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Liberation War of Bangladesh

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essay on liberation war of bangladesh

Physical Review

Abdus Salam


Minhazul Islam

Bangladeshi people fought and gained their freedom against Pakistani military rulers after 9 months of a bloody sacrifice. The word liberation means freedom and this freedom cost Bangladesh 3 million martyrs life. The liberation war of Bangladesh and getting independence from Pakistan is the remarkable achievement for the Bangladeshi people. Besides liberation war in 1971 is the key to the unity of the people of Bangladesh. For being a remarkable achievement and key to unity for the Bangladeshi people it has some historical background.


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We started this journey, confused and overwhelmed by the mountain of a task that we had been set. We knew that the end product would be a fantastically inspiring collection of memoirs, yet we had no idea where to start. Knowing that this project was a one of a kind, with such a unique theme made us want to strive to make everything come together perfectly. However we did not realise how much we would want it to work until we were fully immersed in the project. Our internal motivation fuelled the basis of the journey, but our absorption into the project was inspired by the amazing women we spoke to. Hearing their stories of courage, strength and motivation made us want to ensure that we did justice to those who fought for the justice of their people. If there was ever a point at which we stalled, we knew that we could not stop. These fantastic women had fought for liberation against all odds with their minds, hearts and souls; who were we to get stressed? But as imagined, we found ourselves stressed. Each member of the team was either working or studying full time whilst pursuing this. Balancing our timetables was never simple but the common goal brought us together. We wanted to present these women to the world exactly as we saw them; truly inspirational. We wanted them to be recognised for every second of work that they had put in for such a worthy cause. And finally we wanted to ensure that the work of women in such a momentous period as this was not lost in history. For this we are extremely thankful, these women are the cornerstone of this project and we cannot express enough gratitude. We are also extremely grateful to Dr Dipak Bush, Dr Naim, Karen Buck MP, Dr Renu Lufta and Feroz Khan for their much valued support. These academics and extremely knowledgeable people played a crucial role in supervising and supporting us on this journey. Our thanks also go to Ansar Ahmed Ullah for being hugely supportive and taking the time to answer our queries at every given opportunity on the way. We are grateful to Mr. Aziz Toki, Director of CLYD for all his support, in keeping our aspirations and enthusiasm elevated by creating a teamwork environment. We also extend our gratefulness to Ms Louisa Lochner, Head teacher of Gateway Primary school for her support as a partner of this project and to Ms Natalie Young, a history teacher who has helped develop supporting study materials. Our journey would not have been anywhere as smooth as it has been, without these amazing people and their extensive knowledge Our volunteers have worked hard throughout this project and have been a true pleasure to work with. We are extremely proud of our team and also extremely thankful for their input, they have really helped this book become a reality. This book would have been a mere idea without the support and contributions of the aforementioned. This has been a fantastic opportunity for each of us to grow and we are extremely happy with how everything has come together. We are genuinely humbled to see where we are now from the daunting moments at which we started. This has been a truly eye opening journey for each one of us and we hope that it can also enlighten you on a journey of your own.

IJSRP Journal

The aim of the present study is to evaluate the charismatic leadership quality of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman. This study was carried out by descriptive qualitative research techniques. The result revealed that Sheikh Mujib was stimulated people by his charismatic leadership capability and huge political knowledge. From his early life he was demonstrated two key leadership qualities which make him unquestionable leader of the Bangladesh. One key quality was proactive social consciousness and paramount dedication for politics. Sheikh Mujib has so many leadership skills that recognized him as a leader of general people. His aspiration and sacrifice for nation made him an icon of the country. Therefore, it can be concluded that his leadership trait made himself as a father of the nation


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The Bangladesh Liberation War

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Liberation War Speech

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Banking Sector In Bangladesh

Status of the current banking sector in Bangladesh- ( ) Banking sector is known as the backbone of the economy of a country.After the liberation war banking sector in Bangladesh was gone through a rough phase. Because in that period there was no controller of the banking sector. So for that reason Bangladesh bank was formed. Before the liberation war Bangladesh bank was recognized as the Dhaka branch

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Agriculture During that time, 65% of revenue of undivided Pakistan came from agricultural sector. During the liberation war, 1 crore of of the pollution went to India for refuge, and another 2 crore becomes displaced and homeless to save their lives. As a result the agricultural sector fell into severe severe ruins. Financially this lose in agricultural sector was estimated to be approximately 379 crore and 5 lakh Taka. Additionally, there were also related material damage of approximately 84 crore

Self Determination Elizabeth Chadwick Analysis

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Publications Research Dossiers

1971 liberation war, birth of bangladesh and comparison with present day pakistan, introduction.

The 1971 liberation war of Bangladesh against Pakistan continues shaping the mindset of Bangladeshi people until present day. This bloodstained historical event has constructed Bangladeshi sense of nationalism and has forged their contemporary Constitution. The Bangladesh we see today is essentially the fruit of the liberation war of 1971. In order to understand ongoing Bangladeshi politics and the socio-economic sphere, it is required to analyse the history of Pakistani colonialism and the events surrounding the 1971 liberation war that turned Bangladesh into an independent sovereign State. This research paper provides a profound overview of these historical narratives and draws a comparison between present day Bangladesh and Pakistan.

The Partition of the Indian Subcontinent and Creation of Pakistan

The liberation war of Bangladesh was not merely a war for independence fought by Bangladeshi nationalists - one of its main triggers was religion. The Pakistani government wanted to turn Bangladeshis into exemplary Muslims by alienating them from their Hindu background. This concept of religious division was also used as a root cause for the creation of Pakistan in the first place following British colonialism of the subcontinent. Ironically, religion brought together Bangladesh and Pakistan as one State during the partition of the subcontinent and later the very same religion separated the two. Comprehending the development of the liberation war of Bangladesh involves a meticulous retrospective look into the events leading to the partition of the Indian subcontinent. Following the devastating effects of the Second World War, the British colonialists gave up their control over the Indian subcontinent and the 1947 partition outlined two independent nations - India and Pakistan.

Lahore Resolution

essay on liberation war of bangladesh

The Partition

essay on liberation war of bangladesh

Discrimination and Exploitation by West-Pakistan

The Muslims of Bengal hoped that in the new Muslim state they would finally achieve a better standard of life. Given their past inferiority to Hindu landlords, Bengal Muslims were looking forward to the West-Pakistani government to ensure their fundamental rights. However, events did not unfold as the Bengali people had hoped. The West-Pakistani government proved even more discriminatory towards the people of East-Pakistan in all spheres of life - social, political and economic.

Political Discrimination

The government’s headquarters were established in the Western Wing. Besides, the political representation of the different ethnic groups was not equal in the Central Government. It was dominated by elite groups of West-Pakistan, mainly the Punjabis. Minority ethnic groups, such as the Bengali population, did not have significant representation in the government. Consequently, control over state-owned organizations, governmental mechanisms and the armed forces were in the hands of the dominant ethnic group. During the years of 1947 - 1971, Pakistan experienced prolonged phases of military rule, which made it more difficult for ethnic minorities to gain access to political power. The Bengali population did not even have satisfactory political representation in their own province. Even for higher government posts such as “Governor-General,” Bengalis were not considered good enough.

essay on liberation war of bangladesh

Such positions were awarded to people from West-Pakistan or migrants from India who assumed Pakistani citizenship. At the initial stages of the government’s creation, the West-Pakistanis sought various mechanisms to avoid handing over power to East Bengal, which harboured the majority in terms of population size. The elites of West-Pakistan tried several ways to capture the control and succeeded in their attempts to dominate East Bengal through the central government in West-Pakistan. However, the power struggle continued between different political parties and the Western elites were forced to accept the role of Bengalis in politics, through the process of creating and abandoning several drafts of the National Assembly, that gave Bengalis a satisfactory share of representation in the constitution of 1956. Before this could yield any positive outcome for the unification of the two wings of Pakistan, the country fell prey to military rule and previous assemblies were again dissolved. 

essay on liberation war of bangladesh

Economic exploitation

essay on liberation war of bangladesh

The Six Points Movement is a significant turnover in the history of Bangladesh. Despite being initially rejected, it became a core component of the election campaign of Sheikh Mujib during the election of 1970. It embraced the Mujib’s campaign on yielding equal access to economic opportunities for everyone.

Social Exploitation

Since the very formation of Pakistan, the Western part branded the Eastern as inferior, because it considered the Muslims in the Eastern Wing subordinate due to their social and cultural affiliation with the Hindu population, which were powerful, rich and dominating in East-Pakistan before the partition of the subcontinent. As a result of the partition many influential Hindus left East-Pakistan to join India. Nonetheless, the Hindu population still counted as one of the major ethnic groups present in the Eastern Wing. Historically, people from various religions had always co-existed peacefully in the East Wing, as they were naturally adopting practices and customs from one another, while tolerating everyone’s traditions and beliefs. Even today, Muslim communities celebrate programs that hold a Hindu foundation and have barely no roots or relevance to Islam. The West-Pakistani government was critical about the intimacy between the Muslim and the Hindu population. Even though the Muslims of the East Wing supported the partition, they were not willing to give up their own culture or language for the sake of becoming a Pakistani as envisioned by the elite of West-Pakistan. The West-Pakistani government remained insensitive to the cultural sentiments of the East-Pakistani people. The selection of a national Pakistani language became a contentious issue since the onset of its genesis. The West-Pakistan government did not pay any heed to the language that predominated in East-Pakistan, namely Bengali. The number of Bengali speakers were higher in comparison with the number of Urdu speakers. Urdu was the language of the elite, used only by 7% of Pakistanis. In contrast, Bengali was spoken by 56% of Pakistanis. The West-Pakistani leaders did not consider this factor while choosing an official language. While arguing that Bengali can still remain a primary language for everyday use of the people in the Eastern Province, Mohammed Ali Jinnah, the founding father of Pakistan and the first Governor General, declared on the 24 th  of March 1948 during a conference in Dhaka University that Urdu will become the State language. This declaration triggered a great outrage among the people of the Eastern Wing that became to be known as the Bengali Language Movement. 

essay on liberation war of bangladesh

Continuous political, economic and social exploitation took part before Bangladesh could achieve its Independence. Following are certain major events that have contributed to the resolution of this national struggle and the creation of Bangladesh as an Independent country. 

Agartala Conspiracy Case

essay on liberation war of bangladesh

Operation Searchlight

Operation Searchlight is the planned genocide that took place on the 25 th  of March 1971 and was undertaken by the West-Pakistani government against its own citizens of the Eastern Wing. This plan was the result of the victory of Sheikh Mujib’s party in the General Election of Pakistan in 1970. The West-Pakistani rulers had no intention to convey the power to Sheikh Mujib and finally their National Assembly was dismissed. The dismissal brought fierce reactions among the people of East-Pakistan and Sheikh Mujib summoned a five day long strike and protests for an indefinite period. Following the five-day strike, he exhorted the East-Pakistani people to embark on an Independence struggle. Law and order collapsed as people broke curfews imposed by the West-Pakistani Government. The Bengalis occupied the streets demanding freedom and self-determination for Bangladesh. During this period, in a meeting of Awami League, the National Anthem of Bangladesh was chosen. 

essay on liberation war of bangladesh

The Liberation War (March to December 1971)

Following the massacre of the 25 th  of March 1971, Bengalis started fighting against the Pakistani military with every resource they had. Ordinary Bengalis, especially young people, who had no knowledge or training to fight in a war, risked their lives and the lives of their family members for the sake of making Bangladesh an independent country. Following the “Black Night” of 25 th  of March, the atrocities of the Pakistani military aggravated. The operation was extended to the entire region of East-Pakistan. 

essay on liberation war of bangladesh

The Bengali Nationalists assembled a shallow novice armed force called “Mukti Bahini” (The Force of Independence). The Bengali military officers of East-Pakistan took charge over the military operations of the Bengali nationalists. They divided East-Pakistan in 11 sectors in order to conduct their guerrilla operations against the West-Pakistani military. In the meantime, the Provisional Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh was created in Mujibnagar by some political leaders of East-Pakistan. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman who was a prisoner of the West-Pakistan government during that time was made the President and Tajuddin Ahmed was made the Prime Minister of Bangladesh. This event led to the official declaration of Bangladesh as an independent state.

Refugee Crisis

essay on liberation war of bangladesh

Military Support from India

After Pakistan launched several attacks on Indian territory on the 3 rd of December 1971, India joined Bangladesh in its military efforts against the Pakistani military. With the support of India as well as commands from the military officers of East-Pakistan, the West-Pakistani military was defeated. It eventually surrendered to the joint forces of Bangladesh and India leading to victory for Bangladesh on 16 th  of December 1971.  

The Rajakars

essay on liberation war of bangladesh

Atrocities Committed by the Pakistani Army

essay on liberation war of bangladesh

International Support

Bangladesh received continuous moral support from India since the beginning of the Liberation War. Indira Gandhi, the Prime Minister of India during that time, was able to secure support from the Soviet Union, The United Kingdom and France to ensure that there would be no directives in favour of Pakistan in the United Nations Security Council. In contrast, Pakistan received support from the United States and China. The United States provided ammunition while China provided moral advocacy. In spite of the protection and encouragement from the United States, Pakistan did not have high chances of winning the war because of the Soviet Union which played against the efforts of the United States during the war.

The Surrender of Pakistani Army and victory of Bangladesh

essay on liberation war of bangladesh

Comparison between Present Day Bangladesh and Pakistan

Bangladesh has walked a long way after its liberation from Pakistan. The following section of the article discusses the advancement of Bangladesh in terms of social, political and economic development in comparison to the evolution and growth of Pakistan. The analysis intends to construct a parallel that compares the levels of flourishment and deterioration between the two countries.

Political Development of Bangladesh

essay on liberation war of bangladesh

Rule of Law

Rule of law conveys the message that the law is equal for everyone and is above all.  The rule of law is vital in ensuring protection for the citizens of a country against the abuse of power by governmental and public authorities. Despite the fact that Bangladesh is a democratic country, in reality Rule of law does not exist to the desired extent. One major issue with the principles of legitimacy in Bangladesh is that the judiciary is not completely independent. While the higher courts exercise independence, the Ministry of Justice controls the lower courts. In addition, derogating political opponents often implies the practice of misemploying the rule of law. Provisions, such as the Special Power Act of 1974 and Section 54 of the Criminal Code often insinuate such machinations. They are frequently used to justify arrests and detention of the opposition. The Bangladeshi armed forces, which were expected forgers of fundamental legal standards in favour of their citizens, have been frequently biased towards the ruling party. Furthermore, pervasive corruption among the criminal justice body, especially the police force has been widespread. The judicial system has been ineffective in terms of timely management of cases, ensuring fair trial and equal access for all citizens. Particularly for the poor and disadvantaged individuals, means of entry to adequate legal services were not only deficient, but also unbearably costly. Primary reasons for the inefficiency of the Judiciary system were the low salaries of legal authorities and consequently, corruption. Albeit Bangladesh requires significant improvements in its establishment of the rule of law, its performance is manifestly greater compared to that of Pakistan. According to the World Justice Project Ranking of 2016, the score of Bangladesh was 0.41, which placed it under number 103 among the 113 countries, where the scores ranged from 0 to 1. The closer the score to 0, the more disadvantageous the situation regarding impartiality and legitimacy of the judicial body. It is visible from the score of Bangladesh that it has a long way to go before it achieves a higher advanced standard of  the rule of law. In comparison, Pakistan’s score was even lower - 0.38 and its global ranking - 106. Therefore, despite Pakistan’s historical influence and challenging aftermaths of the Liberation War, Bangladesh has managed to reach and implement legal principles of higher quality.

Accountability of Government

Government accountability refers to the obligation of official authorities to justify their actions in front of their citizens and maintain transparency and clarity of decision-making. It further encompasses a subjection to punitive measures in case of failure to liability. When mechanisms of legal responsibility are missing, corruption and abuse of power will thrive. Open, democratic and impartial election campaigns are a crucial device towards ensuring accountability. Although Bangladesh, like Pakistan, has been exposed to series of military coup d’états after gaining its independence, the country managed to extricate itself from this severe situation and establish a democratic governance system.

essay on liberation war of bangladesh

Political Stability

essay on liberation war of bangladesh

Control of Corruption

Corruption is one of the most problematic features of Bangladesh. It is a chronic and endemic problem, widespread across the entire social strata. Throughout the country nepotism has become a habitual conduct, a lifestyle, and it is disputable what circumstances have prompted it - the culture or the bureaucracy. Hence, it does not come as a surprise that public offices are run by nepotism and bribery. Recruitment and promotion hardly ever happen to be impartial procedures across sectors such as defense, transportation, education and health. Primary reasons for such chronic corruption among the Bangladeshi public officials are the meagre salaries and lack of labour privileges. Bribes have therefore become an alternative source of earning. The level of corruption has outspread on such a large scale that as a result the population has institutionalized and normalized this culture of bribery and nepotism. Public offices have started exploiting national funds in order to bypass and bend rules and regulations. Consequently, the gap between rich and poor has widened excessively, giving the already affluent upper-class more wealth and leaving the poor to suffer in greater misery. Even though some businesses succeeded in generating enormous profits by means of corruption, in reality this mechanism increases expenditures and therefore discourages the growth of new businesses. The enterprises usually resort to bribery for acquiring documents that facilitate the company’s legal registration, that provide license or permit for business operations or for utility connections. The adverse effects of corruption are endless. Especially within the law enforcement sector, which is responsible for social security, the effects of corruption are terribly deleterious. Police force agents fail to retain trust of the population due to their dishonourable and fraudulent reputation. Court cases miscarry in living up to the ideals of a fair trial since verdicts become manipulated and ruled by money. Despite that there is a national anti-corruption committee based in Bangladesh, it has not achieved any satisfactory results. Bangladesh might have reached a certain level of progress, yet corruption still remains a pervasive issue among the society. According to Transparency International Bangladesh, three out of four people in Bangladesh bribe officials while seeking services from law enforcement agencies or immigration services. In 2015, the amount of bribes paid to public officials was $1.1 billion USD. Even though brave efforts of digitalization are underway, the majority of public services are provided tête-à-tête, which renders bribing easier. Owing to corruption, power lays in the hands of the rich and dominant figures rather than in those who are qualified and suitable for running the country. According to the 2015 report of Transparency International, 56% of the members of the parliament were either businessmen or industrialists. When there is a lack of a check and balance system to control the financial activities of the public offices, public officials misuse governmental resources without being held accountable for it. Bangladesh has paid a hefty price for this politics-business nexus. In April 2013, an eight story building collapsed in Savar, Dhaka that hosted several garment factories. Around 1129 people, predominantly employees, lost their lives in the incident and 2500 people were severely injured. The owner of the building had a permit from the municipality to build a five story building, yet using his political connections he managed to enlarge it. Under the shadow of politics, various such fraudulent practices take place in the country. Regarding corruption, Bangladesh is in a more injurious situation in comparison to Pakistan. According to the World Bank’s Worldwide Governance Indicator of Control of Corruption, the score of Bangladesh for 2015 was 18.3 whereas the score of Pakistan was 23.6.

Social Development

Regardless of the vast number of socio-economic and political obstacles existent in Bangladesh since independence, the state has achieved a remarkable progress in terms of social development. The Bangladeshi society has evolved impressively in terms of access to education and women empowerment, which are both vital requirements for its healthy social development.

Living Standard

The living standards of both countries can be compared through examining access to basic life necessities such as food, housing, water and sanitation, and health care facilities.

essay on liberation war of bangladesh

Water and Sanitation

Access to safe water and proper sanitation facilities have improved in both countries over the years. Bangladesh has notably developed its drinkable water provision, namely for 86.5% of its urban population and 87% of its rural population. Respectively, the statistics for Pakistan are 93.9% for the urban population and 89.9% for the rural population. Therefore, Bangladesh is still in need of amelioration. With regard to sanitation facilities, Bangladesh has ensured enhanced access for 57.7% of its urban population compared to 83.1% of Pakistan, which once again calls for improvements. Nevertheless, it has been able to secure means of entry to sanitation facilities for 62.1% of its rural population, whereas Pakistan for only 51.1%.  

Food Security

Bangladesh has undergone a long way from being an aid dependent country, especially in terms of food aid, to becoming more self-sufficient in food production. However, this process of nourishment has not entirely curbed the issue of food security. Even though food production has increased, the equal distribution of food, especially nutritious food has not been ensured. Apart from the threat of overpopulation, the frequent natural calamities such as monsoon floods, river erosion and water contamination continue to impose challenges.  Impoverished families remain the primary victims of undernourishment since food prices continue to increase. According to the 2016 Global Hunger Index, 16.4% of the population of Bangladesh are suffering from malnutrition. In Pakistan, 22% of the population suffers from malnutrition. 

Basic Health care

Bangladesh invests slightly more in the healthcare sector compared to Pakistan -  the World Health Organization’s 2014 database displays that Bangladesh has spent 2.8% of its GDP on the health industry whereas Pakistan spends 2.6% on healthcare. In 2015, the life expectancy at birth for both sexes for Bangladesh was 71.8 and for Pakistan - 66.4. According to the same year’s database, the number of neonatal deaths (in thousands) in Bangladesh was 74 whereas in Pakistan it was 245. This alarming difference is equally reflected in the neonatal mortality rate. In Bangladesh, the neonatal mortality rate (per 1000 live births) was 23.3% compared to Pakistan’s 45.5%. Awareness about reproductive health also seems to be more widespread in Bangladesh than in Pakistan. In 2012, the prevalence of contraception usage in Bangladesh was 61.2%, whereas in Pakistan it was only 35.4% in the following year. It is interesting to note, that despite having a lower gross national income per capita (PPP in $) as well as physicians density (per 1000 population), Bangladesh implements more effective strategies and performs in a higher standard regarding reducing child mortality, increasing life expectancy and raising awareness on reproductive health. According to estimates from 2011, Bangladesh had a physicians’ density of 0.356, while Pakistan had 0.827 in 2010.

essay on liberation war of bangladesh

Women Empowerment

essay on liberation war of bangladesh

Social Cohesiveness

A notable difference between Bangladesh and Pakistan is the aspect of social cohesiveness. People from different religious backgrounds live in peace and harmony in Bangladesh. The history of bloodshed of the Indian subcontinent seems to have had little impact on the Bangladeshi society since people with various religious affiliations succeed in achieving a balanced co-existence and mutually beneficent symbiosis. This atmosphere of congeniality and intimacy has evolved to the extent that individuals have even adopted each other’s religious practices and religious rituals. However, this situation is fully contrasting the one in Pakistan. Although, the latter is a Muslim majority country it still adopts a cast system among them in certain areas of Pakistan such as Punjab. As a general rule, in Islam there is no cast system since the faith proclaims that all Muslims are equal human beings. Strangely enough, Pakistan exercises a cast system determined by the professions of forefathers. In Punjab region cast titles such as Butt, Jatt, Mochi are assimilated, where each of these is referring to a particular profession of the forefathers. For example, even if a person is a doctor but he belongs to the cast of Mochi (Cobbler) because his predecessors were cobblers, he would still be considered a part of the Mochi cast and would be treated accordingly. The cast system is strictly followed and intermarriage between casts is discouraged. In Bangladesh, there is no such cast system among the Muslims, yet it exists among the Hindus. Nevertheless, Muslims and Hindus associate and mingle together, and maintain very peaceful relations altogether with other religious minorities. The incidents of violence against religious or ethnic minorities that happen in Bangladesh are mostly politically induced and are often condemned and protested against by the civil society.

Economic Development

Bangladesh has a very resilient economy. Despite its internal challenges and external pressure from international strain factors, it has maintained a consistent economic growth.

In 2015, the annual growth of its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was 6.6% compared to 4.7% of Pakistan according to The World Bank database. Even though Bangladesh is progressing rapidly, it is behind Pakistan in terms of Gross National Income (GNI) per capita and Purchasing Power Parity (PPP). In 2015, the aforementioned indexes’ score for Bangladesh was USD 3560 whereas for Pakistan it was USD 5320. Although, Bangladesh is growing faster, it needs to catch up in ensuring a higher GNI. Interestingly, even with a lower GNI Bangladesh has a higher Gross National Savings (GNS) compared to that of Pakistan. According to the Central Intelligence Agency database, Bangladesh had a GNS of 28.6% of GDP whereas Pakistan had 14.3%.

Notwithstanding Bangladesh’s remarkably swift advancement and development, a significant percentage of the population still struggles with poverty. According to the 2010 World Bank Database estimates, the poverty headcount ratio at national poverty lines (% of population) for Bangladesh was 31.5%, whereas the conditions in Pakistan were even more deteriorating with 36.8% of population living in poverty.


Unemployment is a grave issue of concern for both countries. Although, access to education has increased and the number of educational institutions providing all levels of educations has skyrocketed, employment opportunities have not risen with the same pace. A paradox occurs where a large youth population receive an education, yet it remains stuck into an unemployment vicious circle. Nevertheless, Bangladesh still sustains slightly better circumstances in terms of employment compared to Pakistan. According to the 2016 Central Intelligence Agency database, the unemployment rate in Bangladesh was 4.9% and for Pakistan it was 6.7%.

Population Density

essay on liberation war of bangladesh


essay on liberation war of bangladesh

Inflation (Consumer Prices) and Exchange Rates

The wellbeing of an economy can be concluded from its inflation rate and exchange rates. Even though Bangladesh has a higher inflation (consumer prices) rate compared to Pakistan, the value of the Bangladeshi currency (Bangladeshi Taka) is higher than the Pakistani Rupee. The inflation rate of Bangladesh as per 2016 estimates was 5.6% and for Pakistan it was 3.7%. In contrast, the exchange rate against US dollar for Bangladeshi Taka was 78.5 (1 USD = 78.5 BDT) whereas for Pakistan rupee it was 105.1 (1 USD = 105.1 Pakistani Rupee). Additionally, Bangladeshi reserve of foreign exchange is larger compared to Pakistan. According to the 2016 Central Intelligence Agency statistics, Bangladesh had a reserve of foreign exchange and gold worth $29.77 billion, whereas Pakistan had $20.53 billion.

Foreign Aid and External Debt

Bangladesh has come the long way of being called the “basket case”, to be assigned with the label of a “promising economy.” The basket case referred to its huge aid dependency in the post-independence era. Many doubts were casted on whether Bangladesh would ever be able to escape its destitute situation caused by war and natural calamities. As a surprise to the international community, Bangladesh successfully came out of that phase and reduced its aid dependency significantly. During the early stages after gaining independence, a massive inflow of food and commodity aid took place. Over the years, Bangladesh was able to reduce that dependency to almost zero percentage, especially due to developments in agriculture, which helped the country to become self-sufficient in food supplies. Nevertheless, Bangladesh remains dependent regarding specialized assistance such as project aids. In relation to external debt, the state had an external debt of around $37.26 Billion USD compared to Pakistan’s $64.04 Billion USD, according to the 2016 Central Intelligence Agency’s data. One of the factors that assisted Bangladesh to rebuild its economy was the widespread presence of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO). The local and international NGOs work relentlessly throughout Bangladesh and especially in remote areas. One exclusive achievement was the success of micro credit finance in bringing people out of poverty and empowering women by making them financially independent, which significantly has contributed to economic and social development of Bangladesh.

Sustainable Development

essay on liberation war of bangladesh

Social, Economic and Political inferiority can never bring prosperity to a nation. Undoubtedly, Bangladesh has been substantially better off after its liberation from Pakistan. Developmental problems across all socio-economic and political sectors still exist. Nevertheless, a remarkable achievement is that Bangladesh has managed to acquire its sovereignty and independence, and therefore it has the power to resolve its problems without the domination or interference of a superior political authority, which was the case before the Liberation War. Bangladeshi people are able to proudly speak in Bengali, their mother tongue, without any fear of persecution and aggression. The Muslim population can mix freely with people from other religions without being judged and subjected to discrimination by being labelled inferior. 

Pakistan started its journey as an independent and sovereign state in 1947, Bangladesh started its journey almost 24 years later, yet the latter has managed to outperform the former in the long run. Given the fact that the growth rate of the GDP of Bangladesh is currently higher than the Pakistani GDP, it could be projected that Bangladesh will continue outrunning Pakistan in regards with the various sustainable development indexes. However, regional cooperation is crucial for achieving peace and stability in the country; It is essential for South Asian countries, including Bangladesh and Pakistan, to improve and strengthen the bonds with their neighbours. 

essay on liberation war of bangladesh

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Origins: Current Events in Historical Perspective

The Bangladesh Liberation War

  • Eric A. Strahorn

December 16, 1971 marked the end of the Bangladesh Liberation War, a short-lived conflict between India and Pakistan that established the People’s Republic of Bangladesh from the territory of the former province of East Pakistan.

Written by Eric A. Strahorn. Narration by Dr. Nicholas B. Breyfogle. Video production by Laura Seeger and Dr. Nicholas B. Breyfogle.    


Bangladesh Liberation War Essays

Conflict: bangladesh liberation war.

The Bangladesh Liberation War was a revolutionary war of freedom in South Asia throughout 1971 which built the sovereign republic of Bangladesh. The war set East Pakistan (later joined by India) against West Pakistan, and kept going for over a term of nine months. It saw expansive scale monstrosities, the mass migration of 10 million outcasts and the relocation of 30 million people. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was a Bengali patriot legislator and statesman. He was the fundamental freedom guide of Bangladesh

Genocide Of Bangladesh Essay

Bangladesh became independent after fighting a bloody war of nine months where a massive amount of people were killed, tortured by the Pakistani Army. They killed and tortured the civilians including women, minors, intellectuals, and children. There is an academic consensus that the events took place during the Bangladesh Liberation war constituted genocide by West Pakistan against the people of Eastern Pakistan. The genocide of Bangladesh began on 26 March 1971 with the launch of Operation Searchlight

“Amar Sonar Bangla” The Violation of Human Rights by Pakistan that Led to the Independence of Bangladesh

Welcome to the Documentary on Bangladesh independence. The independence of Bangladesh was established after victory in the Bangladesh Liberation War. The Bangladesh Liberation War had started on March 26, 1971 but the seed of Bangladesh’s independence was planted many years before in 1947, when the British Empire left the Indian sub-continent. Indian sub-continent was a British colony for close to two hundred years. After the Second World War faced with intense independence movement in India led

Historical Events In Life Of Pi

Wortman-Morris English 10 Period.1 5/25/14 A lot of historical events happened in 1970’s. Some of these events where put to use in the Life of Pi by Yann Martel and I think inspired by some certain events. One main event that happened was the Indo-Pakistani war of 1971, another event that took place was the government corruption and leaders such as Indira Gandhi. She was one of the most influential prime ministers of India. Religion is a huge part of this book as we see pi tries out so many religions that

A Golden Age : Book Review

elections. Change is in the air. But none of the guests at Rehana's party can foresee what will happen in the days and months that follow. For this is East Pakistan in 1971, a country on the brink of war. And this family's life is about to change for ever. Set against the backdrop of the Bangladesh War of Independence, A Golden Age is a story of passion and revolution, of hope, faith, and unexpected heroism. In the chaos of this era, everyone--from student leader protesters to the country's leaders

Essay On The History Of Bangladesh

The early history of Bangladesh is riddled with the formation of various city-states, pan-Indian empires, and maritime kingdoms. The name Bangladesh was not used until 1971 after the Bangladesh Liberation War. Bangladesh was originally known as Bengal. It is unclear where the name Bengal came from but it is believed that it was derived from Vanga, the Dravidian tribe that settled in the area around 1000 BC. By the 16th century, the Mughal Empire came to power. The Mughal Empire was a Persian speaking

Analysis of Such a Long Journey by Rohinton Mistry

others as he goes through the difficult times in his life. The book is not just about Gustad’s personal life journey but it also explores the political background during that time. The battle between India and West Pakistan during the Bangladeshi Liberation War that helped East Pakistan form their own sovereign state, Indira Gandhi's socialist and corrupt government and Shiv Sena's fascist regime led by their ethnocentric leader, Bal Thackeray influenced the background of the novel. There were growing

Causes Of The Bangladesh Genocide

to wipe them out. In 1971, the Bangladesh genocide or independence war came into full force. It started as a independence war from the East and West Pakistan, but it grew to more. As the eastern

Bangladesh Dbq

COMPARE AND CONTRAST According to Crane Brinton, the first causes of a revolution is “There is discontent amongst people of all social classes” (Earnest). During the Bangladesh Liberation, people were not satisfied, as they were not treated like how they should be by West Pakistan. Moreover, in the French Revolution, the First Estate and the Second Estate, including the nobility and the clergy were discontent as the king started to ask them for money through taxes, which they never had before; the

Causes Of The American Revolution

downfalls and the hardships the Bengali people had to face along with the bloodshed caused by Pakistan when Bangladesh was simply a territory referred to as East Pakistan after the Partition of India will always remain the heart of this great nation. When the Bengali people were endowed with pain they stood together and became fighters. The Bengali people were forced to allowed Bangladesh to attain its rights and to become an independent country. The Partition of India was one of the greatest events

Bangladesh Genocide Research Paper

(Jahan) How the Bangladesh Genocide was Committed The Pakistani government started their military attack on Bangladesh on March 25th, 1971. Some of the targets for the attack were the university campus, the police headquarters, and other areas with high Hindu populations (Jahan 254). Those who were in power in Pakistan at the time believed that the intellectuals and the students were the leaders of the Bengali nationalist movement, the main supporters were the Hindus and the urban lumpenproletariat

Comparative Analysis Of Vodafone

to survive in severe competition with other international companies already operating there. The reason why I have chosen Bangladesh is that it is a huge market with a population estimated approximately 166.28 million as of 2014 and ranked 8th in the list of countries by population (CIA Factbook, 2014). Like other developing nations, the growth of telecom market in Bangladesh has exceeded all expectations and has made a significant impact on the country’s overall economy in terms of aggregate investment

Colonization And Colonization In Bangladesh

“Bhojonbilashi” (roughly translated as gourmand) is a popularly used expression coined to delineate the people of Bangladesh to illustrate their love of indulging themselves in eating and consumption. In Bangladesh, it is run-of-the-mill to have four meals on a daily basis starting with a homemade breakfast, a heavy lunch followed by evening snacks at 7 pm, usually from the outside street vendors, and ending the day with an extravagant dinner which includes rice, lentils, meat (or fish) and vegetables

The Country Of Bangladesh Essay

Yeasmin 1 Mohima Yeasmin Dr. Shoff ENC1101 Sec.78 April 29, 2014 The Country of Bangladesh Bangladesh is a small country in line with the title of the 8th most populated country in the world with a population of about 163 million people. Bangladesh is just about the size of the sate Iowa, and is to the right of India, along the Indian Ocean. I can still remember bits and pieces of my first trip to Bangladesh back in 2004. I was only about 6 years old when I first went, and it was just an entire new

The Cold War: India

Industrialized World in the beginning of the Cold War. The First World was America while the Second World was the Soviet Union. The Developing World represents much of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. After most of these countries became independent of western influence and recourses, their infrastructure began to fall apart. The United States and the Soviet Union used their allies for raw materials and markets, which was a big part of the cold war. India was a non-aligned country so the two superpowers

When Mr Pirzada Comes To Time By Jhumpa Lahiri

TO DINE”, tells a tale of the interactions of an Indian family (living in Boston) and their Bengali friend who comes to spends most of his time in their house. The story is narrated by the Indian daughter, Lilia, and revolves around the Bangladesh Liberation War (1971). Lahiri’s writing makes the assumption that the leader is ignorant of the events in this story and forms her character to respond to this idea; she uses her characters to represent aspects of American society, to show that it is too

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to the lack of jobs. From there, Bangladesh has came a long way today because approximately a large number of the people in our country have access to two times meals a day , electricity, water, free primary education, public health centres and can afford mobile phone services, where after independence even the educated people like engineers could not even afford to eat rice and therefore shifted to bread . Capitalism has ensured the economic prosperity in Bangladesh. Ready-made garments is an example

The Pros And Cons Of A Humanitarian Intervention

from East Pakistan, and forcefully reimposed its military regime; because the election had given the Awami League the majority, the military and current government decided to eliminate all enemies. This was the beginning of the Bangladesh Liberation War. By the end of the war in December, there were between 300,000 and 3 million deaths, as well as 200,000 to 400,000 genocidal rapes. Politically, the Pakistani military regime wanted no adversaries and complete authority. Socially, they fully engaged

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On November 12th, 1970, the deadliest cyclone in the history of Bangladesh, formerly East Pakistan, struck around the northwest shores of the Bay of Bengal. East Pakistan was undergoing widespread poverty at the time, leading to a wide range of uncertainty in the death toll of the cyclone (Encyclopedia 501). Tensions between East and West Pakistan were at large at the time, leading West Pakistan to be disinclined to assisting East Pakistan in recovering from the storm (History 4). This became a factor

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Bangladesh 50 Essay: How did the independence war of 1971 affect the identity of those in Bangladesh by Niha Miah

Bangladesh 50 Essay

Celebrating Bangladeshi heritage on the 50th anniversary of the Bangladesh war, struggle and subsequent Independence .

2021 marks the 50th anniversary of the Bangladesh war, struggle and subsequent Independence. East London is home to a vibrant and dynamic British Bengali community who, with strong cultural and familial ties, were deeply impacted by these events. Against a backdrop of 1970s East End revolutionary spirit, many local people were vocal and active in solidarity action to support the movement. 

In collaboration with Swadhinata Trust, throughout the year we have been delivering a series of activities that spotlight stories and experiences of local people, celebrating this rich heritage. In this essay, Niha Miah, has written an essay on how the independence war of 1971 affected the identity of those in Bangladesh.

Niha is a freelance graphic designer, co-founder and programmes co-ordinator at creative women’s hub, project officer at oitijjo-collective and a student success officer at SOAS University of London. 

Utilising her background in project management, history, the creative world and as a British-Bangladeshi woman, Niha has a desire to create a more equal society for people of colour and those who come from low income backgrounds.

Here is the introduction to the essay which you can read in full below.

How did the independence war of 1971 affect the identity of those in Bangladesh

As M. Anisuzzaman writes, “Bangladesh is a deeply fragmented nation” (Anisuzzaman 2000, 52) divided along religious, ethnic, cultural and linguistic lines. The 1971 Bangladesh war of independence was one of many cataclysmic events triggered by such identity-related politics. This paper will aim to demonstrate that the independence war of 1971 deepened these identity divisions by aiming to form one cohesive national identity in what is a culturally pluralistic society. The nationalist discourse surrounding the identity of Bangladesh has focused most significantly upon the “importance of Bengali and Islamic identities in the colonial and post-colonial constructions of Bangladesh.” (Zeitlyn 2014, 3) In this essay, I aim to investigate how this focus upon Bengali / Bangladeshi identities in nationalist discourse has deepened and unified identities within the society of Bangladesh. In order to demonstrate this, I will first investigate why there has tended to be a focus upon ‘Bengali’ and ‘Bangladeshi’ identities within Nationalist discourse. Then I will consider the effects this has had upon these two identities. Finally, I will consider the effects of this dogmatic binary upon the neglected communities of the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) of Bangladesh.

Firstly, The terms “Bengali” and “Bangladeshi” differ significantly based upon their origin, however, both dominate the Nationalist discourse of Bangladesh. According to Benedict Anderson, Nations are “Imagined Communities” constructed based upon “common factors of identity such as ethnicity, language, religion.” (Hussain 2013) The construction of “Bengali” and “Bangladeshi” identities undeniably were essential to the formation of the Nation of Bangladesh. The history of Bangladeshi nationalism finds its root in an “abiding sense of belongingness to the Islamic faith.” (M. H. Khan 2006, 335) Undoubtedly, the emphasis of religion as a common factor of identity was constructed under the military rule of Ziaur Rahman in order to distance Bangladesh from the culture of “the Bangalis of India.” (M. H. Khan 2006, 331) On the other hand, Bengali patriotism found its root in “ethno-linguistic” (M. H. Khan 2006, 327) and “ethno-cultural” (M. H. Khan 2006, 327) commonalities between the population of what was East Pakistan.

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The logical inconsistency of the two Pakistans , the racial abuse and the misuse of the West finished the East was step by step divulged. The battle for the awareness of personality and social opportunity which started with the approach of the understudy developments of the 60's picked up energy in the mass development of 1969. In spite of the fact that it realized the fall of a forceful military ruler like Ayub Khan, a definitive objective was not accomplished. After this, came the race of 1970 with outright triumph of Sheik Mujibur Rahaman.

In the races of December 7, 1970 the Awami League won 160 out of 162 seats in East Pakistan, everything except two, and would have had a reasonable dominant part in the new get together had it been gathered. Sheik Mujibur Rahman turned into the larger part party pioneer of the Pakistan National Assembly .

The military tenets of Pakistan declined to permit the Awami League to shape an administration. Significant General Ziaur Rahman in the interest of Mujib pronounced autonomy. A full scale development of non-collaboration with the military government started on the 26th of March, 1971which is praised as the Independence Day consistently. In this way Bangladesh dove into a common war.

The Pakistan Army started their massacre by assaulting the honest Bangalees of Dhaka city. The tenants of Dhaka city never stood up to such terrible days. The Pakistani armed force slaughtered 35,000 Bengali savvy people and released a merciless war against the Bangalees of East Pakistan to keep their withdrawal. However, nobody let the fantasy surrounded wave to tumble to tidy .

Amid the multi month battle which followed an expected three million Bengalis passed on and ten million shelters fled into India Sheik Mujib was detained in west Pakistan. A Bangladesh Government in a state of banishment was set up. The genuine military battle occurred in December and endured just ten days. The Indian Army propelled a gigantic hostile against the Pakistani powers to help the Bangladesh development . On December 16, 1971, the Pakistan armed force surrendered.

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