of falling increases markedly with age and is partly a result of reduced muscle mass, and reduced coordination and balance [ 76 , 139 , 140 ]. A strong correlation between physical performance, reduced risk of falls, and enhanced quality of life is therefore, not surprisingly, found in older people [ 141 ]. Deterioration in muscle strength, but not muscle mass, increases the risk of premature death [ 142 ] but can be counteracted by exercise as a dose–response relationship describes the strength improvement in the elderly [ 122 , 143 ]. Recommendations state high-intensity strength training (6–8 repetitions at 80% of 1-repetition maximum) as most effective [ 144 ]. Muscle strengthening physical activity for better health is recommended as a complement to aerobic physical activity [ 29 ]. Amongst the elderly, vibration training can be an alternative to increase strength [ 145 ].

5.2. Effects on Mental Health

Mental illness is a global problem affecting millions of people worldwide [ 147 ]. Headache, stress, insomnia, fatigue, and anxiety are all measures of mental ill health. The term “ ill health ” constitutes a collection of several mental health problems and symptoms with various levels of seriousness. Studies have compared expected health benefits from regular physical activity for improvement of mental health with other treatments, for example, medication. Most recent studies show that physical activity and exercise used as a primary, or secondary, processing method have significant positive effects in preventing or alleviating depressive symptoms [ 31 , 148 , 149 , 150 , 151 ] and have an antidepressant effect in people with neurological diseases [ 152 ]. Training and exercise improve the quality of life and coping with stress and strengthen self-esteem and social skills [ 69 , 153 ]. Training and exercise also lessen anxiety in people who are diagnosed with an anxiety- or stress-related disease [ 68 ], improve vocabulary learning [ 154 ], memory [ 155 , 156 ], and creative thinking [ 157 ].

The same Swedish data as used in Figure 1 show that between the years 2004–2007 and 2012–2015 anxiety, worry, and insomnia decreased but were not obviously correlated to the slightly increased level of physical activity in the population during the same period. Thus, in a multifactorial context, the importance of physical exercise alone cannot be demonstrated in this dataset.

Some of the suggested physiological explanations for improved mental health with physical activity and exercise are greater perfusion and increased brain volume [ 107 , 158 ], increased volume of the hippocampus [ 106 ], and the anti-inflammatory effects of physical activity, reducing brain inflammation in neurological diseases [ 159 ]. Physical exercise may also mediate resilience to stress-induced depression via skeletal muscle peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), enhancing kynurenine conversion to kynurenine acid, which in turn protects the brain and reduces the risk for stress-induced depression [ 153 ]. Further, increased release of growth factors, endorphins, and signaling molecules are other exercise-induced enhancers of mental health [ 69 ].

6. How Sport Affects Health

Sport’s main purposes are to promote physical activity and improve motor skills for health and performance and psychosocial development [ 56 ]. Participants also gain a chance to be part of a community, develop new social circles, and create social norms and attitudes. In healthy individuals, and patients with mental illness, sport participation has been shown to provide individuals with a sense of meaning, identity, and belonging [ 160 , 161 ]. Whether the sport movement exists or not, training and competition including physical activity will happen. Sport’s added values, in addition to the health benefits of physical activity, are therefore of interest. Some argue that it is doubtful, or at least not confirmed, that health development can come from sport, while others believe that healthy sport is something other than health, reviewed in depth by Coakley [ 162 ]. In a sporting context, health is defined as subjective (e.g., one feels good), biological (e.g., not being sick), functional (e.g., to perform), and social (e.g., to collaborate) [ 163 ]. Holt [ 56 ] argued that the environment for positive development in young people is distinctly different from an environment for performance, as the latter is based on being measured and assessed. That said, certain skills (goal setting, leadership, etc.) can be transferred from a sporting environment to other areas of life. The best way to transfer these abilities is, at the moment, unclear.

Having the goal to win at all costs can be detrimental to health. This is especially true for children and adolescents, as early engagement in elite sports increases the risk of injury, promotes one-dimensional functional development, leads to overtraining, creates distorted social norms, risks psychosocial disorders, and has the risk of physical and psychological abuse [ 15 , 164 ]. Of great importance, therefore, is sport’s goal of healthy performance development, starting at an early age. For older people, a strong motivating factor to conduct physical activity is sports club membership [ 165 ]. One can summarize these findings by stating sport’s utility at the transition between different stages of the life; from youth to adulthood and from adulthood to old age. There, sports can be a resource for good physical and mental health [ 166 ].

Today, a higher proportion of the population, compared to 50 years ago, is engaged in organized sports, and to a lesser extent performs spontaneous sports ( Figure 3 ), something that Engström showed in 2004 [ 17 ] and is confirmed by data from The Swedish Sports Confederation ( ). Of the surveyed individuals in 2001, 50%–60% of children and young people said they were active in a sports club. The trend has continued showing similar progression to 2011, with up to 70% of school students playing sports in a club. Furthermore, the study shows that those active in sport clubs also spontaneously do more sports [ 167 ]. Similar data from the years 2007–2018, compiled from open sources at The Swedish Sports Confederation, confirm the trend with an even higher share of youths participating in organized sports, compared to 1968 and 2001 ( Figure 4 ).

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Spontaneous sport has decreased over the last decades, to the advantage of organized sport. Data compiled from Engström, 2004, The Swedish Research Council for Sport Science.

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Data compiled from open sources report Sport Statistics (Idrotten i siffror) at The Swedish Sports Confederation for the year 2011 ( ).

Taking part in sports can be an important motivator for physical activity for older people [ 165 , 166 ]. With aging, both participation in sports ( Figure 4 ) and physical activity in everyday life [ 168 ] decreases. At the same time, the number of people who are physically active both in leisure and in organized sports increases (The Public Health Agency of Sweden 2017; ). Consequently, among elderly people, a greater proportion of the physical activity occurs within the context of sport [ 8 , 28 ]. Together, research shows that organized sports, in clubs or companies, are more important for people’s overall physical activity than ever before. Groups that are usually less physically active can be motivated through sport—for example, elderly men in sport supporters’ clubs [ 169 ], people in rural areas [ 170 ], migrants [ 171 ], and people with alternative physical and mental functions [ 172 ]. No matter how you get your sporting interest, it is important to establish a physical foundation at an early age to live in good health when you get older ( Figure 5 ). As seen in Figure 5 , a greater sport habitus at age 15 results in higher physical activity at 53 years of age. Early training and exposure to various forms of sports are therefore of great importance. Participation creates an identity, setting the stage for a high degree of physical activity later in life [ 173 ].

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Odds ratio (OR) of physical activity at age 53 in relation to Sport habitus at age 15. Sport habitus (“the total physical capital"), including cultural capital, athletic diversity, and grades in physical education and health are, according to Engström [ 173 ], the factors most important for being physically active in later life. For a further discussion on sport habitus, the readers are referred to Engström, 2008 [ 173 ]. Numbers above bar show the 95% confidence interval. ** = significant difference from “Very low”, p < 0.01. *** = p < 0.001.

7. Sport’s Effects on the Health of Children and Young People

The effects of participation in organized sports for children and young people are directly linked to physical activity, with long term secondary effects; an active lifestyle at a young age fosters a more active lifestyle as an adult. As many diseases that are positively affected by physical activity/exercise appear later in life, continued participation in sport as an adult will reduce morbidity and mortality.

It must be emphasized that good physical and mental health of children and young people participating in sport requires knowledge and organization based on everyone’s participation. Early specialization counteracts, in all regards, both health and performance development [ 174 , 175 ].

7.1. Positive Aspects

According to several reviews, there is a correlation between high daily physical activity in children and a low risk for obesity, improved development of motor and cognitive skills, as well as a stronger skeleton [ 176 , 177 ]. Positive effects on lipidemia, blood pressure, oxygen consumption, body composition, metabolic syndrome, bone density and depression, increased muscle strength, and reduced damage to the skeleton and muscles are also described [ 178 , 179 ]. If many aspects are merged in a multidimensional analysis [ 8 , 173 ], the factors important for future good health are shown to be training in sports, broad exposure to different sports, high school grades, cultural capital, and that one takes part in sport throughout childhood ( Table 4 ).

Compiled health profiles for men and women at the age of 20 years, depending on participation in organized sports at the age of 5, 7, 8, 10, 14, and 17 years.

Classification with repeated latent class analysis creates three groups for girls and boys, respectively: Children who never participated (girls only), participated, quit prematurely, or began late (only boys) in sports. Arrows indicate whether participation in sports at young age has an effect on health at 20 years of age. Green up arrow is positive, red down arrow negative, and a horizontal black double arrow shows that sport had no significant effect. Modified from Howie et. al., 2016 [ 8 ].

Psychological benefits of sports participation of young people were compiled by Eime et al. [ 1 ], where the conclusion was that sporting children have better self-esteem, less depression, and better overall psychosocial health. One problem with most of these studies, though, is that they are cross-sectional studies, which means that no cause–effect relationship can be determined. As there is a bias for participating children towards coming from socially secure environments, the results may be somewhat skewed.

7.2. Negative Aspects

As Table 4 and Table 5 show, there are both positive and negative aspects of sports. Within children’s and youth sports, early specialization to a specific sport is a common phenomenon [ 175 ]. There is no scientific evidence that early specialization would have positive impact, neither for health nor for performance later in life [ 175 ]. No model or method including performance at a young age can predict elite performance as an adult. By contrast, specialization and competitiveness can lead to injury, overtraining, increased psychological stress, and reduced training motivation, just to mention a few amongst many negative aspects [ 174 , 175 ]. Another important aspect is that those who are excluded from sports feel mentally worse [ 8 ]. As there is a relationship between depressive episodes in adolescence, and depression as adults [ 116 ], early exclusion has far-reaching consequences. Therefore, sports for children and young people have future health benefits by reducing the risk of developing depression and depressive symptoms, as well as improved wellbeing throughout life.

Positive and negative aspects with sport (at young age).

While some degree of sport specialization is necessary to develop elite-level athletes, research shows clear adverse health effects of early specialization and talent selection [ 180 ]. More children born during the fall and winter (September–December) are excluded [ 181 ], and as a group, they are less physically active than spring (January–April) children, both in sports and leisure ( Figure 6 ). In most sports and in most countries, there is a skewed distribution of participants when sorted by birth-date, and there are more spring children than fall children among those who are involved in sport [ 182 , 183 , 184 , 185 , 186 ]. Because a large part of the physical activity takes place in an organized form, this leads to lower levels of physical activity for late-born persons (Malm, Jakobsson, and Julin, unpublished data). Early orientation and training in physical activity and exercise will determine how active you are later in life. Greater attention must be given to stimulating as many children and young people as possible to participate in sport as long as possible, both in school and on their leisure time. According to statistics from the Swedish Sports Confederation in 2016, this relative-age effect persists throughout life, despite more starting than ending with sport each year [ 18 ].

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The figure shows the distribution of 7597 children aged 10 years and younger who in 2014 were registered as active in one particular, individual sport in Sweden (data compiled from the Swedish Sport Confederation, ). Spring, Summer, and Fall represent January–April, May–August, and September–December, respectively.

When summarize, the positive and negative aspects of sport at a young age can be divided into three categories: (1) Personal identification, (2) social competence, and (3) physiological capacity, briefly summarized in Table 5 . A comprehensive analysis of what is now popularly known as “physical literacy” has recently been published [ 187 ].

7.3. Relevance of Sports

Sports can make children and young people develop both physically and mentally and contribute with health benefits if planned and executed exercise/training considers the person’s own capacities, social situation, and biological as well as psychological maturation. In children and adolescents, it is especially important to prevent sports-related injuries and health problems, as a number of these problems are likely to remain long into adulthood, sometimes for life. Comprehensive training is recommended, which does not necessarily mean that you have to participate in various sports. What is required is diverse training within every sport and club. Research shows that participation in various sports simultaneously during childhood and adolescence is most favorable for healthy and lifelong participation [ 8 , 173 , 188 , 189 ].

8. Sport’s Effects on the Health of Adults and the Elderly

Adults who stop participating in sports reduce their physical activity and have health risks equal to people who have neither done sports nor been physical [ 190 , 191 ]. Lack of adherence to exercise programs is a significant hindrance in achieving health goals and general physical activity recommendations in adults and the elderly [ 192 ]. While several socioeconomic factors are related to exercise adherence, it is imperative that trainers and health care providers are informed about factors that can be modulated, such as intervention intensity (not to high), duration (not too long), and supervision, important for higher adherence, addressed more in depth by Rivera-Torres, Fahey and Rivera [ 192 ].

Healthy aging is dependent on many factors, such as the absence of disease, good physical and mental health, and social commitment (especially through team sports or group activities) [ 193 ]. Increased morbidity with age may be partly linked to decreased physical activity. Thus, remaining or becoming active later in life is strongly associated with healthy aging [ 194 ]. With increased age, there is less involvement in training and competition ( Figure 4 ), and only 20% of adults in Sweden are active, at least to some extent, in sports clubs, and the largest proportion of adults who exercise do it on their own. The following sections describes effects beyond what is already provided for children and youths.

8.1. Positive Aspects

Participation in sports, with or without competition, promotes healthy behavior and a better quality of life [ 166 ]. Exclusion from sports at a young age appears to have long-term consequences, as the previously described relative age effect ( Figure 6 ) remains even for master athletes (Malm, Jakobsson, and Julin, unpublished data). Because master athletes show better health than their peers [ 95 ], actions should be taken to include adults and elderly individuals who earlier in life were excluded from, or never started with sport [ 195 ]. As we age, physical activity at a health-enhancing intensity is not enough to maintain all functions. Higher intensity is required, best comprising competition-oriented training [ 196 , 197 ]. One should not assume that high-intensity exercise cannot be initiated by the elderly [ 198 ]. Competitive sports, or training like a competitive athlete as an adult, can be one important factor to counter the loss of physical ability with aging [ 199 ]. In this context, golf can be one example of a safe form of exercise with high adherence for older adults and the elderly, resulting in increased aerobic performance, metabolic function, and trunk strength [ 200 , 201 ].

8.2. Negative Aspects

Increased morbidity (e.g., cardiovascular disease) with aging is seen also among older athletes [ 202 ] and is associated with the same risk factors as in the general population [ 203 ]. An increased risk of cardiovascular disease among adults (master) compared to other populations has been found [ 204 ]. Unfortunately, the designs and interpretations of these studies have been criticized, and the incidence of cardiac arrest in older athletes is unclear [ 205 ]. In this context, the difference between competitive sports aiming to optimize performance and recreational sports has to be taken into account, where the former is more likely to induce negative effects due to high training loads and/or impacts during training and games. Although high-intensity training even for older athletes is positive for aerobic performance, it does not prevent the loss of motor units [ 206 ].

Quality of life is higher in sporting adults compared to those who do not play sports, but so is the risk of injury. When hit by injury, adults and young alike may suffer from psychological disorders such as depression [ 207 ], but with a longer recovery time in older individuals [ 208 ]. As with young athletes, secession of training at age 50 years and above reduces blood flow in the brain, including the hippocampus, possibly related to long-term decline in mental capacity [ 209 ].

8.3. Relevance of Sport

As for children and young people, many positive health aspects come through sport also for adults and the elderly [ 210 ]. Sport builds bridges between generations, a potential but not elucidated drive for adults’ motivation for physical activity. The percentage of adults participating in competitive sports has increased in Sweden since 2010, from about 20 percent to 30 percent of all of those who are physically active [ 18 ], a trend that most likely provides better health for the group in the 30–40 age group and generations to come.

9. Recommendations for Healthy Sport

  • 1. Plan exercise, rest, and social life. For health-promoting and healthy-aging physical activity, refer to general guidelines summarized in this paper: Aerobic exercise three times a week, muscle-strengthening exercise 2–3 times a week.
  • 2. Set long-term goals.
  • 3. Adopt a holistic performance development including physiological, medical, mental, and psychosocial aspects.
  • ○ a. Exercise load (time, intensity, volume);
  • ○ b. Recovery (sleep, resting heart rate, appetite, estimated fatigue, etc.);
  • ○ c. Sickness (when–where–how, type of infections, how long one is ill, etc.);
  • ○ d. Repeat type- and age-specific physical tests with relevant evaluation and feedback;
  • ○ e. Frequency of injuries and causes.
  • ○ a. Motivation for training, competition, and socializing;
  • ○ b. Personal perception of stress, anxiety, depression, alienation, and self-belief;
  • ○ c. Repeat type- and age-specific psychological tests with relevant evaluation and feedback.
  • 6. Register and interpret signs of overtraining, such as reduced performance over time, while maintaining or increasing exercise load.

Author Contributions

C.M. and A.J. conceived and designed the review. C.M., A.J., J.J. and interpreted the data and drafted the manuscript. J.J. edited the manuscript, tables, and figures. All authors approved the final version.

This work was supported by the Swedish Sports Confederation.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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Good argumentative essay topics on health and fitness with prompts [+ outline], dr. wilson mn.

  • August 1, 2022
  • Essay Topics and Ideas , Samples

There are plenty of good argumentative essay topics on health and fitness to choose from. You can write about the benefits of a healthy lifestyle, or the importance of staying fit and active.

You can also argue for or against certain health and fitness practices, such as eating organic foods or using supplements. Whatever you choose to write about, make sure you back up your claims with evidence and research.

What You'll Learn

Argumentative Essay Topics On Health And Fitness

Personal Reflection on the Scriptural Basis for Physical Fitness & Wellness Practices

Essay prompt: Often, when people speak about physical fitness and wellness, they do it from the point of view of science and medicine in which physical fitness and wellness practices are supposed to improve our health outcomes.

Improving Fitness Practices And the Personal And Realistic Physical Fitness Plan

Essay prompt: The strategies to identify practical ways to enhance my fitness practices include personal training, outcome measurements, and wearable technology. Personal training is a strong trend that is

Do Fitness Trackers Improve Health?

Essay prompt: Fitness trackers are wearable devices that monitor physical activity, communicate with the smartphone, and pass information to it. These wearable devices monitor calories consumed and received by a person, as well as physical activity indicators, and are designed to help people move more and eat right.

How did you apply what you learned in your workouts within and outside of class and what were the outcomes? How will you continue to apply this knowledge in the future?

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Improving Health Related Fitness: Aerobic Conditioning Program

Essay prompt: The Aerobic condition program seeks to improve health-related fitness for freshmen. Aerobic exercising or “with oxygen” offers freshmen cardiovascular conditioning. The program aligns with the American heart association (AHA) minimum 30 minutes of cardiovascular exercise 5 to 7 days a week.

Field Observation Gender, Race & Fitness Written Paper & Presentation

Essay prompt: Students will visit a fitness centre not located on campus. Field notes will be taken noting the time and day of the visit and the approximate fee paid to use the facility.

Importance of Goal-Setting for Nutritional Clients And the Steps in the Goal-Setting Process

Essay prompt: It is important to set fitness goals before trying to achieve health goals because they help understand why such an initiative is essential. Better and practical results are always achieved when one has a specific, realistic goal instead of setting out without a plan.

Discuss the importance of goal-setting for nutritional clients

Argumentative Research Paper Topics On Health And Fitness with Prompts

The Role of Group Exercise Instructor

Ensuring Firefighters Maintain Proper Health Fitness During And After Training

Essay prompt: The article follows the status of the recruits’ essential health and physical fitness to fire academy training. The article demonstrates the changes that take place during training and the early probation period.

Evolutionary Biology Use In Future Work In Psychology

Elements of the Marketing Environments

The Main Problem with Anaerobic Training

Essay prompt: When it comes to matters concerning fitness, aerobics has always taken Centre stage. Tracing its name from the term ‘aerobic’ to mean oxygen, aerobics is a fitness regime that basically uses oxygen to burn body fat.

Effectiveness of Exercise-based Prediction in Determining Cardiorespiratory Fitness (CRF)

Essay prompt: The article’s main purpose is to explore the effectiveness of exercise-based prediction in determining cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). In such a case, it would be possible to assess their capability in classifying individuals. Argumentative Essay Topics On Health And Fitness

Injured Children During Exercise or Sports

Essay prompt: As much as exercise is important, fitness trainers also hold the same influence as they serve as the guide towards a more appropriate pattern of workout and diet for their clients.

Problems And Solutions Concerning Meeting Advancing Health Information Requirements

Essay prompt: Currently, hospital setups exhibit new Health Information Technology (HIT) innovations that help in monitoring healthcare and fitness improvement. Besides, this HIT improves health outcomes and ensures efficiency in workflow among others.

Find out more on 260+ Ethical Paper Topics – Types | Guide | Topics

Improving College Student Fitness Routine

Essay prompt: It is a well-known fact that people need to exercise to prevent being afflicted with diseases, especially those that are caused by an unhealthy lifestyles.

Physical Education Unit Plan: Fitness for Health And social awareness

SWOT Analysis of Physical Fitness Facility

Essay prompt: The Pure Barre franchise is a boutique gym line of studios that has branches across North America- the US and Canada.

The Benefits of Physical Activity for Physical & Mental Health

Essay prompt: Numerous studies have explored the benefits of physical activity to the physical and mental well-being of an individual. A literature review on the subject suggests that there is a positive relationship between physical activity, and physical and mental health.

Analysis Of Fitness And Health Claims In The Future

Essay prompt: How will you approach your analysis of fitness and health claims in the future? How will this help you in your future training endeavours?

Classroom-Based Physical Activity, Cognition, And Academic Achievement

Essay prompt: Evidence suggests that there is an observable association between cardiovascular fitness, cognitive function, and physical activity during early childhood and adolescence. The above variables are linked to the academic performance of an individual.

How the Covid-19 Regulations have Affected Students at the Gym

Essay prompt: The COVID-19 Pandemic has subjected the world to a life-threatening situation, judging by the mortality and morbidity rates. More than 6.2 million people have died of COVID-19, and over 505 million cases have been reported worldwide as of 2022 (de Abreu et al., 2022).

There are plenty of good argumentative essay topics on health and fitness to choose from. You can write about a healthy lifestyle

Argumentative Research Paper Topics

There is no shortage of ideas when it comes to writing an argumentative research paper . The key is to find a topic that is interesting to you and that you can make a strong case for. Here are some potential topics to get you started:

  • Should the drinking age be lowered?
  • Should the voting age be lowered?
  • Should there be stricter gun control laws?
  • Should the death penalty be abolished?
  • Should abortion be legal?
  • Should same-sex marriage be legal?
  • Should marijuana be legalized?
  • Are humans causing climate change?
  • Is the welfare system effective?
  • Do schools need to do more to prevent bullying?

Whether you’re a diehard sports fan or someone who doesn’t really follow any particular teams, there’s no denying that sports can be a great source of debate. From which sport is the most exciting to watch to whether certain players or teams are truly the best in their respective leagues, there are plenty of topics to choose from when it comes to sports debates.

To help you get started, we’ve compiled a list of some potential sports debate topics. Whether you’re looking for something lighthearted or something a little more serious, we’re sure you’ll find something on this list that gets your blood pumping.

So without further ado, here are 20 sports debate topics to get you started:

  • Which sport is the most exciting to watch?
  • Are certain players or teams overrated?
  • Who are the best players in each sport?
  • Who are the biggest busts in each sport?
  • What are the best and worst moments in each sport?
  • Are there too many teams in each league? Not enough?
  • What changes would you make to each sport?
  • Which teams are due for a championship

Sports Persuasive Speech Topics

When it comes to giving a persuasive speech, there are many different topics that you can choose from. However, one topic that always seems to be popular is sports. Sports persuasive speech topics can be about anything related to sports, from the benefits of playing a particular sport to the dangers of not playing any sport at all.

  • Some good sports persuasive speech topics include:
  • The benefits of playing team sports
  • The importance of staying active and participating in physical activity
  • The dangers of using performance-enhancing drugs in sports
  • The negative effects of not playing any sport at all
  • Why children should be encouraged to play sports
  • How adults can benefit from playing sports

Informative Speech Topics about Sports

When it comes to choosing a topic for an informative speech, there are many directions you could go. You could choose to give a speech about a particular sport, or about the history of sports, or about some of the great athletes who have made their mark on the world of sports.

If you’re a fan of sports, then giving an informative speech about sports could be a great way to share your love of the game with others. There are so many different aspects to sports that you could focus on, from the rules of the game to the training and conditioning that athletes undergo. You could even give a speech about some of the great moments in sports history.

If you’re not a big sports fan, don’t worry – there are plenty of other topics you could choose for your informative speech. You could focus on the history of a particular sport, or on the evolution of sports over time. You could even choose to give a speech about some of the great athletes who have made their mark on the world of sports. No matter what angle you choose, there’s sure to be an informative speech topic about sports that will interest you and your audience

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Physical Activity Is Good for the Mind and the Body

fitness and health essay

Health and Well-Being Matter is the monthly blog of the Director of the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.

Everyone has their own way to “recharge” their sense of well-being — something that makes them feel good physically, emotionally, and spiritually even if they aren’t consciously aware of it. Personally, I know that few things can improve my day as quickly as a walk around the block or even just getting up from my desk and doing some push-ups. A hike through the woods is ideal when I can make it happen. But that’s me. It’s not simply that I enjoy these activities but also that they literally make me feel better and clear my mind.

Mental health and physical health are closely connected. No kidding — what’s good for the body is often good for the mind. Knowing what you can do physically that has this effect for you will change your day and your life.

Physical activity has many well-established mental health benefits. These are published in the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans and include improved brain health and cognitive function (the ability to think, if you will), a reduced risk of anxiety and depression, and improved sleep and overall quality of life. Although not a cure-all, increasing physical activity directly contributes to improved mental health and better overall health and well-being.

Learning how to routinely manage stress and getting screened for depression are simply good prevention practices. Awareness is especially critical at this time of year when disruptions to healthy habits and choices can be more likely and more jarring. Shorter days and colder temperatures have a way of interrupting routines — as do the holidays, with both their joys and their stresses. When the plentiful sunshine and clear skies of temperate months give way to unpredictable weather, less daylight, and festive gatherings, it may happen unconsciously or seem natural to be distracted from being as physically active. However, that tendency is precisely why it’s so important that we are ever more mindful of our physical and emotional health — and how we can maintain both — during this time of year.

Roughly half of all people in the United States will be diagnosed with a mental health disorder at some point in their lifetime, with anxiety and anxiety disorders being the most common. Major depression, another of the most common mental health disorders, is also a leading cause of disability for middle-aged adults. Compounding all of this, mental health disorders like depression and anxiety can affect people’s ability to take part in health-promoting behaviors, including physical activity. In addition, physical health problems can contribute to mental health problems and make it harder for people to get treatment for mental health disorders.

The COVID-19 pandemic has brought the need to take care of our physical and emotional health to light even more so these past 2 years. Recently, the U.S. Surgeon General highlighted how the pandemic has exacerbated the mental health crisis in youth .

The good news is that even small amounts of physical activity can immediately reduce symptoms of anxiety in adults and older adults. Depression has also shown to be responsive to physical activity. Research suggests that increased physical activity, of any kind, can improve depression symptoms experienced by people across the lifespan. Engaging in regular physical activity has also been shown to reduce the risk of developing depression in children and adults.

Though the seasons and our life circumstances may change, our basic needs do not. Just as we shift from shorts to coats or fresh summer fruits and vegetables to heartier fall food choices, so too must we shift our seasonal approach to how we stay physically active. Some of that is simply adapting to conditions: bundling up for a walk, wearing the appropriate shoes, or playing in the snow with the kids instead of playing soccer in the grass.

Sometimes there’s a bit more creativity involved. Often this means finding ways to simplify activity or make it more accessible. For example, it may not be possible to get to the gym or even take a walk due to weather or any number of reasons. In those instances, other options include adding new types of movement — such as impromptu dance parties at home — or doing a few household chores (yes, it all counts as physical activity).

During the COVID-19 pandemic, I built a makeshift gym in my garage as an alternative to driving back and forth to the gym several miles from home. That has not only saved me time and money but also afforded me the opportunity to get 15 to 45 minutes of muscle-strengthening physical activity in at odd times of the day.

For more ideas on how to get active — on any day — or for help finding the motivation to get started, check out this Move Your Way® video .

The point to remember is that no matter the approach, the Physical Activity Guidelines recommend that adults get at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity (anything that gets your heart beating faster) each week and at least 2 days per week of muscle-strengthening activity (anything that makes your muscles work harder than usual). Youth need 60 minutes or more of physical activity each day. Preschool-aged children ages 3 to 5 years need to be active throughout the day — with adult caregivers encouraging active play — to enhance growth and development. Striving toward these goals and then continuing to get physical activity, in some shape or form, contributes to better health outcomes both immediately and over the long term.

For youth, sports offer additional avenues to more physical activity and improved mental health. Youth who participate in sports may enjoy psychosocial health benefits beyond the benefits they gain from other forms of leisure-time physical activity. Psychological health benefits include higher levels of perceived competence, confidence, and self-esteem — not to mention the benefits of team building, leadership, and resilience, which are important skills to apply on the field and throughout life. Research has also shown that youth sports participants have a reduced risk of suicide and suicidal thoughts and tendencies. Additionally, team sports participation during adolescence may lead to better mental health outcomes in adulthood (e.g., less anxiety and depression) for people exposed to adverse childhood experiences. In addition to the physical and mental health benefits, sports can be just plain fun.

Physical activity’s implications for significant positive effects on mental health and social well-being are enormous, impacting every facet of life. In fact, because of this national imperative, the presidential executive order that re-established the President’s Council on Sports, Fitness & Nutrition explicitly seeks to “expand national awareness of the importance of mental health as it pertains to physical fitness and nutrition.” While physical activity is not a substitute for mental health treatment when needed and it’s not the answer to certain mental health challenges, it does play a significant role in our emotional and cognitive well-being.

No matter how we choose to be active during the holiday season — or any season — every effort to move counts toward achieving recommended physical activity goals and will have positive impacts on both the mind and the body. Along with preventing diabetes, high blood pressure, obesity, and the additional risks associated with these comorbidities, physical activity’s positive effect on mental health is yet another important reason to be active and Move Your Way .

As for me… I think it’s time for a walk. Happy and healthy holidays, everyone!

Yours in health, Paul

Paul Reed, MD Rear Admiral, U.S. Public Health Service Deputy Assistant Secretary for Health Director, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion

The Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website.

Linking to a non-federal website does not constitute an endorsement by ODPHP or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products presented on the website.

You will be subject to the destination website's privacy policy when you follow the link.


Essay on Fitness and Health 100, 200, 300, and 500 Words (PDF)

Short & long essay on fitness and health.

Short & Long Essay on Fitness and Health – Health and fitness may sound similar but they are two concepts that go hand in hand. Fitness is a state of control over our body while health is a state of control over our mental, physical, and emotional well-being. Thus, we can remain mentally, physically, and emotionally healthy.

Paying attention to health and fitness helps a person live in a state of both health and well-being, as it provides the ability to perform physical tasks without becoming tired or restless. As a result, health and fitness is a reasonable way to gain control over our body. However, the body requires regular exercise along with a balanced diet to maintain health.

Nowadays, teachers ask their students to write a few paragraphs or a complete essay on any topic to enhance their Hindi writing skills and knowledge. So following are some paragraphs, short essays, and long essays on health and fitness to help the students. All these health and fitness essay are written very simply in 100, 200, 300, and 500 words. So, you can choose any essay as per your requirement.

Essay on Fitness and Health

Essay (100 words).

Health and staying fit are very important in every person’s life. Healthy people actually enjoy their life with great peace and happiness whereas unhealthy people cannot enjoy life to the fullest and remain surrounded by troubles. There is a saying that health is wealth.

We have to eat healthy and complete food on time to stay healthy. One should eat fresh vegetables, fruits, milk, etc. In addition, adequate amounts of vitamins, proteins, and minerals should be consumed on a daily basis.

Having mental and physical health is very important to be successful and to do our best for society. A healthy mind develops in a healthy body otherwise we will not be able to keep our mind clear and strong”.

Essay (200 Words)

To stay healthy and fit, any person should maintain cleanliness around him, eat healthy food, and do daily physical exercise. Nowadays it is seen that people have become so busy in their lifestyle that they do not have time to keep themselves healthy.

A health and fitness lifestyle is a combination of healthy living. Along with physical health, psychological health is also very important. To stay healthy we need physical exercise and healthy food on a daily basis, however being mentally healthy is equally important to win physically.

Our body needs to improve muscular endurance to function well and stay energetic such as doing morning runs, walks, spending time in the gym, or other physical activities we enjoy. To stay away from digestive problems, we should consume freshly cooked food instead of stale food.

Staying fit should be our first objective to live a healthy lifestyle for which we should improve our fitness by including it in our daily routine. For this, there is no need to exercise for hours, healthy food and a small amount of exercise on a daily basis are enough to stay healthy.

Exercise improves our lifestyle and healthy life. Thus, it increases our confidence and energy levels.

Essay (300 Words)


Health and fitness is the state of being healthy both mentally and physically. We can define it as the state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being of a person. A balanced diet and regular exercise have a positive effect on a person’s health and fitness. An unhealthy person has to face many problems on a daily basis, so let us mention them.

Ways to Stay Healthy and Fit

If we follow some habits we can keep ourselves healthy and fit:

To stay healthy and fit, we need clean food in the right quantity and at the right time. Nutrition with low fat, high fiber, high vitamins, and rich sources of proteins and minerals is the key to good health.

You should take some time from your daily busy schedule and do physical exercise regularly. It is necessary for a person to exercise daily to stay fit.

Getting good sleep is important for a healthy life. Getting eight hours of quality sleep every night boosts our immune system and also improves mood. Insufficient sleep gives rise to various mental disorders.

Importance of Health and Fitness

Only a healthy and fit person can enjoy life to the fullest. Health and fitness are very important for those who want to live a happy and peaceful healthy life. A person can be called healthy and fit only when he is mentally and physically healthy. It matters to us because –

  • It reduces anxiety levels, feelings of stress, and depression.
  • The risk of diseases like diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, obesity, cancer, stroke, etc. is reduced.
  • Our confidence level improves.
  • Make them feel better both physically and mentally.
  • Improves quality of life by reducing stress.

Conclusion – Regular exercise and physical activities are very important for all age groups. Health and fitness help in living a stress-free and disease-free life and create an environment of happiness.

Essay (500 Words)


Health and fitness can be defined as the state of complete mental, physical, and social well-being of a person. The life of an unhealthy person will be very sad and terrible and he will not be able to enjoy his life to the fullest. It has a negative impact on our lives and causes some serious problems.

Diabetes and obesity have negative effects on our physical or mental health and fitness. These conditions can cause serious health problems and, in some cases, death. To reduce their risk, we should remain mentally and physically fit at all times. So let us mention some aspects of it.

Relationship Between Health and Fitness

Health and fitness represent two of the most important aspects of life. Health is generally considered to be the overall ability of an organism to resist infection, physical fitness, and disease while fitness represents the ability to maintain physical strength and physical exertion.

How to Maintain Health and Fitness?

There are many ways to maintain your health and fitness, this regular physical exercise should be adopted daily, it can be simple activities like eating proper and clean food at the right time, climbing stairs, and walking to different places is important. Our food should be rich in nutrition like high protein content, high fiber, low fat, and more protein, and vitamins.

Importance of Health and Fitness:

Health and fitness are very important for a peaceful, successful, and happy life. A healthy and fit person can live life to the fullest. There are many benefits of keeping the body healthy. It reduces the risk of diseases like obesity, heart attack, high BP, stroke, and stress which provides a better quality of life.

Mental Health and Fitness:

A person’s mental health is as important as his physical health. Generally, we pay a lot of attention to physical health and fitness while not caring about mental health. However, keeping both our mind and health healthy is equally important as mental stress can affect our mood and productivity. This leads to serious health challenges like other mental illnesses.

Benefits of Physical Health and Fitness

It reduces blood pressure and helps improve the quality of life. Increasing muscle and bone strength helps reduce the risk of diseases like heart disease, breast cancer, stroke, obesity, and diabetes, besides enhancing heart function and reducing the risk of cardiovascular conditions. It improves our immune system such that we fall ill less.

Conclusion :

Health and fitness is definitely important in our lives. Providing health and fitness training to young children has a positive impact on their lives so schools emphasize health and fitness. Fitness is about simple exercises and the food we eat.

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Essay on Health and Fitness for Children and Students

fitness and health essay

Table of Contents

The maintenance of health and fitness helps a person to be in the general state of health and well-being. It provides ability to perform physical actions without being tired or restless. However, the maintenance of health and fitness requires regular physical exercise with balanced diet.

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It is very necessary for all to maintain their health and fitness in order to be fit, healthy, fearless of diseases, and get so many other benefits. Now-a-days, teachers generally assign their students to write some paragraphs or full essay on any topic to enhance their English writing skill and knowledge as well as spread awareness.

Following are some paragraphs, short essays and long essays on health and fitness to help students in completing their task. All the health and fitness essay are written very simply. So, you can select any essay according to your need and requirement:

Long and Short Essay on Health and Fitness in English

Health and fitness essay 100 words – sample 1.

A person with good health and fitness becomes able to live his/her life to its fullest extent. It is very important for a person in life to be physically and mentally fit to live a healthy and happy life. Healthy and fit people become less prone to the medical conditions.

Fitness does not mean to be physically fit only, it also means with healthy mental state of the person. One can get healthy mental state if he/she becomes physically fit. The simple way to remain healthy and fit is having stress free mind with regular exercise and balanced diet. People who maintain their ideal weight become less prone to the cardiac and other health problems. People who are physically active can easily maintain a relaxed state of mind. Healthy and fit people can easily face all the ups and downs of their life and less affected by any drastic change.

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Health and Fitness Essay 150 words – Sample 2

People are being more conscious towards their health and fitness as time changes. Male wants to have a muscle bound body whereas female a slim and trim look. Everybody is doing lots of struggle on daily basis to achieve a perfect body. Getting healthy and fit body and mind requires lots of patience, time, commitment, goal, believe, and a strong mind to face all the struggles. Some people have ability to maintain fitness on their own however some need a good qualified personal trainer to take care of the daily exercises and diet. People who are in corporate businesses have very little movement and lot of sitting all through the day. That’s why they face being overweight, obese, lazy, and tired. It is proved with studies that people who are more fit and healthy achieve greater success in life.

Health and Fitness Essay 200 words – Sample 3

Health is a very important aspect in the life of everyone. Nothing is more important than health and fitness for any human being. Healthy and fit people really enjoy their life very happily and peacefully. An unhealthy person cannot enjoy life in full extent.

He/she cannot enjoy eating, watching sports, or other luxury of the life. It is truly said by our elders that health is wealth. In order to maintain good health we need to properly take care of the hygiene and sanitation all around us. We have to eat healthy and complete food in timely manner.

We should eat green and fresh vegetables, milk, fresh fruits, egg, etc. Our body need sufficient amount of proteins, minerals and vitamins on daily basis to be fit and healthy. Together with the healthy food and physical activities we need to maintain cleanliness in our home and surrounding areas including our personal cleanliness.

The maintenance of physical and mental fitness is very important for a person needed to be successful and do best to the society. It is truly said by the Buddha about health and fitness that, “To keep the body in good health is a duty, otherwise we shall not be able to keep our mind strong and clear”.

Health and Fitness Essay 250 words – Sample 4

Most of the common people never realize the importance of being healthy and fit. They generally underestimate the importance of good health as they never know the advantages of it. We all know that health is wealth but only few people follow it in their life. Being healthy and fit, helps us in carrying out our daily tasks. Being healthy is not only a body free of diseases, but it also means to have a tensionless mind. If a person has unhealthy mind, he cannot has an unhealthy body.

Good health of both, body and mind helps us to get success in life and enjoy it in full extent. Good mental health makes us feel like a well-being and healthy body gives us physical strength and confidence. Good physical health helps us in our trouble times whereas poor physical becomes more weak and prone to diseases.

We need to be aware about all the points of how to keep us healthy both physically and mentally. Some people know well about how to keep their body neat, clean and healthy however they carry some tensions in their mind, so they always lack of being fit. Mental tension gradually deteriorates the good condition of body and makes it weak. People, who are serious about their health and fitness, do exercises on daily basis and eat healthy food in timely manner. They are much conscious about their health and avoid being lazy, eating unhealthy food and sedentary life.

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Health and Fitness Essay 300 words- Sample 5

Now-a-days, people have been so busy in their hectic life style and do not have time to keep themselves healthy or stay fit. It is the fact that we must eat healthy, practice cleanliness and involve in daily physical exercises in order to remain healthy and fit. As we know that there is no alternate to the hard work, in the same way there is no alternate to the health and fitness. Health and fitness is the combination of healthy living with healthy lifestyle. Psychological health is very necessary with the physical health of a person in order to be healthy and fit. We need to eat healthy food and do physical exercises on daily basis in order to remain physically healthy however we need to think positive to remain mentally healthy.

We need to get self motivated as well as take part in the fitness-style activities. We should take our fitness as the matter of every-day routine. Being fit should be our first aim of living a healthy lifestyle. It doesn’t require exercising for hours, just a small amount of exercise and healthy food on daily basis is enough to maintain the health and fitness.

We should keep our eyes always open and select stairs instead of the elevator, use cycle instead of car or bike for nearby areas, walk to the next bus stop, etc creates really a big difference. Being involved in daily physical exercises not only keep us fit but also improve our lifestyle and healthy living. It increases our energy level and thus confidence level.

We should enjoy spending hours on morning walk, running, working out at the gym or other physical activities to keep body functioning well as well as improve muscle endurance. We should eat fresh cooked food instead of stale food in order to remain away from the digestive disorders.

Health and Fitness Essay 400 words- Sample 6


Health and fitness is the state of being healthy both, physically and mentally. Regular exercises and balanced diet can improve health and fitness of a person. We can define health as the state of complete mental, physical and social well-being of a person. It is not only the absence of illness, diseases or infirmity. We can define the fitness of any person as the ability to meet demands of the environment.

How to Maintain Health and Fitness

There are various ways we can keep us healthy and fit if we follow regularly the following:

  • We should regularly involve in the daily physical exercises by getting some time from our much hectic schedule. 30 to 60 minutes of exercise on daily basis or five to six times a week is ideal for anybody to remain fit.
  • Healthy and clean food in right amount and at right time is very necessary for a person to stay healthy and fit. Healthy nutrition with high-fiber, low-fat, high protein, and rich source of vitamins and minerals is the key to good health.
  • In order to get fit and healthy, good sleeping pattern is very necessary for any person. We need to maintain a discipline in our daily routine and focus on good sleeping pattern which must start and end at right time. Taking quality sleep of eight hours each night boosts our immune system and helps in preventing cardiovascular diseases as well as improves mood. Inadequate sleeping pattern leads to the sleep disorders and various mental disorders.

Importance of Health and Fitness

Health and fitness is very important for people who want to live a healthy life very happily and peacefully. A healthy and fit person is only capable to live life to its fullest extent. We can say a person healthy and fit if he/she is physically and mentally fit. Physically and mentally fit people become less prone to the medical conditions. Health and fitness of any person helps in:

  • Decreases the risk of diseases (high blood pressure, diabetes, coronary heart diseases, colon cancer, osteoporosis, obesity, stroke, breast cancer, etc).
  • Make them feel better both, physically and mentally.
  • Improves their confidence level.
  • Heals injuries soon.
  • Helps to live longer by adding years to the life.
  • Reduces stress and improves quality of life.
  • Reduces anxiety level, stress, and feelings of depression.

Conclusion : Regular physical activities and routine exercise is very necessary for the people of all age group especially younger generations. Health and fitness brings happiness in the life and helps a person to live stress free and disease free life.

Helpful Resources on Health and Fitness

FAQs on Health and Fitness

What is health and fitness.

Health and fitness refer to physical well-being and the ability to perform daily activities with vigor. It encompasses a balanced diet, regular exercise, and mental stability.

What are health and fitness benefits?

Benefits include reduced risk of chronic diseases, enhanced mood and mental health, and improved longevity and quality of life.

How do you maintain good health and fitness?

Maintain a balanced diet, engage in regular physical activity, manage stress, and have regular health check-ups.

What are the 4 types of fitness?

The four types are cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength, flexibility, and muscular endurance.

What is health and fitness for life?

It means adopting lifelong habits that promote overall well-being and physical resilience, ensuring a better quality of life.

How is health and fitness important?

Health and fitness enhance mental and physical performance, reduce health risks, and improve overall well-being and life satisfaction.

What is the short note on health and fitness?

Health and fitness are vital for a high-quality life, reducing disease risks, and ensuring physical and mental well-being.

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THE 10 BEST Moscow Health/Fitness Clubs & Gyms

Health/fitness clubs & gyms in moscow.

  • Health/Fitness Clubs & Gyms
  • Yoga & Pilates
  • Hammams & Turkish Baths
  • Roman Baths
  • Thermal Spas
  • Hair & Nail Salons
  • 5.0 of 5 bubbles
  • 4.0 of 5 bubbles & up
  • 3.0 of 5 bubbles & up
  • District Central (TsAO)
  • 3rd Transport Ring (TTK)
  • Garden Ring
  • District Northern (SAO)
  • Good for a Rainy Day
  • Good for Kids
  • Budget-friendly
  • Good for Adrenaline Seekers
  • Good for Couples
  • Good for Big Groups
  • Adventurous
  • Hidden Gems
  • Honeymoon spot
  • Things to do ranked using Tripadvisor data including reviews, ratings, photos, and popularity.

fitness and health essay

1. ThaiBeautySpa


2. Limestone


3. Lay Back Massage Club

fitness and health essay

4. Royal Thai Pokrovka

fitness and health essay

5. Swimming Pool Chaika


6. Wai Thai Michurino


7. Cosmos Spa


8. Fitness Club Miltronic


9. Pride Club Fitness

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10. Usadba Bannaya

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11. Spa Algotherm


12. Grand Fitness

fitness and health essay

13. Galotsentr Solyanaya Peshhera

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14. VITASPORT Wellness Club

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15. Usadba Bannaya

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16. I N T U ' T I O N 2/05

17. city fitness.

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18. Novorizhskiye Baths

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19. Vital Practice University

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20. Fresh Stretching

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21. Rock The Cycle


22. Massage and Health Center Il de Provane

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23. Fitness Center Mark Avreliy

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24. Encore City

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25. LifeCity Venecia

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26. Boxing Academy

27. salt cave salegrotte.

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29. Art of Pilates

fitness and health essay

Health & Beauty in Moscow

Moscow health & beauty guide, fitness centers.

There are literally hundreds of gyms and fitness centers available to take care of health & beauty of expats in Moscow. The majority are extremely well-equipped, most including a swimming pool, extensive class schedule, open courts for many sports, and also saunas, beauty salons, and tanning facilities. Expect to pay about 28,000 – 62,000 RUR for an annual subscription (in cash, upfront).

These Moscow fitness centers provide information in English and may have some English-speaking staff:

  • Gold’s Gym The international chain – if you have a membership from your home country, you may have guest privileges here. There are two locations:Dinamo (a favorite with expatriates) Offers a fully equipped gym and cardio area, extensive schedule of aerobics classes, designated courts for football, basketball, volleyball, tennis and squash area, swimming pool, beauty salon, massage, and tanning services. Body revolution programs twice annually. Leningradsky Prosp. 31/30 Closest metro: Dinamo +7 (495) 931 96 16 Opening hours: Mon-Fri 7:00 – 23:00; Sat-Sun 9:00 – 22:00Lefort Has all imaginable cardio equipment, free weights, more than 25 regularly scheduled group classes (including yoga and pilates), spinning equipment, designated courts for football, basketball, volleyball, tennis, a table tennis area, sauna, and massage room. Elektrozavodskaya Ul. 27/3 Closest metro: Eletrozavodskaya or Preobrazhenskaya Ploshad +7 (495) 662-46 53 Opening hours: Mon-Fri 7:00 – 23:00; Sat-Sun 9:00 – 22:00
  • Planet Fitness A more affordable option among Moscow’s fitness centers. Annual memberships start at 29,000 RUR. There are 15 locations in Moscow, most of which offer free weights, cardio equipment, a swimming pool, aerobics and dance classes, and boxing. Many also have massage and tanning. Typical opening hours: Mon-Fri 7:00 – 24:00; Sat-Sun 9:00 – 22:00 (may vary by location)
  • World Class With 16 locations in Moscow, you’re sure to find one nearby. The biggest and best offer a full range of fitness and cardiovascular equipment, group classes in everything from aerobics to martial arts, personal training, swimming pool, kid zones, and spa and solarium. Typical opening hours: Mon-Fri 7:00 – 24:00; Sat-Sun 9:00 – 24:00 (may vary by location)

Golf Courses

There are three golf course in Moscow and the Moscow area:

  • Moscow City Golf Club This 9-hole course is conveniently located in the city. Also offers a practice area, pro shop, tennis courts, spa and restaurant Ulitsa Dovzhenko 1 Closest metro: Kievskaya (then by bus) +7 (499) 147-8330
  • Le Meridien Moscow Country Club This 18-hole golf course is home to the Russian Open (PGA European Tour) every summer. It is part of an exclusive private membership resort in the Moscow suburb of Nakhabino, about 40 minutes out of the city. Also has a comprehensive sports complex and excellent restaurant. +7 (495) 626-5910 e-mail:  [email protected]
  • Moscow Golf Club Moscow’s newest 18-hole course opened in May 2009. Also offers tennis and a fitness center. Ostrovnaya ul., 2 Closest metro: Krilatskoe +7 (495) 234-7451

Tennis Courts

Many fitness centers in Moscow offer facilities for playing tennis, as do the golf courses. But you can also try a specialized tennis club, or the facilities are the stadiums:

  • Zhukovka Tennis Centre Located 10 km beyond the MKAD in the village Zhukova, this center offers 10 indoor tennis courts; tennis school, massage room and bicycle rental. 1 Illinskoye Shosse, Zhukovo + 7 (495) 418-3701 Opening hours: Mon-Sun 8:00 – 22:00
  • Luzhniki Sports Complex This popular stadium has two full-size tennis courts in addition to a great range of other facilities. Luzhnetskaya Nab. 24 Closest metro: Sportivnaya +7 (495) 637-0262 Opening hours: Mon-Sun 7:00 – 22:00

Swimming Pools

The great majority of fitness centers in Moscow also have swimming pools. But you can also easily find great pools and even waterparks without a gym membership.

  • Olympic Sports Complex This stadium has the best swimming pool in all of Moscow. Note that you must bring a medical certificate showing you are free of skin, and other, conditions that can be transmitted through the water (can be issued at any public clinic). Olympisky Prospekt 16/18 Closest metro: Prospekt Mira +7 (495) 288-5453
  • Chaika Another nice pool, located on the circle metro line. You will also need to present a medical certificate, but you can get one on the spot (valid for a month) from the swimming pool medical department (open 8:30 – 22:00) Turchaninov Per. 1/3 Closest metro: Park Kultury +7 (499) 246-1344
  • Kimberlyland A great waterpark with 5 pools, slides, water games, and a special kids club. Also has a large gym, mini-golf course, beauty salon, and restaurant on site. Azovskaya Ul. 24 Closest metro: Sevastopolskaya +7 (495) 310-0401

Yoga Centers

There are numerous yoga centers in Moscow, and of course many fitness centers also offer yoga classes. The following yoga center has English-speaking instructors available:

  • Ashtanga Yoga Center Hatha Yoga at various levels. Instructors speak both Russian and English. One class costs 350 -500 RUR; a monthly membership is 2200 – 2700 RUR. They have four locations in Moscow:Stary Tolmachevsky Per 7 (inside “Orbita” center) Closest metro: Novokuznetskaya +7 (495) 953-6957Zoologicheskaya Ul 30 Closest metro: Mayakovskaya, Barrikadnaya +7 (495) 550-9646Ostozhenka Ul 8 (inside “Sambo” club) Closest metro: Kropotkinskaya +7 (495) 201-7209Bolshoy Vlasyevsky Per 10 Closest metro: Arbatskaya or Kropotkinskaya +7 (495) 300-4587

Football (Soccer) Fields

Many fitness centers provide facilities for football, as do most stadiums (see Entertainment > Sports Events). You may also enjoy getting involved with the following expatriate football groups:

  • Expat Over 30s Football League A league of 8 teams that plays weekly at Dynamo Stadium. Games are 11-a-side with professional referees. New players age 28 and over with playing experience are recruited at the beginning of the season.
  • Women’s Football Club Open to all, and emphasizes fun over professional play. Meets Sundays from 17:00 to 19:00 near metro Aeroport. Contact: Natalie [email protected]

Ice Skating Rinks

Ice skating is very popular in Moscow. In the winter, there are open-air rinks all around the city and at Gorky Park. There are also numerous indoor rinks:

  • Umka Levoberezhnaya Ul 12/1 Closest metro: Rechnoy Vokzal +7 (495) 458-1084 Opening hours: Mon-Fri 8:00 – 21:00; Sat 19:45 – 20:45; Sun 18:30 – 19:30
  • Raduzhny Chobotovskaya Ul 6 Closest metro: Prospekt Vernadskogo +7 (495) 733-0369 Opening hours: Mon-Fri 8:00 – 21:00; Sat 17:00 – 20:00; Sun 17:00 – 18:00
  • Ice Palace Yuzhny Bulatnikovskaya 2 Closest metro: Prazhskaya +7 (495) 383-8738 Opening hours: Mon-Fri 7:00 – 22:00; Sat-Sun 21:00 – 22:00
  • Ice Palace Rus Voronezhskaya Ul 13/3 Closest metro: Domodedovskaya +7 (495) 399-1327 Opening hours: Mon-Sun 7:00 – 24:00
  • Ledovy Dvorets (Offers skating classes) Volgogradsky Prospect 46/15 Closest metro: Tekstilshchiki +7 (495) 179-3964 Opening hours: Mon-Sun 7:00 – 24:00

Each MEGA Mall (see Shopping) also has an ice skating rink.

Skiing and Snowboarding Slopes

  • Krylatskoe Downhill skiing and snowboarding on a 400-meter slope. Krylastskaya Ul 2 Closest metro: Krylastskoye or Molodezhnaya (then take bus number 229 or 829)
  • Volen Ski Park A ski resort with hotel, restaurants, and an excellent ski school and ski rentals. North of the city. To get there, head out on Dimitrovskoe Schosse; turn left 46 km beyond the MKAD, and follow the signs. +7 (495) 993-95-40; 993-95-02 [email protected] Moscow office: Olimpiyskiy prospect, 7 ste 411/ + 7 (495) 961 00 50

Besides these two slopes, Moscow offers a wealth of possibilities for cross-country skiing, especially in parks in the outskirts of the city including Sokolniki, Bitsevskiy Park, Kuzminki, Vorobievy Gory, and Yakhroma.

Horse Riding Facilities

There are many locations for horse riding in and around Moscow. The following two have English-speaking instructors available:

  • Pradar Individual horse-riding lessons with qualified English-speaking instructors. Single admission to the Club is 1750 RUR, or purchase a monthly horse-riding card for 18,000-24,000. Begovaya Ul 17 Closest metro: Begovaya +7 (495) 945 05 87 E-mail:  [email protected]
  • Hippodrome Complex Individual horse-riding lessons with qualified English- and German-speaking instructors available. Begovaya Ul 22/1 Closest metro: Begovaya +7 (495) 945 50 59

Rock Climbing

The following rock climbing school offers English-language instruction:

  • AlexClimb Indoor Rockclimbing Operates from September to May and organizes training across indoor and outdoor locations in Moscow; also organizes tours around Russia and internationally. You can purchase 8 two-hour sessions with an English-speaking instructor in a group of 4-8 people for 5,400 RUR (plus entrance to the rock climbing gym). Individual trainings also available.

The following expat club is a fun way to meet people and play rugby at the same time:

  • Moscow Dragons Rugby Club Play rugby and get involved in many social and charitable events.

Paintball Fields

Paintball is increasingly popular with teenagers even in Moscow. The following two locations are available:

  • Action Paintball Games Panfilova Ul 20-2 Closest metro: Sokol +7 (499) 796 46 46
  • Paintball Sports Club A large outdoor complex,10 kilometers outside the MKAD. Horse riding is also available. +7 (495) 772 88 80, 918 45 80

Field Hockey

The following expat club is a fun way to meet people and play hockey at the same time:

  • Expat Field Hockey Club A club that welcomes beginners, and both men and women. Meets Saturday from 15:00 to 16:30 at Sokolniki Football Training Center (closest metro: Sokolniki) Equipment is provided, and the sessions cost 250 RUR per person each. Contact: Vineet Arora [email protected]

Useful links

  • A popular online Russian radio station.
  • Site where you can master Russian grammar, learn new vocabulary and practice speaking and reading Russian.
  • A transliteration site – type in Roman letters and they are automatically converted to Cyrillic.

Interesting fact

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Some victims of Moscow shooting in critical condition, authorities say – as it happened

This blog has now closed. You can read our full report on the attack on Crocus City Hall in Moscow here

  • 23 Mar 2024 Summary
  • 23 Mar 2024 Islamic State solely responsible for Moscow attack, no Ukraine involvement - White House
  • 23 Mar 2024 Zelenskiy speaks out
  • 23 Mar 2024 Russian TV airs footage of terrorist attack suspects
  • 23 Mar 2024 Interim summary
  • 23 Mar 2024 Security experts see credibility in Islamic State claims of responsibility for attack
  • 23 Mar 2024 US told Russia Islamic State was planning to attack Moscow - report
  • 23 Mar 2024 Summary of the day …
  • 23 Mar 2024 Death toll in Crocus City Hall terror attack rises to 133
  • 23 Mar 2024 Three children still in hospital – one in critical condition
  • 23 Mar 2024 Putin praises work of emergency services and bravery of people at Crocus City Hall
  • 23 Mar 2024 Putin: all four attackers were detained while heading to Ukraine after attack
  • 23 Mar 2024 Putin declares Sunday a national day of mourning
  • 23 Mar 2024 Putin: Russian Federation will 'identify and punish everyone who prepared the terrorist attack'
  • 23 Mar 2024 Podolyak: 'any attempts to connect Ukraine to the terrorist attack are absolutely untenable'
  • 23 Mar 2024 Erdoğan condemns attack and says terror is 'the common enemy of humanity'
  • 23 Mar 2024 Ukrainian military intelligence official: claim Ukraine linked to attack 'another lie' from Russia
  • 23 Mar 2024 Russia’s FSB tries to link Ukraine to Moscow attack despite IS claiming responsibility
  • 23 Mar 2024 Cameron: UK condemns Moscow attack 'in the strongest terms'
  • 23 Mar 2024 Death toll in Crocus City Hall attack rises to 115
  • 23 Mar 2024 Russia's FSB confirms it has arrested 11 suspects
  • 23 Mar 2024 Crocus City Hall attack – what we know so far …
  • 23 Mar 2024 Putin told some suspects detained as Crocus City Hall attack death toll rises to 93
  • 23 Mar 2024 Kremlin: Putin has been told that 11 suspects have been detained
  • 23 Mar 2024 107 people in hospital after Crocus City Hall attack – Russian state media
  • 23 Mar 2024 Opening summary …

Flowers are seen left at the scene of the gun attack at the Crocus City Hall concert hall in Krasnogorsk, outside Moscow.

RIA reports the Belarus ambassador to Russia , Dmitry Krutoy , has said his country’s special services are actively cooperating with their Russian counterparts to prevent terrorists escaping across the border.

In Russia , Tass has spoken to two people who were in the Crocus City Hall last night as part of a Russian Sports Dance Championship which was taking place there in a separate part of the building from the attack.

Nadezhda Erastova told TASS “Everyone was heroes – they didn’t panic, they were able to get out. Thanks to our coordinated actions, not a single participant in the competition was injured.”

Andrei Telnov said “During the terrorist attack, we were not in the concert hall, we were in another part of the building, but we heard shots and smelled smoke.

“Representatives of Crocus took measures to remove people, calmed everyone down as much as possible and led them out through emergency exits.

“People, of course, were worried and scared. I myself was not in the best emotional state; yesterday was one of the most difficult days of my life.”

Jason Burke

My colleague Jason Burke examines who might be resonsible for the attack:

Islamic State (IS) has claimed responsibility for the attack, praising the “Islamic fighters” who carried it out. Many commentators and US officials have pointed to the IS affiliate called Islamic State Khorasan Province (ISKP) as prime suspect – though so far there is no evidence that this is the case.

ISKP is a branch of Islamic State in Afghanistan. The name comes from that given to a region by some local Islamic rulers and so explicitly rejects modern national frontiers while evoking what its members consider the lost glory and power of Muslim empires.

IS leaders, like many Islamic militants, are mindful of Russian support for the regime of Bashar al-Assad in Syria, and see Moscow as part of the broader coalition of Christian or western forces against Islam.

In September 2022, ISKP militants claimed responsibility for a deadly suicide bombing at the Russian embassy in Kabul and some experts say the group has opposed the Russian president, Vladimir Putin, in recent years. Michael Kugelman, of the Washington-based Wilson Center, said ISKP “sees Russia as being complicit in activities that regularly oppress Muslims” and counts as members a number of central Asian militants with their own grievances against Moscow.

ISKP leaders may also see Russia, along with China and others as important to the continued rule of the Taliban and are seeking to undermine them. An attack in Moscow would thus combine local and more global agendas.

Read more here: Who is thought to be behind the Moscow attack?

Death toll in Crocus City Hall attack rises to 115

Russia’s Investigative Committee has announced that the death toll for Friday night’s terror attack at the Crocus City Hall on the outskirts of Moscos has risen to at least 115, including three children.

121 people are believed to have been hospitalised, with about 60 of them, including a small number of children, being described as in “serious” or “extremely serious” condition. So far Russia’s ministry of health has published the identities of 41 people known to have been killed.

Russia’s Federal Security Service has issued a statement confirming it has arrested 11 suspects after the Crocus City Hall terror attack on Friday night, including four who it says participated directly in the attack. It claims that the suspects were attempting to flee to the Russia-Ukraine border. The FSB said it had informed president Vladimir Putin of the developments.

Leading politicians have accused Ukraine of being involved in the attack, which Kyiv denies. Islamic State has claimed responsibility for the attack, without providing any evidence.

Here are two of those images I mentioned earlier which show that the inside of the auditorium at the Crocus City Hall has been ravaged by fire in the wake of yesterday’s terror attack. The pictures were released by the Russian Emergency Ministry.

A handout still photo made available by the Russian Emergency Ministry showing workers examining the debirs and remains of the Crocus City Hall auditorium.

There is still some confusion over the death toll and number of wounded in the Crocus City Hall terror attack on Friday night, when gunmen using automatic weapons stormed a concert hall on the outskirts of Moscow. Russian authorities have said that at least 93 people were killed, and that the toll is expected to rise.

Russian media, citing the health ministry, now say that 121 people have been hospitalised, which is an increase on the figure of 107 given earlier in the day. The dead and those hospitalised are believed to include some children. Russia’s health ministry has published a list of 41 people who were killed who have been formally identified.

RIA reports that the head of the Moscow regional blood centre has said the city now has enough donations of blood to cope with the wounded.

Russian politician and former army officer Andrey Kartapolov has said “there must be a clear answer on the battlefield” if there has been any involvement of Ukraine in the Crocus City Hall attack.

Without providing any evidence, he told Russian news service RIA Novosti that “Ukraine and its patrons are the main stakeholders in the terrorist attack at Crocus”.

Kartapolov, who now heads Russia’s Duma defence committee, was sanctioned by the UK and the EU in 2015 for his involvement in Russia’s military campaigns in eastern Ukraine, and the US applied sanctions to him after the full-scale invasion of Ukraine was launched by Russia in February 2022.

In Russia , on its Telegram channel, Tass has published images which show that the auditorium where a concert by the band Picnic was due to be held last night and where much of the shooting took place during the attack, has been completely destoryed by fire. Citing the ministry of emergency situations, it confirmed that the roof collapsed as a result of the fire.

The BBC Russian service is reporting some more detail on those in hospital after the attack. Citing Russia’s ministry of health it reports that 16 people including one child are in an “extremely serious” condition, and that 44 other people including two children are in a “serious” condition.

The ministry of health in the Moscow region has published the identities of 41 of the at least 93 people known to have been killed in the attack. On the list, the youngest victim identified so far is a 33-year-old, and the oldest is 71.

  • Moscow concert hall attack

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4 Men Showing Signs of Beating Charged With Terrorism After Moscow Attack

The four accused of carrying out an assault at a concert hall near Moscow are migrant laborers from Tajikistan. They face a maximum sentence of life in prison.

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By Neil MacFarquhar

  • March 24, 2024

The four men suspected of carrying out a bloody attack on a concert hall near Moscow, killing at least 137 people, were arraigned in a district court late Sunday and charged with committing a terrorist act.

The four, who were from Tajikistan but worked as migrant laborers in Russia, were remanded in custody until May 22, according to state and independent media outlets reporting from the proceedings, at Basmanny District Court. They face a maximum sentence of life in prison.

The press service of the court only announced that the first two defendants, Dalerjon B. Mirzoyev and Saidakrami M. Rachalbalizoda, pleaded guilty to the charges. It did not specify any plea from the other two, Mediazona, an independent news outlet, reported.

The men looked severely battered and injured as each of them was brought into the courtroom separately. Videos of them being tortured and beaten while under interrogation circulated widely on Russian social media.

Muhammadsobir Z. Fayzov, a 19-year-old barber and the youngest of the men charged, was rolled into the courtroom from a hospital emergency room on a tall, orange wheelchair, attended by a doctor, the reports said. He sat propped up in the wheelchair inside the glass cage for defendants, wearing a catheter and an open hospital gown with his chest partially exposed. Often speaking in Tajik through a translator, he answered questions about his biography quietly and stammered, according to Mediazona.

Mr. Rachabalizoda, 30, had a large bandage hanging off the right side of his head where interrogators had sliced off a part of his ear and forced it into his mouth, the reports said, with the cutting captured in a video that spread online.

The judge allowed the press to witness only parts of the hearings, citing concerns that sensitive details about the investigation might be revealed or the lives of court workers put at risk. It is not an unusual ruling in Russia.

Russia’s Federal Security Services announced on Saturday that 11 people had been detained, including the four charged men, who were arrested after the car they were fleeing in was intercepted by the authorities 230 miles southwest of Moscow.

In the attack, on Friday night, four gunmen opened fire inside the hall just as a rock concert by the group Piknik was due to start. They also set off explosive devices that ignited the building and eventually caused its roof to collapse. Aside from the dead, there were 182 injured, and more than 100 remain hospitalized, according to the regional health ministry.

President Vladimir V. Putin used the fact that the highway where the men were detained leads to Ukraine to suggest that the attack was somehow linked to Ukraine’s war effort. But the United States has said repeatedly that the attack was the work of an extremist jihadi organization, the Islamic State, which claimed responsibility.

The first charged, Mr. Mirzoyev, who had a black eye and cuts and bruises all over his face, leaned for support against the glass wall of the court cage as the charge against him was read. Mr. Mirzoyev, 32, has four children and had a temporary residence permit in the southern Siberian city of Novosibirsk, but it had expired, the reports said.

Mr. Rachabalizoda, married with a child, said he was legally registered in Russia but did not remember where.

The fourth man charged, Shamsidin Fariduni, 25, married with an 8-month-old baby, worked in a factory producing parquet in the Russian city of Podolsk, just southwest of Moscow. He had also worked as a handyman in Krasnogorsk, the Moscow suburb where the attack took place at Crocus City Hall, at a concert venue within a sprawling shopping complex just outside the Moscow city limits.

The Islamic State has been able to recruit hundreds of adherents among migrant laborers from Central Asia in Russia who are often angry about the discrimination they frequently face.

Alina Lobzina , Paul Sonne and Milana Mazaeva contributed reporting.

Neil MacFarquhar has been a Times reporter since 1995, writing about a range of topics from war to politics to the arts, both internationally and in the United States. More about Neil MacFarquhar

Our Coverage of the War in Ukraine

News and Analysis

Ahead of the U.S. elections, Russia is intensifying efforts to elevate candidates  who oppose aid for Ukraine and support isolationism, disinformation experts say.

President Vladimir Putin said that claims Russia planned to invade other countries were “nonsense,” but warned them against hosting  warplanes meant for Ukraine.

A large-scale Russian missile and drone attack damaged power plants  and caused blackouts for more than a million Ukrainians in what Ukrainian officials said was one of the war’s largest assaults on energy infrastructure.

Symbolism or Strategy?: Ukrainians say that defending places with little strategic value is worth the cost in casualties and weapons , because the attacking Russians pay an even higher price. American officials aren’t so sure.

Elaborate Tales: As the Ukraine war grinds on, the Kremlin has created increasingly complex fabrications online  to discredit Ukraine’s leader, Volodymyr Zelensky, and undermine the country’s support in the West.

Targeting Russia’s Oil Industry: With its army short of ammunition and troops to break the deadlock on the battlefield, Kyiv has increasingly taken the fight beyond the Ukrainian border, attacking oil infrastructure deep in Russian territory .

How We Verify Our Reporting

Our team of visual journalists analyzes satellite images, photographs , videos and radio transmissions  to independently confirm troop movements and other details.

We monitor and authenticate reports on social media, corroborating these with eyewitness accounts and interviews. Read more about our reporting efforts .

  • International

March 23, 2024 Shooting at Moscow concert venue leaves over 130 dead

By Chris Lau, Andrew Raine , Catherine Nicholls, Issy Ronald, Lauren Said-Moorhouse and Tori B. Powell , CNN

Our live coverage of the Moscow concert venue shooting has moved here.

North Korea’s Kim Jong Un sends condolences to Russia’s Putin over deadly Moscow attack

From CNN’s Sophie Jeong and Manveena Suri

North Korean leader Kim Jong Un has offered his condolences to Russian President Vladimir Putin following the deadly concert attack in Moscow, state media Korean Central News Agency (KCNA) reported on Sunday.

Kim “expressed deep condolences and sympathy” to Putin, the Russian people, the victims and their families on the news of heavy casualties caused by a “large-scale terrorist attack in (the) Moscow region,” KCNA reported.

North Korea opposes “all sorts of terrorism and nothing can justify the heinous terrorism threatening human life,” Kim said in the KCNA report. “Our people regard the misfortune and sorrow of the friendly Russian people as their own pain.”

ISIS releases graphic video they claim shows Russia concert hall attack

From CNN's Kareem El Damanhoury and Paul Murphy

ISIS-affiliated news agency Amaq released a graphic video on Saturday that purports to show Friday’s attack at a concert hall in suburban Moscow recorded by one of the attackers, suggesting the perpetrators had a direct link to ISIS in order to be able to send the video.

CNN has geolocated it to the concert hall and notes that its identifying metadata has been erased.

The video, which is about 90 seconds long, shows four attackers with their faces blurred and voices distorted in what appears to be the Crocus City Hall complex.

The video shows one attacker signaling to another gunman, who then walks past a door where people are hiding and opens fire on them.

Bodies and blood can be seen on the floor, with fire raging at a distance.

The video also shows one of the attackers slitting the throat of a man lying on his back.

The video ends with the four attackers walking away inside the building as smoke can be seen at a distance.

On Friday, ISIS claimed responsibility for the attack, according to a short statement published by Amaq.

On Saturday, Russian President Vladimir Putin suggested Ukraine was behind the attack, stating the perpetrators had “tried to hide and moved towards Ukraine, where, according to preliminary data, a window was prepared for them on the Ukrainian side to cross the border.”

Ukraine has vehemently denied any connection to Friday's attack.

Company that owns Crocus City Hall venue calls attack a "monstrous tragedy"

From CNN's Masha Angelova

A woman lights candles at a memorial near Crocus City Hall, on the western edge of Moscow, on Saturday.

The Russian company Crocus International, which owns Crocus City Hall, expressed its deep condolences in a statement Sunday to the victims of the terrorist attack at the concert hall in the Moscow region Friday, which left more than 130 people dead.

"Together with the whole of Russia, we mourn the dead and hope for a speedy recovery of those who’ve suffered in this monstrous tragedy," the company said. "In these difficult days, we are doing and will do everything possible to help the authorities and special services with their difficult work, and together with the whole country help victims of the terrorist attack."

The statement thanked concert-goers, partners and artists for their support and assistance.

"Special thanks to the concert hall team, who acted professionally, clearly, and heroically in a crisis situation, and thanks to this, managed to save most of the guests and employees who were in Crocus City Hall that evening," it continued.

White House says there was "no Ukrainian involvement whatsoever" in Moscow region onslaught

From CNN's Natasha Bertrand and Samantha Waldenberg

US Vice President Kamala Harris and the White House National Security Council said there is no evidence that Ukraine is behind the attack at a concert hall near Moscow.

“There is no, whatsoever, any evidence — and in fact, what we know to be the case is that ISIS-K is actually, by all accounts, responsible for what happened,” Harris said in an interview with ABC News. “What has happened is an act of terrorism and the number of people who've been killed is obviously a tragedy and we should all send our condolences to those families."

National Security Council spokesperson Adrienne Watson said:

"In early March, the US government shared information with Russia about a planned terrorist attack in Moscow. We also issued a public advisory to Americans in Russia on March 7. ISIS bears sole responsibility for this attack. There was no Ukrainian involvement whatsoever."

US had warned Russia ISIS was determined to attack | CNN

US had warned Russia ISIS was determined to attack | CNN

Here's what you should know about the moscow area concert venue shooting.

From CNN staff

A Friday night attack at Crocus City Hall, a popular concert venue complex near Moscow, left more than 130 people killed and even more wounded after assailants stormed the venue with guns and incendiary devices. ISIS has claimed responsibility for the attack, without providing evidence.

Four suspects involved in the attack were detained in the Bryansk region and taken to Moscow, where they are now in the custody of Russia's Investigative Committee, Russian state media TASS reported Saturday.

Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky said "miserable" Russian President Vladimir Putin waited   overnight before publicly addressing Russians, only to accuse   Ukraine of having a hand in the terror attack at a concert hall near Moscow.

Here are other headlines you should know:

  • More on the attack: According to the interior ministry, “all terrorists detained in the Bryansk region are foreign citizens ,” Russian state media reported. RIA Novosti published on Telegram the purported confession of one of the apprehended men. CNN cannot independently verify the RIA Novosti report or the statements made by the alleged attacker, which may have been made under duress.
  • Ukraine vehemently denies any connection: Defense Intelligence of Ukraine spokesperson Andrii Yusov firmly denied his country had anything to do with the terror attack. Earlier Saturday, Putin  told the Russian people  that the perpetrators had “tried to hide and moved towards Ukraine, where, according to preliminary data, a window was prepared for them on the Ukrainian side to cross the border." A handful of Russian officials have suggested  without evidence  that Ukraine may have been involved in the attack as well.
  • Global reactions: Leaders around the world — such as the French, Israeli and Turkish presidents — have expressed their condolences and condemnation of the onslaught. The United States “ strongly condemns ” the shooting, according to the White House and Secretary of State Antony Blinken. United Nations Secretary-General Antonio Guterres also denounced the attack , stressing that ISIS is a significant global threat at a news conference Saturday.
  • Belarus claims it thwarted suspects: Belarusian special services helped Russia prevent the "terrorists" who allegedly carried out the deadly attack from escaping across the border Friday night, the country's ambassador in Moscow said.
  • Estimated damage total: The total estimated damage to the Moscow region's Crocus City Hall after Friday's terror attack is between 9.5-11.4 billion rubles, or approximately $103-124 million, according to a shopping union vice president, as reported by Russian state media RIA Novosti.

Zelensky accuses Putin of trying to blame concert hall attack on Ukraine

From CNN's Maria Kostenko

Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky speaks at a press conference in Berlin on February 16.

Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky said "miserable" Russian President Vladimir Putin waited overnight before publicly addressing Russians, only to accuse Ukraine of having a hand in the terror attack at a concert hall near Moscow.

On Saturday, Putin told the Russian people that the perpetrators of the Crocus City Hall attack had “tried to hide and moved towards Ukraine, where, according to preliminary data, a window was prepared for them on the Ukrainian side to cross the border.”

Zelensky and several Ukrainian officials have vehemently denied Ukraine has any kind of involvement in the attack.

In his nightly address, Zelensky also said that Russians "have come to Ukraine, burn our cities – and try to blame Ukraine."

Zelensky added that if the Russian people do "not ask any questions to their security and intelligence agencies, then Putin will try to turn such a situation to his personal advantage again."

More background: The terror group ISIS claimed responsibility for Russia's attack, according to a short statement published by ISIS-affiliated news agency Amaq on Telegram Friday. ISIS has not provided evidence to support the claim.

Earlier this week, Putin had dismissed warnings by the US embassy that there could be terrorist attacks on large groups, telling the Federal Security Service (FSB) that the embassy warnings were "provocative" and "outright blackmail."

White House "strongly condemns" Moscow region terror attack

From CNN’s Samantha Waldenberg

White House press secretary Karine Jean-Pierre holds a briefing in Washington, DC, on March 22.

White House press secretary Karine Jean-Pierre said in a statement Saturday that the United States “strongly condemns” the terrorist attack at a concert venue complex near Moscow that left at least 133 people dead.

She added that ISIS, which has claimed responsibility for the attack without providing evidence, is a “common terrorist enemy that must be defeated everywhere.”

“We extend our deepest condolences to those who lost loved ones and to those who were injured or affected by these unconscionable attacks against innocent civilians," Jean-Pierre said in a statement issued by the White House. "ISIS is a common terrorist enemy that must be defeated everywhere."

4 suspects in Friday's attack are being questioned by Russian investigators, state media reports

Four suspects in Friday's terrorist attack on Crocus City Hall were detained in the Bryansk region and taken to Moscow, where they are now in the custody of Russia's Investigative Committee, Russian state media TASS reported Saturday.

The suspects were brought in two prisoner transport vehicles, which are still in the courtyard of the committee, a TASS correspondent reported. This indicates that the suspects are being interrogated and the investigation is ongoing, according to TASS.

In the coming days, investigators are expected to file a court motion asking for imprisonment as the chosen preventative measure. All four suspects face life imprisonment, TASS reports.

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  1. My Life my Health Essay/Essay on My Life my Health/Essay Writing on My Life my Health

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    MOSCOW, RUSSIA — Encore Fitness, a new chain of health clubs in Russia, is opening a flagship fitness centre in Moscow. The 3,900 sq ft venue, set to become the largest fitness club in Moscow City, will feature eight fitness zones based around the latest global trends and innovations. A cardio theatre, functional training zone, […]

  23. Moscow Attack Suspects Are Linked by Video and Online Profiles

    Clothing and other details appear to show a connection between four suspects detained by Russia and the men who carried out the concert hall massacre of more than 130 people.

  24. Some victims of Moscow shooting in critical condition, authorities say

    Russian media, citing the health ministry, now say that 121 people have been hospitalised, which is an increase on the figure of 107 given earlier in the day. The dead and those hospitalised are ...

  25. 4 Men Showing Signs of Beating Charged With Terrorism After Moscow

    The four men suspected of carrying out a bloody attack on a concert hall near Moscow, killing at least 137 people, were arraigned in a district court late Sunday and charged with committing a ...

  26. March 24 Moscow concert hall attack

    2:20 a.m. ET, March 25, 2024 Suspects in deadly concert hall attack facing life imprisonment. Here's what we know. From CNN staff

  27. March 23, 2024 Shooting at Moscow concert venue leaves over 130 dead

    ISIS-affiliated news agency Amaq released a graphic video on Saturday that purports to show Friday's attack at a concert hall in suburban Moscow recorded by one of the attackers, suggesting the ...

  28. Suspects in Moscow concert hall attack appear in court as Russia ...

    TOPSHOT - Members of emergency services work at the scene of the gun attack at the Crocus City Hall concert hall in Krasnogorsk, outside Moscow, on March 23, 2024.

  29. Moscow attack suspects dragged into court

    Four suspects in the Crocus City Hall attack, which left at least 137 people dead in Moscow have been charged with committing a terrorist act. They are facing possible life imprisonment. Three of ...