10 Great Essay Writing Tips
Knowing how to write a college essay is a useful skill for anyone who plans to go to college. Most colleges and universities ask you to submit a writing sample with your application. As a student, you’ll also write essays in your courses. Impress your professors with your knowledge and skill by using these great essay writing tips.
Most college essays ask you to answer a question or synthesize information you learned in class. Review notes you have from lectures, read the recommended texts and make sure you understand the topic. You should refer to these sources in your essay.
Plan Your Essay
Many students see planning as a waste of time, but it actually saves you time. Take a few minutes to think about the topic and what you want to say about it. You can write an outline, draw a chart or use a graphic organizer to arrange your ideas. This gives you a chance to spot problems in your ideas before you spend time writing out the paragraphs.
Choose a Writing Method That Feels Comfortable
You might have to type your essay before turning it in, but that doesn’t mean you have to write it that way. Some people find it easy to write out their ideas by hand. Others prefer typing in a word processor where they can erase and rewrite as needed. Find the one that works best for you and stick with it.
View It as a Conversation
Writing is a form of communication, so think of your essay as a conversation between you and the reader. Think about your response to the source material and the topic. Decide what you want to tell the reader about the topic. Then, stay focused on your response as you write.
Provide the Context in the Introduction
If you look at an example of an essay introduction, you’ll see that the best essays give the reader a context. Think of how you introduce two people to each other. You share the details you think they will find most interesting. Do this in your essay by stating what it’s about and then telling readers what the issue is.
Explain What Needs to be Explained
Sometimes you have to explain concepts or define words to help the reader understand your viewpoint. You also have to explain the reasoning behind your ideas. For example, it’s not enough to write that your greatest achievement is running an ultra marathon. You might need to define ultra marathon and explain why finishing the race is such an accomplishment.
Answer All the Questions
After you finish writing the first draft of your essay, make sure you’ve answered all the questions you were supposed to answer. For example, essays in compare and contrast format should show the similarities and differences between ideas, objects or events. If you’re writing about a significant achievement, describe what you did and how it affected you.
Stay Focused as You Write
Writing requires concentration. Find a place where you have few distractions and give yourself time to write without interruptions. Don’t wait until the night before the essay is due to start working on it.
Read the Essay Aloud to Proofread
When you finish writing your essay, read it aloud. You can do this by yourself or ask someone to listen to you read it. You’ll notice places where the ideas don’t make sense, and your listener can give you feedback about your ideas.
Avoid Filling the Page with Words
A great essay does more than follow an essay layout. It has something to say. Sometimes students panic and write everything they know about a topic or summarize everything in the source material. Your job as a writer is to show why this information is important.
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Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications of Hacking Essay
Introduction, ethical implications, legal implications, social implications.
Roughly 80 percent of our community currently relies on intricate computer supported systems. With the growing utilization of computer and rapid increase of the internet has resulted to numerous good things: online trade, e-banking, call centres, e-mail etc. The enhancement of system protection with a view of preventing unethical hacking has become a significant issue to community.
There are various methods of protecting an information system; it appears that the ethical hacking offers an improved method. Thus, whether to integrate or not integrate the “ethical hacking” in institutions of higher learning has become a fascinating debate. This essay evaluates the ethical, lawful, and social inferences of this concern.
So as to discuss the ethical, lawful, and ethical inferences of this concern, people need an understanding of the phrase ethical hacking. Raymond asserts that ethical hacking is a phrase used to mean computer hackers, people who attempt to enter secure networks with a view of learning the network’s weakness in order that it can be fixed (Raymond 2003). The query arising from this definition is whether the phrase is ethical or not ethical.
Ethics regarding computer systems claims partially that all data belongs to people and that no limitations or boundaries for preventing exposure of this data (Goheen & Fiske 2007). From hacker’s viewpoint, independence of information comprises the access to system passwords and the program itself. This autonomy in addition comprises the right of accessing data stored on systems.
Often, a hacker argues that the independence of data principles give him or her the right of having unlimited contact with system applications, e-mail and codes. At this instant, the ethical level of hacking has changed to “computer cracking” (Kephart et al. 2010).
When the data in any computer device has become accessible to all, there are no such things like confidential information, and there is in addition no seclusion issue. Training people to be ethical hackers is the same as training people to break into someone’s property and analyze the weakness of that property.
If ethical hacking has been trained in institutions, how does one know the trainees will not “hack” into the systems? If a student finds a really chief weakness, how does one know that he or she will not take advantage of it, or brag concerning it especially on the internet?
Additionally, teaching people ways of hacking into people’s systems is in addition a raid of someone’s seclusion, Boulanger (1998) claims that the intrusion of someone’s seclusion is ethically not correct. One may contend that it is justifiable the hackers are only attempting to assess the vulnerability of that computer application without accessing individual information or private data.
However, the moment the hacking knowledge has been imparted to people, it is erratic that the hackers will not utilize this knowledge to access some private data.
Once the hackers realize that the confidential data is useful for personal use, items like banking details, health information, credit details, workforce information, and defence details are likely to be changed by the hackers. Obviously, when such event occurred, it appears that the training on ethical hacking may not be an excellent approach.
Most governments lack an apparent regulation stating that whether the hacking knowledge to be learned as an option in institutions is lawful or illegal. However, most of the nations have embraced an integrated system crime policy which prevented hacking. Florida, a state in United States, was the first state to embrace an integrated system crime policy which prevented hacking operations in the early 1980s (Goheen & Fiske 2007).
In United Kingdom, the federal legislations have endorsed that illegal intrusion into, or alteration of, secured information it is not allowed in the law (Boulanger 1998). Clearly, if hacking into someone’s system is considered as an integrated system offense, so the training of ethical hacking turns out to be insignificant.
Indeed, ethical hacking is not only the method that can enhance computer protection. Software like raid-detection applications can secure an integrated application from operations that suggest illegal or unsuitable operation. Firewalls can protect systems from intrusion.
However, if ethical hacking courses are being learned by people, it is anticipated that the operations regarding ethical hacking are allowed by the computer user before. Otherwise, these operations will be regarded as a crime against the legislation.
In the contemporary world, companies and government depend very much on computer systems and internet. Sufficiently securing a company’s data records is an indispensable concern. Most of the companies have integrated protection software or applications like firewall or hack-detection devices with a view of protecting their data sets and to rapidly notice possible intrusions.
IBM system Journal argues that certain companies have realized that among the excellent methods of evaluating the hacker possibility to their advantages would be to have an autonomous system protection professional try to intrude their systems (Boulanger 1998).
This might be an excellent method of evaluating the computer weakness. However, allowing intrusion test staffs enter its computer applications, the company may experience several threats. For instance, the intrusion test personnel may be unsuccessful in identifying possible weaknesses; important protection details may be exposed, escalating the threat of the organization being prone to potential intrusion (Kephart et al. 2010).
Some companies even sponsor their computer application personnel to learn about ethical hacking in institutions of higher learning. Basically, the individual to be coached is anticipated to be of integrity. Otherwise it will not be an ethical way of approaching the issue.
In testing the protection and the other aspects of computer application is not something new. But during the initial phases of internet nobody knew of ethical hacking even regarding hacking itself, but with time an individual is more aware regarding the protection of his or her information, particularly because of attackers.
Ethical hacking is simply a protection system or means of securing data it is not a final answer to hacking. Organizations cannot relax simply because they have used ethical hacking. With the current ineffective protection regarding the internet, legal hacking may be the only adequate method of filling protection gaps and avoid system threats.
However, teaching legal hacking to people would just increase the level of hacking in the world. Regardless of the motivation the objective in this case is to enhance present system protection; no one can estimate what is likely to occur once the individual completes the training in hacking operations.
And if there are more hackers in community, it would just implies the threat of the computer being attacked by hackers will increase. Thus, it is unsuitable to train ethical hacking as a career in institutions of higher learning.
Boulanger, A 1998, ‘Catapults and grappling hooks: the tools and techniques of information warfare’, IBM System Journal , vol. 37 no.1, pp. 106-114.
Goheen, M & Fiske, R 2007, Computer security penetration exercise , MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
Kephart, J, Sorkin, G, Chess, M, & White, R 2010, ‘Fighting computer viruses,’ Scientific American , vol. 277 no. 5, pp. 88-93.
Raymond, S 2003, The new hacker’s dictionary , MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
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IvyPanda. (2019, December 10). Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications of Hacking. https://ivypanda.com/essays/ethical-hacking/
"Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications of Hacking." IvyPanda , 10 Dec. 2019, ivypanda.com/essays/ethical-hacking/.
IvyPanda . (2019) 'Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications of Hacking'. 10 December.
IvyPanda . 2019. "Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications of Hacking." December 10, 2019. https://ivypanda.com/essays/ethical-hacking/.
1. IvyPanda . "Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications of Hacking." December 10, 2019. https://ivypanda.com/essays/ethical-hacking/.
IvyPanda . "Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications of Hacking." December 10, 2019. https://ivypanda.com/essays/ethical-hacking/.
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What is ethical hacking.
Innovations in technology and software engineering have made the internet a basic necessity . Almost every machine requires an Internet connection to function. Businesses rely on the Internet to complete their transactions and keep their operations running smoothly. Private individuals store their data in digital clouds. Even top government bodies use the Internet to store sensitive and confidential data. However, this reliance provided hackers with the opportunity to profit. It gave rise to a new form of crime, exclusive to the Internet.
The hackers breach cybersecurity and retrieve data to use for their benefit. They use various methods from social engineering to direct system hacking to achieve their goals. To combat this, organizations have started hiring white-hat hackers. These white-hat hackers practice ethical hacking to help protect private and government data. Organizations hire them as cybersecurity experts that ethically hack systems to find weak points and potential threats. Ethical hacking is the act of deterring unethical hackers and securing the integrity of a cybersecurity network.
Ethical hacking is an authorized form of hacking. Ethical hackers or white-hat hackers perform ethical hacking to test cybersecurity. Individuals often refer to ethical hacking as penetration testing since it involves penetrating the cybersecurity of a system . Since most businesses and organizations utilize the Internet and computer networks to store data, ethical hacking has become an in-demand skill for cybersecurity experts . Cybersecurity professionals can earn an ethical hacking certification by attending training programs and courses . These programs ensure that the individuals who are learning how to hack do not use their knowledge for ill intentions.
Experts divide hackers into three categories— the white hats, the gray hats, and the black hats. The white-hat hackers are the ethical hackers while the black-hat hackers are cybercriminals. Gray-hat hackers are individuals whose intentions are between good and bad . White-hat hackers are professionals that perform ethical hacking. Their activities are similar to black-hat hackers except that they only hack with the consent of a victim . White-hat hackers are knowledgeable in breaching cybersecurity and even manipulating individuals to gain vital information. They are also highly intelligent with great critical thinking skills which allows them to find solutions to complex problems.
White-hat hackers can be any individual who has the skills and knowledge to hack a system. An organization often has its own unique requirements when hiring a white-hat hacker . Software engineers, former military intelligence, and former black-hat hackers are great candidates for a white-hat hacker position. Organizations also prefer applicants to have a Certified Ethical Hacker certification from the EC-Council . The certification guarantees organizations that the applicant is trustworthy and capable of ethical hacking. There are also other curriculums that white-hat hackers can complete to strengthen their portfolios.
The main responsibility of a white-hat hacker is to find vulnerable points in a system or network. They hack into the network of their clients to find vulnerabilities. They can find viruses and malware that are infecting a system. They test firewalls and honeynets to find holes in the infrastructure. They then report their finding to cybersecurity experts that will try to address the issues. In certain situations, the white-hat hacker may also help in the development of cybersecurity software . As stated above, these tasks are similar to what black-hat hackers will do. White-hat hackers perform these similar methods to protect data from black-hat hackers.
While breaching in a network, clients expect white-hat hackers to demonstrate responsibility. A white-hat hacker’s job is to mimic a black-hat hacker attack , however, they should avoid damaging the system. Black-hat hackers ignore the damages they inflict in a system as long as they achieve their goals. Knowles  stated that when he shows his findings to a client, he avoids any action that could risk compromising data. This show of responsibility is essential for any white-hat hacker as it differentiates them from the destructive black hats.
Ethical Hacking Issues
Ethical hacking requires a white-hat hacker to penetrate the cybersecurity of the client. This will involve the white-hat hacker committing actions that authorities would otherwise deem illegal. A white-hat hacker will only be able to perform their duties under the consent of their client. Despite this, authorities have arrested white-hat hackers for felonies while doing ethical hacking . The arrests are due to many reasons from a client’s exploitation to the white-hat hacker attacking a wrong IP address.
White-hat hackers need to be aware of the temperament of their clients. Their clients may accuse them of criminal activity if they find something incriminating in the system. An example of this is the case of Stefan Puffer. Puffer worked for Harris County in 2002 where he discovered how easy it was to hack into the court’s system . He also found pornography in one of the computers . When Puffer reported his findings, the County charged him with unauthorized access to computer systems . This was the County’s attempt to blame Puffer instead of admitting to the findings. The court quickly acquitted Puffer as they were aware of his employment and that the County was putting the blame on the white-hat hacker.
Aside from client accusations, third parties can sue a white-hat hacker. This can happen when a client hires a white-hat hacker to penetrate a network that another entity owns. For example, a cloud customer may hire a white hacker to test the security of the cloud network. Despite the customer’s authorization, the white-hat hacker does not have the consent of the cloud provider . The cloud provider will be liable to make legal actions against the hacker. Another example would be if a client accidentally provides the wrong IP address for the white-hat hacker to attack . The hacker could face serious repercussions if the wrong IP address they attack is government-owned.
Another issue in ethical hacking is the discovery of incriminating information. When a white-hat hacker gains access to a system, they may find incriminating information. This can be a vulnerable security system that can potentially release customers’ private information. It can even be a business practice that subtly harms the customers. A white-hat hacker may be unable to report these findings to authorities due to a disclosure agreement. They may face an ethical dilemma where they have to choose whether to ignore unethical practices or report them to authorities and the customers.
Ethical Hacking Agreement
To address the various ethical hacking issues, white-hat hackers should sign a binding agreement with the client. The agreement should contain the scope of the responsibility and liability of the white-hat hacker. It is also a good practice to engage in responsible disclosure. This is a disclosure agreement where the white-hat hacker can publicize a vulnerability or issue regarding the client’s system after a certain period . This forces clients to work on the issue before the white-hat hacker is legally able to publicize the problem.
To avoid wrongful accusations and third-party issues, the white-hat hacker should create a detailed agreement that will ensure their safety. However, they should make sure that they also address the needs of their clients. They should let the client understand their work and how they will operate during the duration of the agreement. Some companies may be unaware that white-hat hackers replicate black-hat hacker attacks and press charges once they discover a breach in their system. An extensive agreement will allow a white-hat hacker to work without worrying about client issues.
The Internet and computer networks have made ethical hacking a necessary security element. It is the act of deterring unethical hackers and securing the integrity of a cybersecurity network. Any company that deals with digital networks hire white-hat hackers to test their systems and discover vulnerabilities. Despite the high demand for white-hat hackers, professionals still face various issues in their work. They may face hostile clients and discover information that can harm certain individuals. Still, they can address these issues through binding agreements. As black-hat hackers continue to develop ways to attack their victims, ethical hacking will be a necessary tool for companies and institutions.
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 Ethical Hacking and Morality: The Gray Area. Maryville University. https://online.maryville.edu/blog/ethical-hacking-and-morality-the-gray-area/ (Accessed July 28, 2021).
 What Is Ethical Hacking? LeTourneau University. https://www.letu.edu/trending/content/what-ethical-hacking (Accessed July 28, 2021).
 A. Knowles. How Black Hats and White Hats Collaborate to be Successful. SecurityIntellignence.com. https://securityintelligence.com/how-black-hats-and-white-hats-collaborate-to-be-successful/ Accessed July 28, 2021).
 E. Tittel & E. Follis. How to Become a White Hat Hacker. Business News Daily. https://www.businessnewsdaily.com/10713-white-hat-hacker-career.html (Accessed July 28, 2021).
 M. Rasch. Legal Issues in Penetration Testing. Security Current. https://securitycurrent.com/legal-issues-in-penetration-testing/ (Accessed July 28, 2021).
 J. Leyden. Ethical Wireless Hacker is Innocent. The Register. https://www.theregister.com/2003/02/24/ethical_wireless_hacker_is_innocent/ (Accessed July 28, 2021).
 D. Zimmer. The Challenges of Ethical Hacking - A Minefield of Legal and Ethical Woes. Privateinternetaccess.com. https://www.privateinternetaccess.com/blog/the-challenges-of-ethical-hacking-a-minefield-of-legal-and-ethical-woes/ (Accessed July 28, 2021).
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