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Discussion essays Considering both sides of the argument

Discussion essays are a common form of academic writing. This page gives information on what a discussion essay is and how to structure this type of essay. Some vocabulary for discussion essays is also given, and there is an example discussion essay on the topic of studying overseas.

What are discussion essays?

Many essay titles require you to examine both sides of a situation and to conclude by saying which side you favour. These are known as discussion or for and against essays. In this sense, the academic meaning of the word discuss is similar to its everyday meaning, of two people talking about a topic from different sides. For a discussion essay, a balanced view is normally essential. This makes discussion essays distinct from persuasion essays , for which only one side of the argument is given. When writing a discussion essay, it is important to ensure that facts and opinions are clearly separated. Often you will examine what other people have already said on the same subject and include this information using paraphrasing and summarising skills, as well as correct citations .

The following are examples of discussion essay topics.

  • Examine the arguments for and against capital punishment.
  • Schools should teach children not only academic subjects but also important life skills. Discuss.
  • What are the advantages and disadvantages of technology in the classroom?

Although the structure of a discussion essay may vary according to length and subject, there are several components which most discussion essays have in common. In addition to general statements and thesis statement which all good essay introductions contain, the position of the writer will often be stated, along with relevant definitions . The main body will examine arguments for (in one or more paragraphs) and arguments against (also in one or more paragraphs). The conclusion will contain a summary of the main points, and will often conclude with recommendations , based on what you think are the most important ideas in the essay. The conclusion may also contain your opinion on the topic, also based on the preceding evidence.

An overview of this structure is given in the diagram below.

Discussion vocabulary

When summarising the stages in a discussion or in presenting your arguments, it can be useful to mark the order of the items or degrees of importance. The following words and phrases can be used.

  • First..., First of all..., The most important...
  • Second..., In the second place...
  • Finally..., Lastly...

The following can be used when introducing your opinion.

  • There is no doubt that...
  • I believe that...
  • One of the main arguments in favour of/against X is that...

It is important in English writing, including academic writing, to use synonyms rather than repeating the same word. The following are useful synonyms for 'advantage' and 'disadvantage'.

  • advantage: benefit, a positive aspect/feature, pro (informal)
  • disadvantage: drawback, a negative aspect/feature, con (informal)

Example essay

Below is an example discussion essay. Click on the different areas (in the shaded boxes to the right) to highlight the different structural aspects in this essay.

Title: An increasing number of students are going overseas for tertiary education. To what extent does this overseas study benefit the students?

Most people spend around fifteen years of their life in education, from primary school to university study. In the past, students only had the opportunity to study in their own country. Nowadays, however, it is increasingly easy to study overseas, especially at tertiary level. Tertiary education, also called post-secondary education, is the period of study spent at university. As the final aspect of schooling before a person begins their working life, it is arguably the most important stage of their education. While there are some undoubted benefits of this trend, such as the language environment and improved employment prospects , there is also a significant disadvantage, namely the high cost . The first and most important advantage of overseas study is the language learning environment. Students studying overseas will not only have to cope with the local language for their study, but will also have to use it outside the classroom for their everyday life. These factors should make it relatively easy for such students to advance their language abilities. Another important benefit is employability. Increasing globalisation means that there are more multinational companies setting up offices in all major countries. These companies will need employees who have a variety of skills, including the fluency in more than one language. Students who have studied abroad should find it much easier to obtain a job in this kind of company. There are, however, some disadvantages to overseas study which must be considered, the most notable of which is the expense. In addition to the cost of travel, which in itself is not inconsiderable, overseas students are required to pay tuition fees which are usually much higher than those of local students. Added to this is the cost of living, which is often much higher than in the students' own country. Although scholarships may be available for overseas students, there are usually very few of these, most of which will only cover a fraction of the cost. Overseas study therefore constitutes a considerable expense. In summary, studying abroad has some clear advantages, including the language environment and increased chances of employment , in addition to the main drawback, the heavy financial burden . I believe that this experience is worthwhile for those students whose families can readily afford the expense. Students without such strong financial support should consider carefully whether the high cost outweighs the benefits to be gained.

Academic Writing Genres

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Below is a checklist for discussion essays. Use it to check your own writing, or get a peer (another student) to help you.

Bailey, S. (2000). Academic Writing. Abingdon: RoutledgeFalmer

Cox, K. and D. Hill (2004). EAP now! Frenchs Forest: Pearson Education Australia

Jordan, R.R. (1999). Academic Writing Course. Cambridge: CUP

Roberts R., J. Gokanda, & A. Preshous (2004). IELTS Foundation. Oxford: Macmillian

Next section

Find out how to write persuasion essays in the next section.

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Go back to the previous section about different essay types .

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Author: Sheldon Smith    ‖    Last modified: 16 January 2022.

Sheldon Smith is the founder and editor of EAPFoundation.com. He has been teaching English for Academic Purposes since 2004. Find out more about him in the about section and connect with him on Twitter , Facebook and LinkedIn .

Compare & contrast essays examine the similarities of two or more objects, and the differences.

Cause & effect essays consider the reasons (or causes) for something, then discuss the results (or effects).

Discussion essays require you to examine both sides of a situation and to conclude by saying which side you favour.

Problem-solution essays are a sub-type of SPSE essays (Situation, Problem, Solution, Evaluation).

Transition signals are useful in achieving good cohesion and coherence in your writing.

Reporting verbs are used to link your in-text citations to the information cited.

Group Discussion in Communication

Strategies for Facilitating Successful Group Discussions

Group discussions can be extremely beneficial to any learning environment, providing a space for critical thinking, open discussion, and diverse opinions. Not only do they provide individuals with the opportunity to develop their communication and listening skills, but they also help foster collaboration and creativity in students.

In this article, we will cover strategies for facilitating successful group discussions. We’ll discuss topics such as the benefits of using this strategy, how to prepare for and facilitate discussions, how to monitor Participation, and how to create effective sentences stems that facilitate student conversations. With these strategies, you will be able to make the most of your classroom discussions and ensure that everyone’s voice is heard.

What is a Group Discussion?

Group discussions are informal, non-structured conversations between a small group of people focused on a particular topic, which promotes critical thinking and problem-solving. Participants must consider the perspectives of other group members and actively contribute, making it a great way to engage students and encourage socialization, comprehension, and synthesis of material. Group discussions can take many forms and be adapted to any teaching style or classroom setting.

The most common form of group discussion involves one person acting as the leader or facilitator of the discussion. This entails asking open-ended questions, summarizing and paraphrasing each point in the discussion, acknowledging each contribution, and using strategies like brainstorming techniques, visuals, and Socratic questioning to keep everyone engaged and involved.

During the discussion, the leader pays attention to the flow of the conversation while monitoring time limits, encouraging Participation, and helping to build off individual ideas proffered by students. Following the discussion, the leader should debrief and reflect, summarizing key points for future reference.

Group discussion offers a variety of advantages, both practical and philosophical. It helps students master communication and collaboration skills, utilizes every participant’s strengths, encourages active engagement from all members to avoid monopolizing the conversation, builds critical thinking and meta-cognition, allows for different perspectives and experiences to be adequately expressed, and fosters a sense of unity within the group.

From a philosophical standpoint, group discussion has the potential to connect people with diverse backgrounds and dissolve divisions in a democratic society – all contributions are viewed as important and respected, allowing for valid discussion free from bias.

Overall, group discussion is an invaluable tool that has limitless possibilities for engaging in class conversations and allowing teachers to create meaningful interactions among their students. Utilizing this type of learning strategy encourages student ownership in their learning, providing them with opportunities to ask their own pertinent questions and internalize concepts through supported verbal interaction. A group talk may come in the form of a threaded discussion online.

Read also: 15 Great Tips for Speaking in a Group Discussion

What are the Benefits of Group Discussions?

Group discussions are vital in almost all interpersonal interactions and learning environments. They facilitate communication, collaboration, and the exchange of ideas. Group discussions provide opportunities for people to come to decisions together, drawing on inputs from various participants and stimulating creativity which leads to better outcomes. Thus, group discussions can be a valuable tool in any learning environment.

Leading a group discussion increases the chances of success due to better organization and direction. Doing so gives you control over the progress and trajectory of the conversation. As a leader, you can ensure that everyone is given the opportunity to voice their opinions, identify potential areas for improvement, and lead the discussion toward generating workable solutions. When done responsibly, leading a group discussion can also help build leadership skills among the participants.

Students’ social skills are increased through group discussions, and it is one of the most effective ways to enhance student education. Through cooperative discussion, students can practice critical thinking as well as public speaking as they consider different perspectives, ask questions, and speak up when appropriate. Additionally, using technology tools to participate in and manage class discussions can help foster connections among peers and create an atmosphere of exploration.

Group discussion is also beneficial to companies. It offers opportunities for collective problem-solving, idea generation, and improved communication. In a company setting, group discussions increase productivity and team bonding by allowing members to collaborate and exchange ideas. Likewise, group discussions contribute to a democratic society as they provide a platform to discuss issues, debate, and think critically.

Overall, group discussions are beneficial across all settings since they can be used to facilitate open communication, engage members, improve critical thinking skills and develop social skills. Despite the numerous benefits of group discussions, it should be noted that it is important to ensure all members are heard equally and that topics are managed efficiently for optimal results. With prudent oversight and preparation, group discussions have the potential to be highly productive conversations that can result in tangible outcomes.

essay group discussion

Types of Group Discussions

Classroom discussions can take a variety of forms. The discussion leader has the responsibility of introducing topics and encouraging Participation without taking over the conversation. There are several strategies for facilitating successful group discussions, some of which are outlined below.

3.1. Socratic Seminars

Socratic seminars involve small groups of students who engage in shared inquiry around a written text or prompt. They are named after the ancient Greek philosopher Socrates, who believed that truth could emerge if people engaged in thoughtful dialogue. This type of group discussion encourages active listening, critical thinking, and respectful dialogue among participants.

To prepare for a Socratic seminar, teachers should print one question per piece of paper and insert it into a team pack. Teams work together to answer the question, then pass it on to the next group. Groups can be no less than three, and no more than five members. When structuring a Seminar, teachers have the option of leading all or part of it, depending on their comfort level and the age group they are teaching. During the group discussion, students are encouraged to ask questions, listen to responses and make connections to other ideas and texts. Students should be asked to keep their answers concise and remain focused on the topic while still exercising freedom of thought. After the session, teachers should provide a summary and closure to ensure everyone is on the same page before moving on to the further discussion.

This year many schools and organizations have had to move to digital learning. One way to adjust socratic seminars to an online setting is to use props, or Google slides with an interactive “open” team pack feature. To involve all students, have each student take a turn as a moderator or guest speaker. Three different roles (speaker, moderator, and audience) can be used to keep things fresh and interesting.

3.2. Fishbowl Discussions

Fishbowl discussions are another strategy used to facilitate engaging conversations. It involves forming two circles – one inner circle and one outer circle. The inner circle is composed of a smaller number of participants who engage in the primary discussion. The outer circle is composed of onlookers, who observe and think about the conversation for later Participation. The purpose of this strategy is to empower conversation partners, encourage peer-to-peer learning and engage multiple perspectives.

To run a successful fishbowl discussion, the discussion leader should first select an appropriate topic and establish ground rules, such as speaking one at a time, maintaining eye contact, and actively listening. Once the discussion begins, the discussion leader should monitor the conversation, making sure everyone’s ideas are heard and respected. A key component of this process is also ensuring that participants are asking relevant questions and avoiding personal attacks.

When participating in a fishbowl discussion virtually, teachers should provide students with structure and clear expectations. If the discussion is held online, Teachers might consider using the breakout room feature or having students work in assigned groups. Additionally, technology tools like Mural and Jamboard can be used to facilitate collaboration and visualization of conversations.

improve communication skills in group

3.3. Debate

Debates are another form of group discussion and can take place both virtually and in person. In a debate format, two sides (for and against) argue a specific topic or point of view. In order to ensure fairness and effective exchange of ideas during the conversation, debates should be structured with either differentiated teams or specific roles (such as propositioner, oppositioner, and moderator).

In order to ensure Participation from every member, the discussion leader should assign specific tasks or questions to each team or role. Additionally, the leader should grant equal opportunity for both sides to respond and highlight similarities or differences in opinions when necessary. To help maintain focus, it is also important to establish time limits for each response.

While leading a debate, participants should never forget to remain respectful and open-minded, even when disagreements arise. It is the discussion leader’s job to ensure that all sides of an argument are heard and that no single viewpoint dominates the conversation.

Overall, debate strategies are valuable for fostering critical thinking and debating skills among students. At the end of the conversation, the discussion leader should ensure everyone’s opinion is heard, summarizing key takeaways and reflecting upon the points made during the session.

Group discussions hold considerable potential for success. They provide an opportunity for students to reasonedly discuss significant and complex topics, building collaborative learning opportunities and helping them build respect for one another. By familiarizing themselves with the various types of group discussion strategies, discussion leaders can create successful experiences that promote and foster student engagement, deepen understanding of the subject matter, and build relationships.

Preparing for a Group Discussion

Group discussion is a unique approach to learning and collaboration. It encourages engagement, critical thinking, problem-solving, and creative expression. By adequately preparing for a successful group discussion, instructors can create an even more successful and stimulating learning environment for their students.

4.1. Choose an Appropriate Topic

When choosing a topic for a group discussion, it is important to choose one that is engaging and relevant to the current course material. Ensuring that all students have some familiarity with the topic will help to facilitate more meaningful and productive conversations. Furthermore, selecting topics that lead to a well-rounded exploration of diverse perspectives and different approaches to understanding a problem can enhance the quality of the discussion experience.

4.2. Establish Ground Rules

Establishing ground rules for the discussion is essential for creating a safe and respectful learning space. Before beginning the discussion, ask students to come up with a set of group guidelines or explicitly establish these guidelines yourself. This includes setting expectations and clarifying the roles and responsibilities of group members. Concrete rules and boundaries should also be established to ensure that each student is able to voice their opinion without feeling marginalized or judged. In addition, setting a timeline for the discussion will help to keep the group on task and prevent unnecessary tangents.

4.3. Assign Roles

Assigning roles to each member of the group is a great way to ensure everyone is engaged and participating in the conversation. Consider assigning a facilitator to lead the discussion, as well as individuals who are responsible for timekeeping, note-taking, and summarizing key points. This will help to structure the conversation and keep it from veering off in multiple directions. If using small groups, consider assigning specific tasks and activities such as brainstorming ideas, conducting research, or completing sentence stems. These activities can engage the entire group and give each member an opportunity to participate.

During the Group Discussion

5.1. facilitate open communication.

Group discussions are an excellent way to engage students in active learning, critical thinking, and collaborative problem-solving. They also provide an opportunity for different perspectives and ideas to be shared freely and collaboratively. However, it is important for the facilitator or group leader to take an active role during the discussion in order to ensure that open communication is facilitated effectively.

The facilitator must create a safe space where all members feel comfortable expressing their opinions without fear of criticism. As such, identifying any potential sources of conflict beforehand, dealing with disagreement respectfully, and responding in a balanced manner all help to create a constructive environment. Ground rules should also be agreed upon prior to the discussion so that boundaries are in place and everyone understands how to interact with each other and stay on topic.

In addition, active listening skills are key to ensuring that everyone’s perspective is heard and respected. This might involve summarizing, paraphrasing, repeating back, and engaging in follow-up questions. An atmosphere of respect is also essential; if a particular view dominates the discussion, welcoming input from quieter members of the group is important.

5.2. Encourage Participation

Encouraging Participation is key when facilitating a successful group discussion. A few simple strategies can ensure that everyone has the opportunity to contribute. Firstly, participants should be asked to think up their own questions beforehand so they have something to talk about and their contributions will be more meaningful. Similarly, distributing texts among the students can provide useful material to draw upon during the discussion. Optional warm-up activities can also help students become more familiar with the discussion topic.

It can be helpful to divide participants into smaller groups in order to keep discussions focused and give shy students an opportunity to express their views. The leader or facilitator can also preface each contribution by introducing the speaker and setting a time limit to ensure that each person is given adequate space to express themselves.

Finally, providing small treats such as food and drink can make the whole experience far more enjoyable, and fostering a relaxed atmosphere is important for any effective group discussion.

5.3. Monitor Time Limits

Time limits play an important role in group discussions because it ensures that the session does not go off-topic or run too long. During the discussion, it is the facilitator’s duty to monitor time. As such, they should have an idea in advance of the allotted time for each discussion, informing the participants of these limits before the discussion begins. At the same time, it is important to recognize that there is no hard and fast rule—time limits need to be flexible enough to allow the conversation to flow naturally and reach a satisfactory conclusion.

Similarly, asking questions that require quick responses can also help to move things along. Interjecting at appropriate times can also be beneficial, as it will help keep everyone on task. Establishing breaks throughout can also be favorable, allowing people to regroup, refresh, and refocus before returning to the discussion. Ultimately, every group discussion needs to be monitored carefully and appropriately managed in order to be successful.

After the Group Discussion

6.1. debrief.

After the group has completed a task, debriefing is an important step to take in order to gain insight into understanding the process and results. Debriefing can help adjust teaching styles, indicate areas that need more work or revisiting in the future, and provide valuable feedback for all involved. Through metaphors and similes, active voice, rhetorical questions, and short sentences, we can effectively communicate our thoughts on what went well during the task as well as what could be improved upon.

6.2. Reflect and Summarize

Reflection and summarization are key pieces to facilitate successful group discussions. For example, the instructor or leader should summarize the key points of the discussion and assign tasks or topics to various students throughout.

Additionally, it can be beneficial to allow five minutes of informal writing prior to beginning a larger discussion, create a talking diagram, and combine gold standard discussion strategies for success. Rhetorical questions such as “What are key pieces to facilitate successful group discussions?” and “What strategies should be followed to ensure a successful discussion?” help introduce this topic in an engaging way. Metaphors and similes, active voice, and short sentences can also be used stylistically when discussing how best to lead effective group conversations.

Strategies for Effective Group Discussions

Group discussions are an effective way to get students talking, allow for different perspectives, and give everyone a chance to be heard. Facilitating a successful group discussion requires creating a low-risk environment, setting up proper rules or guidelines, monitoring time constraints, understanding the types of discussions available, and consciously incorporating strategies to maximize Participation. Here are some strategies to use when facilitating group discussions:

7.1. Ask Open-Ended Questions

The best way to engage all students in discussion is by asking open-ended questions that promote higher-level thinking. These questions can help to create critical thinking rather than a rote response and will help to encourage inquiry throughout the conversation. It is important to remember that these questions are not intended to be answered directly, rather, they serve as prompts to generate further dialogue.

7.2. Summarize, Paraphrase, and Repeat Back

Another effective strategy to ensure everyone is heard and remains focused on the task at hand is to reiterate, recast, and summarize what has been said. This pushes the discussion forward and allows participants to understand where the conversation is going and provides verbal confirmation of what others have said. This practice is particularly useful during longer civil debates where there is a wide variety of perspectives being voiced.

7.3. Follow-Up Questions

A teacher can use follow-up questions to help the group explore topics more deeply and aid in their ability to think critically about what has been discussed. Asking specific, prompt, and relevant questions allows leaves room for reflective response, creating the opportunity for meaningful conversations. Follow-up questions may also keep the conversation flowing while ensuring the conversation remains organized and on track.

7.4. Allow for Silence

Silence can be a powerful tool during classroom discussion – allowing time for reflection and letting students process ideas with one another. Teachers often overlook the importance of lingering silence, but this gives individuals ample opportunity to contemplate what has been said and thoughtful craft responses truly. Making sure there is ample room for silence when facilitating a group discussion encourages more student involvement and a more meaningful contribution to the discussion.

7.5. Take Notes on Key Points

Taking notes during a discussion helps to keep everyone on track and aids in summarizing key points at the end. Keeping notes can also help identify areas where more in-depth exploration is needed and provide the facilitator with insight into what the group accomplished. Taking notes during a conversation gives all members the opportunity to review their reflections and evaluate their own performance throughout the exchange.

7.6. Use Brainstorming Techniques

Engaging in class discussions should also involve brainstorming activities to help generate new ideas, pinpoint areas of interest and explore how multiple perspectives can offer a broader view of the topic discussed. To ensure maximum Participation, choose brainstorming methods such as mind-mapping or idea-generating, which create space for individual input without dominating the conversation.

7.7. Utilize Visuals

Discussion boards and blogs can provide the opportunity for students to post and share visuals that support their views and become productive elements of the discussion. Incorporating visuals into class discussions adds an extra layer to the conversation, allows students to communicate their points visually, and may promote further discussion. Be aware that visuals are often interpretive and subjective, so they must be analyzed thoughtfully in order to eliminate any bias.

Group discussions can be an incredibly rewarding experience for both teacher and student. When properly facilitated, these sessions offer a unique platform for learners to present their ideas, work together to problem solve and gain valuable insight from their peers’ perspectives. By understanding and employing key strategies, teachers can utilize group discussions to encourage meaningful discourse, foster collaboration, and develop tangible skills.

Also, it might be useful for you to learn about communication barriers , also in a group discussion.

Group discussions are an invaluable tool for educators to facilitate meaningful discussions among their students and contribute to student learning and development. As instructors of group discussions, we have an important responsibility to ensure a positive learning experience for all participants. In order to achieve that, we must be cognizant of the types of discourse and topics best suited for our groups, illustrate clear expectations and ground rules beforehand, monitor time limits, encourage collaboration, and utilize effective strategies during the discussions, such as asking open-ended questions, paraphrasing and summarizing, introducing follow-up questions, allowing for silence, taking notes, practicing brainstorming techniques, and utilizing visuals. By acknowledging the power of effective group discussions, we can create stimulating and successful learning environments for our students.

Read also: How To Be Diplomatic and Tactful At Work: The Basics

Frequently Asked Questions

What are the four types of discussion.

When it comes to discussions, there are four types. These include Debate, Dialogue, Discourse, and Diatribe. Depending on the context, each dialogue type will require different approaches and understanding. It is essential to identify which conversation you’re in for effective communication with your partner.

What is effective group discussion?

An effective group discussion is when all of the participants are respectful and cooperative, engaging in lively debate while actively listening to each other’s points and pushing ideas forward while respecting dissenting views. Ultimately, the goal should be to reach a common understanding or solution.

What makes a discussion effective?

Making a discussion effective requires thoughtful preparation and engaged Participation from both the facilitator and the participants. Effective discussions should be framed with clear objectives, draw on each participant’s knowledge and experiences, encourage questions and open dialogue, and provide structure while still allowing for the free exchange of ideas.

What are the three skills required for an effective group discussion?

To be successful in a group discussion, the participants should possess strong communication skills, non-verbal behavior, the ability to follow group norms, decision-making skills, and show cooperation.

How to lead a discussion in class?

To lead a successful discussion in class, begin by framing the key questions or points you want to focus on. Make sure students understand their importance and relevance to master material or understanding larger issues. Provide an explanation for any terms used, then assign activities like partner work and brainstorming to generate further connected conversations. Utilize open-ended questions to prompt the exchange of ideas and opinions.

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The Writing Center • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Group Writing

What this handout is about.

Whether in the academic world or the business world, all of us are likely to participate in some form of group writing—an undergraduate group project for a class, a collaborative research paper or grant proposal, or a report produced by a business team. Writing in a group can have many benefits: multiple brains are better than one, both for generating ideas and for getting a job done. However, working in a group can sometimes be stressful because there are various opinions and writing styles to incorporate into one final product that pleases everyone. This handout will offer an overview of the collaborative process, strategies for writing successfully together, and tips for avoiding common pitfalls. It will also include links to some other handouts that may be especially helpful as your group moves through the writing process.

Disclaimer and disclosure

As this is a group writing handout, several Writing Center coaches worked together to create it. No coaches were harmed in this process; however, we did experience both the pros and the cons of the collaborative process. We have personally tested the various methods for sharing files and scheduling meetings that are described here. However, these are only our suggestions; we do not advocate any particular service or site.

The spectrum of collaboration in group writing

All writing can be considered collaborative in a sense, though we often don’t think of it that way. It would be truly surprising to find an author whose writing, even if it was completed independently, had not been influenced at some point by discussions with friends or colleagues. The range of possible collaboration varies from a group of co-authors who go through each portion of the writing process together, writing as a group with one voice, to a group with a primary author who does the majority of the work and then receives comments or edits from the co-authors.

A diagram illustrating the spectrum of collaboration in group writing with "more in-person collaboration" on the left and "less in-person collaboration" on the right.

Group projects for classes should usually fall towards the middle to left side of this diagram, with group members contributing roughly equally. However, in collaborations on research projects, the level of involvement of the various group members may vary widely. The key to success in either case is to be clear about group member responsibilities and expectations and to give credit (authorship) to members who contribute an appropriate amount. It may be useful to credit each group member for their various contributions.

Overview of steps of the collaborative process

Here we outline the steps of the collaborative process. You can use these questions to focus your thinking at each stage.

  • Share ideas and brainstorm together.
  • Formulate a draft thesis or argument .
  • Think about your assignment and the final product. What should it look like? What is its purpose? Who is the intended audience ?
  • Decide together who will write which parts of the paper/project.
  • What will the final product look like?
  • Arrange meetings: How often will the group or subsets of the group meet? When and where will the group meet? If the group doesn’t meet in person, how will information be shared?
  • Scheduling: What is the deadline for the final product? What are the deadlines for drafts?
  • How will the group find appropriate sources (books, journal articles, newspaper articles, visual media, trustworthy websites, interviews)? If the group will be creating data by conducting research, how will that process work?
  • Who will read and process the information found? This task again may be done by all members or divided up amongst members so that each person becomes the expert in one area and then teaches the rest of the group.
  • Think critically about the sources and their contributions to your topic. Which evidence should you include or exclude? Do you need more sources?
  • Analyze the data. How will you interpret your findings? What is the best way to present any relevant information to your readers-should you include pictures, graphs, tables, and charts, or just written text?
  • Note that brainstorming the main points of your paper as a group is helpful, even if separate parts of the writing are assigned to individuals. You’ll want to be sure that everyone agrees on the central ideas.
  • Where does your individual writing fit into the whole document?
  • Writing together may not be feasible for longer assignments or papers with coauthors at different universities, and it can be time-consuming. However, writing together does ensure that the finished document has one cohesive voice.
  • Talk about how the writing session should go BEFORE you get started. What goals do you have? How will you approach the writing task at hand?
  • Many people find it helpful to get all of the ideas down on paper in a rough form before discussing exact phrasing.
  • Remember that everyone has a different writing style! The most important thing is that your sentences be clear to readers.
  • If your group has drafted parts of the document separately, merge your ideas together into a single document first, then focus on meshing the styles. The first concern is to create a coherent product with a logical flow of ideas. Then the stylistic differences of the individual portions must be smoothed over.
  • Revise the ideas and structure of the paper before worrying about smaller, sentence-level errors (like problems with punctuation, grammar, or word choice). Is the argument clear? Is the evidence presented in a logical order? Do the transitions connect the ideas effectively?
  • Proofreading: Check for typos, spelling errors, punctuation problems, formatting issues, and grammatical mistakes. Reading the paper aloud is a very helpful strategy at this point.

Helpful collaborative writing strategies

Attitude counts for a lot.

Group work can be challenging at times, but a little enthusiasm can go a long way to helping the momentum of the group. Keep in mind that working in a group provides a unique opportunity to see how other people write; as you learn about their writing processes and strategies, you can reflect on your own. Working in a group inherently involves some level of negotiation, which will also facilitate your ability to skillfully work with others in the future.

Remember that respect goes along way! Group members will bring different skill sets and various amounts and types of background knowledge to the table. Show your fellow writers respect by listening carefully, talking to share your ideas, showing up on time for meetings, sending out drafts on schedule, providing positive feedback, and taking responsibility for an appropriate share of the work.

Start early and allow plenty of time for revising

Getting started early is important in individual projects; however, it is absolutely essential in group work. Because of the multiple people involved in researching and writing the paper, there are aspects of group projects that take additional time, such as deciding and agreeing upon a topic. Group projects should be approached in a structured way because there is simply less scheduling flexibility than when you are working alone. The final product should reflect a unified, cohesive voice and argument, and the only way of accomplishing this is by producing multiple drafts and revising them multiple times.

Plan a strategy for scheduling

One of the difficult aspects of collaborative writing is finding times when everyone can meet. Much of the group’s work may be completed individually, but face-to-face meetings are useful for ensuring that everyone is on the same page. Doodle.com , whenisgood.net , and needtomeet.com are free websites that can make scheduling easier. Using these sites, an organizer suggests multiple dates and times for a meeting, and then each group member can indicate whether they are able to meet at the specified times.

It is very important to set deadlines for drafts; people are busy, and not everyone will have time to read and respond at the last minute. It may help to assign a group facilitator who can send out reminders of the deadlines. If the writing is for a co-authored research paper, the lead author can take responsibility for reminding others that comments on a given draft are due by a specific date.

Submitting drafts at least one day ahead of the meeting allows other authors the opportunity to read over them before the meeting and arrive ready for a productive discussion.

Find a convenient and effective way to share files

There are many different ways to share drafts, research materials, and other files. Here we describe a few of the potential options we have explored and found to be functional. We do not advocate any one option, and we realize there are other equally useful options—this list is just a possible starting point for you:

  • Email attachments. People often share files by email; however, especially when there are many group members or there is a flurry of writing activity, this can lead to a deluge of emails in everyone’s inboxes and significant confusion about which file version is current.
  • Google documents . Files can be shared between group members and are instantaneously updated, even if two members are working at once. Changes made by one member will automatically appear on the document seen by all members. However, to use this option, every group member must have a Gmail account (which is free), and there are often formatting issues when converting Google documents back to Microsoft Word.
  • Dropbox . Dropbox.com is free to join. It allows you to share up to 2GB of files, which can then be synched and accessible from multiple computers. The downside of this approach is that everyone has to join, and someone must install the software on at least one personal computer. Dropbox can then be accessed from any computer online by logging onto the website.
  • Common server space. If all group members have access to a shared server space, this is often an ideal solution. Members of a lab group or a lab course with available server space typically have these resources. Just be sure to make a folder for your project and clearly label your files.

Note that even when you are sharing or storing files for group writing projects in a common location, it is still essential to periodically make back-up copies and store them on your own computer! It is never fun to lose your (or your group’s) hard work.

Try separating the tasks of revising and editing/proofreading

It may be helpful to assign giving feedback on specific items to particular group members. First, group members should provide general feedback and comments on content. Only after revising and solidifying the main ideas and structure of the paper should you move on to editing and proofreading. After all, there is no point in spending your time making a certain sentence as beautiful and correct as possible when that sentence may later be cut out. When completing your final revisions, it may be helpful to assign various concerns (for example, grammar, organization, flow, transitions, and format) to individual group members to focus this process. This is an excellent time to let group members play to their strengths; if you know that you are good at transitions, offer to take care of that editing task.

Your group project is an opportunity to become experts on your topic. Go to the library (in actuality or online), collect relevant books, articles, and data sources, and consult a reference librarian if you have any issues. Talk to your professor or TA early in the process to ensure that the group is on the right track. Find experts in the field to interview if it is appropriate. If you have data to analyze, meet with a statistician. If you are having issues with the writing, use the online handouts at the Writing Center or come in for a face-to-face meeting: a coach can meet with you as a group or one-on-one.

Immediately dividing the writing into pieces

While this may initially seem to be the best way to approach a group writing process, it can also generate more work later on, when the parts written separately must be put together into a unified document. The different pieces must first be edited to generate a logical flow of ideas, without repetition. Once the pieces have been stuck together, the entire paper must be edited to eliminate differences in style and any inconsistencies between the individual authors’ various chunks. Thus, while it may take more time up-front to write together, in the end a closer collaboration can save you from the difficulties of combining pieces of writing and may create a stronger, more cohesive document.

Procrastination

Although this is solid advice for any project, it is even more essential to start working on group projects in a timely manner. In group writing, there are more people to help with the work-but there are also multiple schedules to juggle and more opinions to seek.

Being a solo group member

Not everyone enjoys working in groups. You may truly desire to go solo on this project, and you may even be capable of doing a great job on your own. However, if this is a group assignment, then the prompt is asking for everyone to participate. If you are feeling the need to take over everything, try discussing expectations with your fellow group members as well as the teaching assistant or professor. However, always address your concerns with group members first. Try to approach the group project as a learning experiment: you are learning not only about the project material but also about how to motivate others and work together.

Waiting for other group members to do all of the work

If this is a project for a class, you are leaving your grade in the control of others. Leaving the work to everyone else is not fair to your group mates. And in the end, if you do not contribute, then you are taking credit for work that you did not do; this is a form of academic dishonesty. To ensure that you can do your share, try to volunteer early for a portion of the work that you are interested in or feel you can manage.

Leaving all the end work to one person

It may be tempting to leave all merging, editing, and/or presentation work to one person. Be careful. There are several reasons why this may be ill-advised. 1) The editor/presenter may not completely understand every idea, sentence, or word that another author wrote, leading to ambiguity or even mistakes in the end paper or presentation. 2) Editing is tough, time-consuming work. The editor often finds himself or herself doing more work than was expected as they try to decipher and merge the original contributions under the time pressure of an approaching deadline. If you decide to follow this path and have one person combine the separate writings of many people, be sure to leave plenty of time for a final review by all of the writers. Ask the editor to send out the final draft of the completed work to each of the authors and let every contributor review and respond to the final product. Ideally, there should also be a test run of any live presentations that the group or a representative may make.

Entirely negative critiques

When giving feedback or commenting on the work of other group members, focusing only on “problems” can be overwhelming and put your colleagues on the defensive. Try to highlight the positive parts of the project in addition to pointing out things that need work. Remember that this is constructive feedback, so don’t forget to add concrete, specific suggestions on how to proceed. It can also be helpful to remind yourself that many of your comments are your own opinions or reactions, not absolute, unquestionable truths, and then phrase what you say accordingly. It is much easier and more helpful to hear “I had trouble understanding this paragraph because I couldn’t see how it tied back to our main argument” than to hear “this paragraph is unclear and irrelevant.”

Writing in a group can be challenging, but it is also a wonderful opportunity to learn about your topic, the writing process, and the best strategies for collaboration. We hope that our tips will help you and your group members have a great experience.

Works consulted

We consulted these works while writing this handout. This is not a comprehensive list of resources on the handout’s topic, and we encourage you to do your own research to find additional publications. Please do not use this list as a model for the format of your own reference list, as it may not match the citation style you are using. For guidance on formatting citations, please see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial . We revise these tips periodically and welcome feedback.

Cross, Geoffrey. 1994. Collaboration and Conflict: A Contextual Exploration of Group Writing and Positive Emphasis . Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.

Ede, Lisa S., and Andrea Lunsford. 1990. Singular Texts/Plural Authors: Perspectives on Collaborative Writing . Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.

Speck, Bruce W. 2002. Facilitating Students’ Collaborative Writing . San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

You may reproduce it for non-commercial use if you use the entire handout and attribute the source: The Writing Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

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How to write a Reflection on Group Work Essay

Here are the exact steps you need to follow for a reflection on group work essay.

  • Explain what Reflection Is
  • Explore the benefits of group work
  • Explore the challenges group
  • Give examples of the benefits and challenges your group faced
  • Discuss how your group handled your challenges
  • Discuss what you will do differently next time

Do you have to reflect on how your group work project went?

This is a super common essay that teachers assign. So, let’s have a look at how you can go about writing a superb reflection on your group work project that should get great grades.

The essay structure I outline below takes the funnel approach to essay writing: it starts broad and general, then zooms in on your specific group’s situation.

how to write a reflection on group work essay

Disclaimer: Make sure you check with your teacher to see if this is a good style to use for your essay. Take a draft to your teacher to get their feedback on whether it’s what they’re looking for!

This is a 6-step essay (the 7 th step is editing!). Here’s a general rule for how much depth to go into depending on your word count:

  • 1500 word essay – one paragraph for each step, plus a paragraph each for the introduction and conclusion ;
  • 3000 word essay – two paragraphs for each step, plus a paragraph each for the introduction and conclusion;
  • 300 – 500 word essay – one or two sentences for each step.

Adjust this essay plan depending on your teacher’s requirements and remember to always ask your teacher, a classmate or a professional tutor to review the piece before submitting.

Here’s the steps I’ll outline for you in this advice article:

diagram showing the 6 step funnel approach to essays

Step 1. Explain what ‘Reflection’ Is

You might have heard that you need to define your terms in essays. Well, the most important term in this essay is ‘reflection’.

So, let’s have a look at what reflection is…

Reflection is the process of:

  • Pausing and looking back at what has just happened; then
  • Thinking about how you can get better next time.

Reflection is encouraged in most professions because it’s believed that reflection helps you to become better at your job – we could say ‘reflection makes you a better practitioner’.

Think about it: let’s say you did a speech in front of a crowd. Then, you looked at video footage of that speech and realised you said ‘um’ and ‘ah’ too many times. Next time, you’re going to focus on not saying ‘um’ so that you’ll do a better job next time, right?

Well, that’s reflection: thinking about what happened and how you can do better next time.

It’s really important that you do both of the above two points in your essay. You can’t just say what happened. You need to say how you will do better next time in order to get a top grade on this group work reflection essay.

Scholarly Sources to Cite for Step 1

Okay, so you have a good general idea of what reflection is. Now, what scholarly sources should you use when explaining reflection? Below, I’m going to give you two basic sources that would usually be enough for an undergraduate essay. I’ll also suggest two more sources for further reading if you really want to shine!

I recommend these two sources to cite when explaining what reflective practice is and how it occurs. They are two of the central sources on reflective practice:

  • Describe what happened during the group work process
  • Explain how you felt during the group work process
  • Look at the good and bad aspects of the group work process
  • What were some of the things that got in the way of success? What were some things that helped you succeed?
  • What could you have done differently to improve the situation?
  • Action plan. What are you going to do next time to make the group work process better?
  • What? Explain what happened
  • So What? Explain what you learned
  • Now What? What can I do next time to make the group work process better?

Possible Sources:

Bassot, B. (2015).  The reflective practice guide: An interdisciplinary approach to critical reflection . Routledge.

Brock, A. (2014). What is reflection and reflective practice?. In  The Early Years Reflective Practice Handbook  (pp. 25-39). Routledge.

Gibbs, G. (1988)  Learning by Doing: A guide to teaching and learning methods . Further Education Unit, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford.

Rolfe, G., Freshwater, D., Jasper, M. (2001). Critical reflection in nursing and the helping professions: a user’s guide. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Extension Sources for Top Students

Now, if you want to go deeper and really show off your knowledge, have a look at these two scholars:

  • John Dewey – the first major scholar to come up with the idea of reflective practice
  • Donald Schön – technical rationality, reflection in action vs. reflection on action

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Step 2. Explore the general benefits of group work for learning

Once you have given an explanation of what group work is (and hopefully cited Gibbs, Rolfe, Dewey or Schon), I recommend digging into the benefits of group work for your own learning.

The teacher gave you a group work task for a reason: what is that reason?

You’ll need to explain the reasons group work is beneficial for you. This will show your teacher that you understand what group work is supposed to achieve. Here’s some ideas:

  • Multiple Perspectives. Group work helps you to see things from other people’s perspectives. If you did the task on your own, you might not have thought of some of the ideas that your team members contributed to the project.
  • Contribution of Unique Skills. Each team member might have a different set of skills they can bring to the table. You can explain how groups can make the most of different team members’ strengths to make the final contribution as good as it can be. For example, one team member might be good at IT and might be able to put together a strong final presentation, while another member might be a pro at researching using google scholar so they got the task of doing the initial scholarly research.
  • Improved Communication Skills. Group work projects help you to work on your communication skills. Communication skills required in group work projects include speaking in turn, speaking up when you have ideas, actively listening to other team members’ contributions, and crucially making compromises for the good of the team.
  • Learn to Manage Workplace Conflict. Lastly, your teachers often assign you group work tasks so you can learn to manage conflict and disagreement. You’ll come across this a whole lot in the workplace, so your teachers want you to have some experience being professional while handling disagreements.

You might be able to add more ideas to this list, or you might just want to select one or two from that list to write about depending on the length requirements for the essay.

Scholarly Sources for Step 3

Make sure you provide citations for these points above. You might want to use google scholar or google books and type in ‘Benefits of group work’ to find some quality scholarly sources to cite.

Step 3. Explore the general challenges group work can cause

Step 3 is the mirror image of Step 2. For this step, explore the challenges posed by group work.

Students are usually pretty good at this step because you can usually think of some aspects of group work that made you anxious or frustrated. Here are a few common challenges that group work causes:

  • Time Consuming. You need to organize meetups and often can’t move onto the next component of the project until everyone has agree to move on. When working on your own you can just crack on and get it done. So, team work often takes a lot of time and requires significant pre-planning so you don’t miss your submission deadlines!
  • Learning Style Conflicts. Different people learn in different ways. Some of us like to get everything done at the last minute or are not very meticulous in our writing. Others of us are very organized and detailed and get anxious when things don’t go exactly how we expect. This leads to conflict and frustration in a group work setting.
  • Free Loaders. Usually in a group work project there’s people who do more work than others. The issue of free loaders is always going to be a challenge in group work, and you can discuss in this section how ensuring individual accountability to the group is a common group work issue.
  • Communication Breakdown. This is one especially for online students. It’s often the case that you email team members your ideas or to ask them to reply by a deadline and you don’t hear back from them. Regular communication is an important part of group work, yet sometimes your team members will let you down on this part.

As with Step 3, consider adding more points to this list if you need to, or selecting one or two if your essay is only a short one.

8 Pros And Cons Of Group Work At University

You’ll probably find you can cite the same scholarly sources for both steps 2 and 3 because if a source discusses the benefits of group work it’ll probably also discuss the challenges.

Step 4. Explore the specific benefits and challenges your group faced

Step 4 is where you zoom in on your group’s specific challenges. Have a think: what were the issues you really struggled with as a group?

  • Was one team member absent for a few of the group meetings?
  • Did the group have to change some deadlines due to lack of time?
  • Were there any specific disagreements you had to work through?
  • Did a group member drop out of the group part way through?
  • Were there any communication break downs?

Feel free to also mention some things your group did really well. Have a think about these examples:

  • Was one member of the group really good at organizing you all?
  • Did you make some good professional relationships?
  • Did a group member help you to see something from an entirely new perspective?
  • Did working in a group help you to feel like you weren’t lost and alone in the process of completing the group work component of your course?

Here, because you’re talking about your own perspectives, it’s usually okay to use first person language (but check with your teacher). You are also talking about your own point of view so citations might not be quite as necessary, but it’s still a good idea to add in one or two citations – perhaps to the sources you cited in Steps 2 and 3?

Step 5. Discuss how your group managed your challenges

Step 5 is where you can explore how you worked to overcome some of the challenges you mentioned in Step 4.

So, have a think:

  • Did your group make any changes part way through the project to address some challenges you faced?
  • Did you set roles or delegate tasks to help ensure the group work process went smoothly?
  • Did you contact your teacher at any point for advice on how to progress in the group work scenario?
  • Did you use technology such as Google Docs or Facebook Messenger to help you to collaborate more effectively as a team?

In this step, you should be showing how your team was proactive in reflecting on your group work progress and making changes throughout the process to ensure it ran as smoothly as possible. This act of making little changes throughout the group work process is what’s called ‘Reflection in Action’ (Schön, 2017).

Scholarly Source for Step 5

Schön, D. A. (2017).  The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action . Routledge.

Step 6. Conclude by exploring what you will do differently next time

Step 6 is the most important step, and the one far too many students skip. For Step 6, you need to show how you not only reflected on what happened but also are able to use that reflection for personal growth into the future.

This is the heart and soul of your piece: here, you’re tying everything together and showing why reflection is so important!

This is the ‘action plan’ step in Gibbs’ cycle (you might want to cite Gibbs in this section!).

For Step 6, make some suggestions about how (based on your reflection) you now have some takeaway tips that you’ll bring forward to improve your group work skills next time. Here’s some ideas:

  • Will you work harder next time to set deadlines in advance?
  • Will you ensure you set clearer group roles next time to ensure the process runs more smoothly?
  • Will you use a different type of technology (such as Google Docs) to ensure group communication goes more smoothly?
  • Will you make sure you ask for help from your teacher earlier on in the process when you face challenges?
  • Will you try harder to see things from everyone’s perspectives so there’s less conflict?

This step will be personalized based upon your own group work challenges and how you felt about the group work process. Even if you think your group worked really well together, I recommend you still come up with one or two ideas for continual improvement. Your teacher will want to see that you used reflection to strive for continual self-improvement.

Scholarly Source for Step 6

Step 7. edit.

Okay, you’ve got the nuts and bolts of the assessment put together now! Next, all you’ve got to do is write up the introduction and conclusion then edit the piece to make sure you keep growing your grades.

Here’s a few important suggestions for this last point:

  • You should always write your introduction and conclusion last. They will be easier to write now that you’ve completed the main ‘body’ of the essay;
  • Use my 5-step I.N.T.R.O method to write your introduction;
  • Use my 5 C’s Conclusion method to write your conclusion;
  • Use my 5 tips for editing an essay to edit it;
  • Use the ProWritingAid app to get advice on how to improve your grammar and spelling. Make sure to also use the report on sentence length. It finds sentences that are too long and gives you advice on how to shorten them – such a good strategy for improving evaluative essay  quality!
  • Make sure you contact your teacher and ask for a one-to-one tutorial to go through the piece before submitting. This article only gives general advice, and you might need to make changes based upon the specific essay requirements that your teacher has provided.

That’s it! 7 steps to writing a quality group work reflection essay. I hope you found it useful. If you liked this post and want more clear and specific advice on writing great essays, I recommend signing up to my personal tutor mailing list.

Let’s sum up with those 7 steps one last time:

  • Explain what ‘Reflection’ Is
  • Explore the benefits of group work for learning
  • Explore the challenges of group work for learning
  • Explore the specific benefits and challenges your group faced
  • Discuss how your group managed your challenges
  • Conclude by exploring what you will do differently next time

Chris

Chris Drew (PhD)

Dr. Chris Drew is the founder of the Helpful Professor. He holds a PhD in education and has published over 20 articles in scholarly journals. He is the former editor of the Journal of Learning Development in Higher Education. [Image Descriptor: Photo of Chris]

  • Chris Drew (PhD) https://helpfulprofessor.com/author/chris-drew-phd/ 50 Durable Goods Examples
  • Chris Drew (PhD) https://helpfulprofessor.com/author/chris-drew-phd/ 100 Consumer Goods Examples
  • Chris Drew (PhD) https://helpfulprofessor.com/author/chris-drew-phd/ 30 Globalization Pros and Cons
  • Chris Drew (PhD) https://helpfulprofessor.com/author/chris-drew-phd/ 17 Adversity Examples (And How to Overcome Them)

2 thoughts on “How to write a Reflection on Group Work Essay”

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Great instructions on writing a reflection essay. I would not change anything.

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Thanks so much for your feedback! I really appreciate it. – Chris.

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  • Knowledge Base

Methodology

  • What Is a Focus Group? | Step-by-Step Guide & Examples

What is a Focus Group | Step-by-Step Guide & Examples

Published on December 10, 2021 by Tegan George . Revised on June 22, 2023.

A focus group is a research method that brings together a small group of people to answer questions in a moderated setting. The group is chosen due to predefined demographic traits, and the questions are designed to shed light on a topic of interest.

What is a focus group

Table of contents

What is a focus group, step 1: choose your topic of interest, step 2: define your research scope and hypotheses, step 3: determine your focus group questions, step 4: select a moderator or co-moderator, step 5: recruit your participants, step 6: set up your focus group, step 7: host your focus group, step 8: analyze your data and report your results, advantages and disadvantages of focus groups, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about focus groups.

Focus groups are a type of qualitative research . Observations of the group’s dynamic, their answers to focus group questions, and even their body language can guide future research on consumer decisions, products and services, or controversial topics.

Focus groups are often used in marketing, library science, social science, and user research disciplines. They can provide more nuanced and natural feedback than individual interviews and are easier to organize than experiments or large-scale surveys .

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Focus groups are primarily considered a confirmatory research technique . In other words, their discussion-heavy setting is most useful for confirming or refuting preexisting beliefs. For this reason, they are great for conducting explanatory research , where you explore why something occurs when limited information is available.

A focus group may be a good choice for you if:

  • You’re interested in real-time, unfiltered responses on a given topic or in the dynamics of a discussion between participants
  • Your questions are rooted in feelings or perceptions , and cannot easily be answered with “yes” or “no”
  • You’re confident that a relatively small number of responses will answer your question
  • You’re seeking directional information that will help you uncover new questions or future research ideas
  • Structured interviews : The questions are predetermined in both topic and order.
  • Semi-structured interviews : A few questions are predetermined, but other questions aren’t planned.
  • Unstructured interviews : None of the questions are predetermined.

Differences between types of interviews

Make sure to choose the type of interview that suits your research best. This table shows the most important differences between the four types.

Topics favorable to focus groups

As a rule of thumb, research topics related to thoughts, beliefs, and feelings work well in focus groups. If you are seeking direction, explanation, or in-depth dialogue, a focus group could be a good fit.

However, if your questions are dichotomous or if you need to reach a large audience quickly, a survey may be a better option. If your question hinges upon behavior but you are worried about influencing responses, consider an observational study .

  • If you want to determine whether the student body would regularly consume vegan food, a survey would be a great way to gauge student preferences.

However, food is much more than just consumption and nourishment and can have emotional, cultural, and other implications on individuals.

  • If you’re interested in something less concrete, such as students’ perceptions of vegan food or the interplay between their choices at the dining hall and their feelings of homesickness or loneliness, perhaps a focus group would be best.

Once you have determined that a focus group is the right choice for your topic, you can start thinking about what you expect the group discussion to yield.

Perhaps literature already exists on your subject or a sufficiently similar topic that you can use as a starting point. If the topic isn’t well studied, use your instincts to determine what you think is most worthy of study.

Setting your scope will help you formulate intriguing hypotheses , set clear questions, and recruit the right participants.

  • Are you interested in a particular sector of the population, such as vegans or non-vegans?
  • Are you interested in including vegetarians in your analysis?
  • Perhaps not all students eat at the dining hall. Will your study exclude those who don’t?
  • Are you only interested in students who have strong opinions on the subject?

A benefit of focus groups is that your hypotheses can be open-ended. You can be open to a wide variety of opinions, which can lead to unexpected conclusions.

The questions that you ask your focus group are crucially important to your analysis. Take your time formulating them, paying special attention to phrasing. Be careful to avoid leading questions , which can affect your responses.

Overall, your focus group questions should be:

  • Open-ended and flexible
  • Impossible to answer with “yes” or “no” (questions that start with “why” or “how” are often best)
  • Unambiguous, getting straight to the point while still stimulating discussion
  • Unbiased and neutral

If you are discussing a controversial topic, be careful that your questions do not cause social desirability bias . Here, your respondents may lie about their true beliefs to mask any socially unacceptable or unpopular opinions. This and other demand characteristics can hurt your analysis and lead to several types of reseach bias in your results, particularly if your participants react in a different way once knowing they’re being observed. These include self-selection bias , the Hawthorne effect , the Pygmalion effect , and recall bias .

  • Engagement questions make your participants feel comfortable and at ease: “What is your favorite food at the dining hall?”
  • Exploration questions drill down to the focus of your analysis: “What pros and cons of offering vegan options do you see?”
  • Exit questions pick up on anything you may have previously missed in your discussion: “Is there anything you’d like to mention about vegan options in the dining hall that we haven’t discussed?”

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essay group discussion

It is important to have more than one moderator in the room. If you would like to take the lead asking questions, select a co-moderator who can coordinate the technology, take notes, and observe the behavior of the participants.

If your hypotheses have behavioral aspects, consider asking someone else to be lead moderator so that you are free to take a more observational role.

Depending on your topic, there are a few types of moderator roles that you can choose from.

  • The most common is the dual-moderator , introduced above.
  • Another common option is the dueling-moderator style . Here, you and your co-moderator take opposing sides on an issue to allow participants to see different perspectives and respond accordingly.

Depending on your research topic, there are a few sampling methods you can choose from to help you recruit and select participants.

  • Voluntary response sampling , such as posting a flyer on campus and finding participants based on responses
  • Convenience sampling of those who are most readily accessible to you, such as fellow students at your university
  • Stratified sampling of a particular age, race, ethnicity, gender identity, or other characteristic of interest to you
  • Judgment sampling of a specific set of participants that you already know you want to include

Beware of sampling bias and selection bias , which can occur when some members of the population are more likely to be included than others.

Number of participants

In most cases, one focus group will not be sufficient to answer your research question. It is likely that you will need to schedule three to four groups. A good rule of thumb is to stop when you’ve reached a saturation point (i.e., when you aren’t receiving new responses to your questions).

Most focus groups have 6–10 participants. It’s a good idea to over-recruit just in case someone doesn’t show up. As a rule of thumb, you shouldn’t have fewer than 6 or more than 12 participants, in order to get the most reliable results.

Lastly, it’s preferable for your participants not to know you or each other, as this can bias your results.

A focus group is not just a group of people coming together to discuss their opinions. While well-run focus groups have an enjoyable and relaxed atmosphere, they are backed up by rigorous methods to provide robust observations.

Confirm a time and date

Be sure to confirm a time and date with your participants well in advance. Focus groups usually meet for 45–90 minutes, but some can last longer. However, beware of the possibility of wandering attention spans. If you really think your session needs to last longer than 90 minutes, schedule a few breaks.

Confirm whether it will take place in person or online

You will also need to decide whether the group will meet in person or online. If you are hosting it in person, be sure to pick an appropriate location.

  • An uncomfortable or awkward location may affect the mood or level of participation of your group members.
  • Online sessions are convenient, as participants can join from home, but they can also lessen the connection between participants.

As a general rule, make sure you are in a noise-free environment that minimizes distractions and interruptions to your participants.

Consent and ethical considerations

It’s important to take into account ethical considerations and informed consent when conducting your research. Informed consent means that participants possess all the information they need to decide whether they want to participate in the research before it starts. This includes information about benefits, risks, funding, and institutional approval.

Participants should also sign a release form that states that they are comfortable with being audio- or video-recorded. While verbal consent may be sufficient, it is best to ask participants to sign a form.

A disadvantage of focus groups is that they are too small to provide true anonymity to participants. Make sure that your participants know this prior to participating.

There are a few things you can do to commit to keeping information private. You can secure confidentiality by removing all identifying information from your report or offer to pseudonymize the data later. Data pseudonymization entails replacing any identifying information about participants with pseudonymous or false identifiers.

Preparation prior to participation

If there is something you would like participants to read, study, or prepare beforehand, be sure to let them know well in advance. It’s also a good idea to call them the day before to ensure they will still be participating.

Consider conducting a tech check prior to the arrival of your participants, and note any environmental or external factors that could affect the mood of the group that day. Be sure that you are organized and ready, as a stressful atmosphere can be distracting and counterproductive.

Starting the focus group

Welcome individuals to the focus group by introducing the topic, yourself, and your co-moderator, and go over any ground rules or suggestions for a successful discussion. It’s important to make your participants feel at ease and forthcoming with their responses.

Consider starting out with an icebreaker, which will allow participants to relax and settle into the space a bit. Your icebreaker can be related to your study topic or not; it’s just an exercise to get participants talking.

Leading the discussion

Once you start asking your questions, try to keep response times equal between participants. Take note of the most and least talkative members of the group, as well as any participants with particularly strong or dominant personalities.

You can ask less talkative members questions directly to encourage them to participate or ask participants questions by name to even the playing field. Feel free to ask participants to elaborate on their answers or to give an example.

As a moderator, strive to remain neutral . Refrain from reacting to responses, and be aware of your body language (e.g., nodding, raising eyebrows) and the possibility for observer bias . Active listening skills, such as parroting back answers or asking for clarification, are good methods to encourage participation and signal that you’re listening.

Many focus groups offer a monetary incentive for participants. Depending on your research budget, this is a nice way to show appreciation for their time and commitment. To keep everyone feeling fresh, consider offering snacks or drinks as well.

After concluding your focus group, you and your co-moderator should debrief, recording initial impressions of the discussion as well as any highlights, issues, or immediate conclusions you’ve drawn.

The next step is to transcribe and clean your data . Assign each participant a number or pseudonym for organizational purposes. Transcribe the recordings and conduct content analysis to look for themes or categories of responses. The categories you choose can then form the basis for reporting your results.

Just like other research methods, focus groups come with advantages and disadvantages.

  • They are fairly straightforward to organize and results have strong face validity .
  • They are usually inexpensive, even if you compensate participant.
  • A focus group is much less time-consuming than a survey or experiment , and you get immediate results.
  • Focus group results are often more comprehensible and intuitive than raw data.

Disadvantages

  • It can be difficult to assemble a truly representative sample. Focus groups are generally not considered externally valid due to their small sample sizes.
  • Due to the small sample size, you cannot ensure the anonymity of respondents, which may influence their desire to speak freely.
  • Depth of analysis can be a concern, as it can be challenging to get honest opinions on controversial topics.
  • There is a lot of room for error in the data analysis and high potential for observer dependency in drawing conclusions. You have to be careful not to cherry-pick responses to fit a prior conclusion.

If you want to know more about statistics , methodology , or research bias , make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.

  • Student’s  t -distribution
  • Normal distribution
  • Null and Alternative Hypotheses
  • Chi square tests
  • Confidence interval
  • Quartiles & Quantiles
  • Cluster sampling
  • Stratified sampling
  • Data cleansing
  • Reproducibility vs Replicability
  • Peer review
  • Prospective cohort study

Research bias

  • Implicit bias
  • Cognitive bias
  • Placebo effect
  • Hawthorne effect
  • Hindsight bias
  • Affect heuristic
  • Social desirability bias

A focus group is a research method that brings together a small group of people to answer questions in a moderated setting. The group is chosen due to predefined demographic traits, and the questions are designed to shed light on a topic of interest. It is one of 4 types of interviews .

As a rule of thumb, questions related to thoughts, beliefs, and feelings work well in focus groups. Take your time formulating strong questions, paying special attention to phrasing. Be careful to avoid leading questions , which can bias your responses.

There are various approaches to qualitative data analysis , but they all share five steps in common:

  • Prepare and organize your data.
  • Review and explore your data.
  • Develop a data coding system.
  • Assign codes to the data.
  • Identify recurring themes.

The specifics of each step depend on the focus of the analysis. Some common approaches include textual analysis , thematic analysis , and discourse analysis .

Every dataset requires different techniques to clean dirty data , but you need to address these issues in a systematic way. You focus on finding and resolving data points that don’t agree or fit with the rest of your dataset.

These data might be missing values, outliers, duplicate values, incorrectly formatted, or irrelevant. You’ll start with screening and diagnosing your data. Then, you’ll often standardize and accept or remove data to make your dataset consistent and valid.

The four most common types of interviews are:

  • Structured interviews : The questions are predetermined in both topic and order. 
  • Focus group interviews : The questions are presented to a group instead of one individual.

It’s impossible to completely avoid observer bias in studies where data collection is done or recorded manually, but you can take steps to reduce this type of bias in your research .

Scope of research is determined at the beginning of your research process , prior to the data collection stage. Sometimes called “scope of study,” your scope delineates what will and will not be covered in your project. It helps you focus your work and your time, ensuring that you’ll be able to achieve your goals and outcomes.

Defining a scope can be very useful in any research project, from a research proposal to a thesis or dissertation . A scope is needed for all types of research: quantitative , qualitative , and mixed methods .

To define your scope of research, consider the following:

  • Budget constraints or any specifics of grant funding
  • Your proposed timeline and duration
  • Specifics about your population of study, your proposed sample size , and the research methodology you’ll pursue
  • Any inclusion and exclusion criteria
  • Any anticipated control , extraneous , or confounding variables that could bias your research if not accounted for properly.

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.

George, T. (2023, June 22). What is a Focus Group | Step-by-Step Guide & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved February 19, 2024, from https://www.scribbr.com/methodology/focus-group/

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  • Section 4. Techniques for Leading Group Discussions

Chapter 16 Sections

  • Section 1. Conducting Effective Meetings
  • Section 2. Developing Facilitation Skills
  • Section 3. Capturing What People Say: Tips for Recording a Meeting
  • Main Section

A local coalition forms a task force to address the rising HIV rate among teens in the community.  A group of parents meets to wrestle with their feeling that their school district is shortchanging its students.  A college class in human services approaches the topic of dealing with reluctant participants.  Members of an environmental group attend a workshop on the effects of global warming.  A politician convenes a “town hall meeting” of constituents to brainstorm ideas for the economic development of the region.  A community health educator facilitates a smoking cessation support group.

All of these might be examples of group discussions, although they have different purposes, take place in different locations, and probably run in different ways.  Group discussions are common in a democratic society, and, as a community builder, it’s more than likely that you have been and will continue to be involved in many of them.  You also may be in a position to lead one, and that’s what this section is about.  In this last section of a chapter on group facilitation, we’ll examine what it takes to lead a discussion group well, and how you can go about doing it.

What is an effective group discussion?

The literal definition of a group discussion is obvious: a critical conversation about a particular topic, or perhaps a range of topics, conducted in a group of a size that allows participation by all members.  A group of two or three generally doesn’t need a leader to have a good discussion, but once the number reaches five or six, a leader or facilitator can often be helpful.  When the group numbers eight or more, a leader or facilitator, whether formal or informal, is almost always helpful in ensuring an effective discussion.

A group discussion is a type of meeting, but it differs from the formal meetings in a number of ways: It may not have a specific goal – many group discussions are just that: a group kicking around ideas on a particular topic.  That may lead to a goal ultimately...but it may not. It’s less formal, and may have no time constraints, or structured order, or agenda. Its leadership is usually less directive than that of a meeting. It emphasizes process (the consideration of ideas) over product (specific tasks to be accomplished within the confines of the meeting itself. Leading a discussion group is not the same as running a meeting.  It’s much closer to acting as a facilitator, but not exactly the same as that either.

An effective group discussion generally has a number of elements:

  • All members of the group have a chance to speak, expressing their own ideas and feelings freely, and to pursue and finish out their thoughts
  • All members of the group can hear others’ ideas and feelings stated openly
  • Group members can safely test out ideas that are not yet fully formed
  • Group members can receive and respond to respectful but honest and constructive feedback.  Feedback could be positive, negative, or merely clarifying or correcting factual questions or errors, but is in all cases delivered respectfully.
  • A variety of points of view are put forward and discussed
  • The discussion is not dominated by any one person
  • Arguments, while they may be spirited, are based on the content of ideas and opinions, not on personalities
  • Even in disagreement, there’s an understanding that the group is working together to resolve a dispute, solve a problem, create a plan, make a decision, find principles all can agree on, or come to a conclusion from which it can move on to further discussion

Many group discussions have no specific purpose except the exchange of ideas and opinions.  Ultimately, an effective group discussion is one in which many different ideas and viewpoints are heard and considered.  This allows the group to accomplish its purpose if it has one, or to establish a basis either for ongoing discussion or for further contact and collaboration among its members.

There are many possible purposes for a group discussion, such as:

  • Create a new situation – form a coalition, start an initiative, etc.
  • Explore cooperative or collaborative arrangements among groups or organizations
  • Discuss and/or analyze an issue, with no specific goal in mind but understanding
  • Create a strategic plan – for an initiative, an advocacy campaign, an intervention, etc.
  • Discuss policy and policy change
  • Air concerns and differences among individuals or groups
  • Hold public hearings on proposed laws or regulations, development, etc.
  • Decide on an action
  • Provide mutual support
  • Solve a problem
  • Resolve a conflict
  • Plan your work or an event

Possible leadership styles of a group discussion also vary.  A group leader or facilitator might be directive or non-directive; that is, she might try to control what goes on to a large extent; or she might assume that the group should be in control, and that her job is to facilitate the process.  In most group discussions, leaders who are relatively non-directive make for a more broad-ranging outlay of ideas, and a more satisfying experience for participants.

Directive leaders can be necessary in some situations. If a goal must be reached in a short time period, a directive leader might help to keep the group focused. If the situation is particularly difficult, a directive leader might be needed to keep control of the discussion and make

Why would you lead a group discussion?

There are two ways to look at this question: “What’s the point of group discussion?” and “Why would you, as opposed to someone else, lead a group discussion?”  Let’s examine both.

What’s the point of group discussion?

As explained in the opening paragraphs of this section, group discussions are common in a democratic society.  There are a number of reasons for this, some practical and some philosophical.

A group discussion:

  • G ives everyone involved a voice .  Whether the discussion is meant to form a basis for action, or just to play with ideas, it gives all members of the group a chance to speak their opinions, to agree or disagree with others, and to have their thoughts heard.  In many community-building situations, the members of the group might be chosen specifically because they represent a cross-section of the community, or a diversity of points of view.
  • Allows for a variety of ideas to be expressed and discussed .  A group is much more likely to come to a good conclusion if a mix of ideas is on the table, and if all members have the opportunity to think about and respond to them.
  • Is generally a democratic, egalitarian process .  It reflects the ideals of most grassroots and community groups, and encourages a diversity of views.
  • Leads to group ownership of whatever conclusions, plans, or action the group decides upon .  Because everyone has a chance to contribute to the discussion and to be heard, the final result feels like it was arrived at by and belongs to everyone.
  • Encourages those who might normally be reluctant to speak their minds .  Often, quiet people have important things to contribute, but aren’t assertive enough to make themselves heard.  A good group discussion will bring them out and support them.
  • Can often open communication channels among people who might not communicate in any other way .  People from very different backgrounds, from opposite ends of the political spectrum, from different cultures, who may, under most circumstances, either never make contact or never trust one another enough to try to communicate, might, in a group discussion, find more common ground than they expected.
  • Is sometimes simply the obvious, or even the only, way to proceed.  Several of the examples given at the beginning of the section – the group of parents concerned about their school system, for instance, or the college class – fall into this category, as do public hearings and similar gatherings.

Why would you specifically lead a group discussion?

You might choose to lead a group discussion, or you might find yourself drafted for the task.  Some of the most common reasons that you might be in that situation:

  • It’s part of your job .  As a mental health counselor, a youth worker, a coalition coordinator, a teacher, the president of a board of directors, etc. you might be expected to lead group discussions regularly.
  • You’ve been asked to .  Because of your reputation for objectivity or integrity, because of your position in the community, or because of your skill at leading group discussions, you might be the obvious choice to lead a particular discussion.
  • A discussion is necessary, and you’re the logical choice to lead it .  If you’re the chair of a task force to address substance use in the community, for instance, it’s likely that you’ll be expected to conduct that task force’s meetings, and to lead discussion of the issue.
  • It was your idea in the first place .  The group discussion, or its purpose, was your idea, and the organization of the process falls to you.

You might find yourself in one of these situations if you fall into one of the categories of people who are often tapped to lead group discussions.  These categories include (but aren’t limited to):

  • Directors of organizations
  • Public officials
  • Coalition coordinators
  • Professionals with group-leading skills – counselors, social workers, therapists, etc.
  • Health professionals and health educators
  • Respected community members.  These folks may be respected for their leadership – president of the Rotary Club, spokesperson for an environmental movement – for their positions in the community – bank president, clergyman – or simply for their personal qualities – integrity, fairness, ability to communicate with all sectors of the community.
  • Community activists.  This category could include anyone from “professional” community organizers to average citizens who care about an issue or have an idea they want to pursue.

When might you lead a group discussion?

The need or desire for a group discussion might of course arise anytime, but there are some times when it’s particularly necessary.

  • At the start of something new . Whether you’re designing an intervention, starting an initiative, creating a new program, building a coalition, or embarking on an advocacy or other campaign, inclusive discussion is likely to be crucial in generating the best possible plan, and creating community support for and ownership of it.
  • When an issue can no longer be ignored . When youth violence reaches a critical point, when the community’s drinking water is declared unsafe, when the HIV infection rate climbs – these are times when groups need to convene to discuss the issue and develop action plans to swing the pendulum in the other direction.
  • When groups need to be brought together . One way to deal with racial or ethnic hostility, for instance, is to convene groups made up of representatives of all the factions involved.  The resulting discussions – and the opportunity for people from different backgrounds to make personal connections with one another – can go far to address everyone’s concerns, and to reduce tensions.
  • When an existing group is considering its next step or seeking to address an issue of importance to it . The staff of a community service organization, for instance, may want to plan its work for the next few months, or to work out how to deal with people with particular quirks or problems.

How do you lead a group discussion?

In some cases, the opportunity to lead a group discussion can arise on the spur of the moment; in others, it’s a more formal arrangement, planned and expected.  In the latter case, you may have the chance to choose a space and otherwise structure the situation.  In less formal circumstances, you’ll have to make the best of existing conditions.

We’ll begin by looking at what you might consider if you have time to prepare.  Then we’ll examine what it takes to make an effective discussion leader or facilitator, regardless of external circumstances.

Set the stage

If you have time to prepare beforehand, there are a number of things you may be able to do to make the participants more comfortable, and thus to make discussion easier.

Choose the space

If you have the luxury of choosing your space, you might look for someplace that’s comfortable and informal.  Usually, that means comfortable furniture that can be moved around (so that, for instance, the group can form a circle, allowing everyone to see and hear everyone else easily).  It may also mean a space away from the ordinary.

One organization often held discussions on the terrace of an old mill that had been turned into a bookstore and café.  The sound of water from the mill stream rushing by put everyone at ease, and encouraged creative thought.

Provide food and drink

The ultimate comfort, and one that breaks down barriers among people, is that of eating and drinking.

Bring materials to help the discussion along

Most discussions are aided by the use of newsprint and markers to record ideas, for example.

Become familiar with the purpose and content of the discussion

If you have the opportunity, learn as much as possible about the topic under discussion.  This is not meant to make you the expert, but rather to allow you to ask good questions that will help the group generate ideas.

Make sure everyone gets any necessary information, readings, or other material beforehand

If participants are asked to read something, consider questions, complete a task, or otherwise prepare for the discussion, make sure that the assignment is attended to and used.  Don’t ask people to do something, and then ignore it.

Lead the discussion

Think about leadership style

The first thing you need to think about is leadership style, which we mentioned briefly earlier in the section.  Are you a directive or non-directive leader?  The chances are that, like most of us, you fall somewhere in between the extremes of the leader who sets the agenda and dominates the group completely, and the leader who essentially leads not at all. The point is made that many good group or meeting leaders are, in fact, facilitators, whose main concern is supporting and maintaining the process of the group’s work.  This is particularly true when it comes to group discussion, where the process is, in fact, the purpose of the group’s coming together.

A good facilitator helps the group set rules for itself, makes sure that everyone participates and that no one dominates, encourages the development and expression of all ideas, including “odd” ones, and safeguards an open process, where there are no foregone conclusions and everyone’s ideas are respected.  Facilitators are non-directive, and try to keep themselves out of the discussion, except to ask questions or make statements that advance it.  For most group discussions, the facilitator role is probably a good ideal to strive for.

It’s important to think about what you’re most comfortable with philosophically, and how that fits what you’re comfortable with personally.  If you’re committed to a non-directive style, but you tend to want to control everything in a situation, you may have to learn some new behaviors in order to act on your beliefs.

Put people at ease

Especially if most people in the group don’t know one another, it’s your job as leader to establish a comfortable atmosphere and set the tone for the discussion.

Help the group establish ground rules

The ground rules of a group discussion are the guidelines that help to keep the discussion on track, and prevent it from deteriorating into namecalling or simply argument.  Some you might suggest, if the group has trouble coming up with the first one or two:

  • Everyone should treat everyone else with respect : no name-calling, no emotional outbursts, no accusations.
  • No arguments directed at people – only at ideas and opinions .  Disagreement should be respectful – no ridicule.
  • Don’t interrupt .  Listen to the whole of others’ thoughts – actually listen, rather than just running over your own response in your head.
  • Respect the group’s time .  Try to keep your comments reasonably short and to the point, so that others have a chance to respond.
  • Consider all comments seriously, and try to evaluate them fairly .  Others’ ideas and comments may change your mind, or vice versa: it’s important to be open to that.
  • Don’t be defensive if someone disagrees with you .  Evaluate both positions, and only continue to argue for yours if you continue to believe it’s right.
  • Everyone is responsible for following and upholding the ground rules .
Ground rules may also be a place to discuss recording the session.  Who will take notes, record important points, questions for further discussion, areas of agreement or disagreement?  If the recorder is a group member, the group and/or leader should come up with a strategy that allows her to participate fully in the discussion.

Generate an agenda or goals for the session

You might present an agenda for approval, and change it as the group requires, or you and the group can create one together.  There may actually be no need for one, in that the goal may simply be to discuss an issue or idea.  If that’s the case, it should be agreed upon at the outset.

How active you are might depend on your leadership style, but you definitely have some responsibilities here.  They include setting, or helping the group to set the discussion topic; fostering the open process; involving all participants; asking questions or offering ideas to advance the discussion; summarizing or clarifying important points, arguments, and ideas; and wrapping up the session.  Let’s look at these, as well as some do’s and don’t’s for discussion group leaders.

  • Setting the topic . If the group is meeting to discuss a specific issue or to plan something, the discussion topic is already set.  If the topic is unclear, then someone needs to help the group define it.  The leader – through asking the right questions, defining the problem, and encouraging ideas from the group – can play that role.
  • Fostering the open process . Nurturing the open process means paying attention to the process, content, and interpersonal dynamics of the discussion all at the same time – not a simple matter. As leader, your task is not to tell the group what to do, or to force particular conclusions, but rather to make sure that the group chooses an appropriate topic that meets its needs, that there are no “right” answers to start with (no foregone conclusions), that no one person or small group dominates the discussion, that everyone follows the ground rules, that discussion is civil and organized, and that all ideas are subjected to careful critical analysis.  You might comment on the process of the discussion or on interpersonal issues when it seems helpful (“We all seem to be picking on John here – what’s going on?”), or make reference to the open process itself (“We seem to be assuming that we’re supposed to believe X – is that true?”). Most of your actions as leader should be in the service of modeling or furthering the open process.
Part of your job here is to protect “minority rights,” i.e., unpopular or unusual ideas.  That doesn’t mean you have to agree with them, but that you have to make sure that they can be expressed, and that discussion of them is respectful, even in disagreement. (The exceptions are opinions or ideas that are discriminatory or downright false.)  Odd ideas often turn out to be correct, and shouldn’t be stifled.
  • Involving all participants . This is part of fostering the open process, but is important enough to deserve its own mention. To involve those who are less assertive or shy, or who simply can’t speak up quickly enough, you might ask directly for their opinion, encourage them with body language (smile when they say anything, lean and look toward them often), and be aware of when they want to speak and can’t break in.  It’s important both for process and for the exchange of ideas that everyone have plenty of opportunity to communicate their thoughts.
  • Asking questions or offering ideas to advance the discussion . The leader should be aware of the progress of the discussion, and should be able to ask questions or provide information or arguments that stimulate thinking or take the discussion to the next step when necessary. If participants are having trouble grappling with the topic, getting sidetracked by trivial issues, or simply running out of steam, it’s the leader’s job to carry the discussion forward.
This is especially true when the group is stuck, either because two opposing ideas or factions are at an impasse, or because no one is able or willing to say anything.  In these circumstances, the leader’s ability to identify points of agreement, or to ask the question that will get discussion moving again is crucial to the group’s effectiveness.
  • Summarizing or clarifying important points, arguments, or ideas . This task entails making sure that everyone understands a point that was just made, or the two sides of an argument.  It can include restating a conclusion the group has reached, or clarifying a particular idea or point made by an individual (“What I think I heard you say was…”).  The point is to make sure that everyone understands what the individual or group actually meant.
  • Wrapping up the session .  As the session ends, the leader should help the group review the discussion and make plans for next steps (more discussion sessions, action, involving other people or groups, etc.). He should also go over any assignments or tasks that were agreed to, make sure that every member knows what her responsibilities are, and review the deadlines for those responsibilities.  Other wrap-up steps include getting feedback on the session – including suggestions for making it better – pointing out the group’s accomplishments, and thanking it for its work.

Even after you’ve wrapped up the discussion, you’re not necessarily through. If you’ve been the recorder, you might want to put the notes from the session in order, type them up, and send them to participants. The notes might also include a summary of conclusions that were reached, as well as any assignments or follow-up activities that were agreed on.

If the session was one-time, or was the last of a series, your job may now be done. If it was the beginning, however, or part of an ongoing discussion, you may have a lot to do before the next session, including contacting people to make sure they’ve done what they promised, and preparing the newsprint notes to be posted at the next session so everyone can remember the discussion.

Leading an effective group discussion takes preparation (if you have the opportunity for it), an understanding of and commitment to an open process, and a willingness to let go of your ego and biases. If you can do these things, the chances are you can become a discussion leader that can help groups achieve the results they want.

Do’s and don’ts for discussion leaders

  • Model the behavior and attitudes you want group members to employ . That includes respecting all group members equally; advancing the open process; demonstrating what it means to be a learner (admitting when you’re wrong, or don’t know a fact or an answer, and suggesting ways to find out); asking questions based on others’ statements; focusing on positions rather than on the speaker; listening carefully; restating others’ points; supporting your arguments with fact or logic; acceding when someone else has a good point; accepting criticism; thinking critically; giving up the floor when appropriate; being inclusive and culturally sensitive, etc.
  • Use encouraging body language and tone of voice, as well as words .  Lean forward when people are talking, for example, keep your body position open and approachable, smile when appropriate, and attend carefully to everyone, not just to those who are most articulate.
  • Give positive feedback for joining the discussion .  Smile, repeat group members’ points, and otherwise show that you value participation.
  • Be aware of people’s reactions and feelings, and try to respond appropriately . If a group member is hurt by others’ comments, seems puzzled or confused, is becoming angry or defensive, it’s up to you as discussion leader to use the ground rules or your own sensitivity to deal with the situation. If someone’s hurt, for instance, it may be important to point that out and discuss how to make arguments without getting personal.  If group members are confused, revisiting the comments or points that caused the confusion, or restating them more clearly, may be helpful.  Being aware of the reactions of individuals and of the group as a whole can make it possible to expose and use conflict, or to head off unnecessary emotional situations and misunderstandings.
  • Ask open-ended questions .  In advancing the discussion, use questions that can’t be answered with a simple yes or no.  Instead, questions should require some thought from group members, and should ask for answers that include reasons or analysis.  The difference between “Do you think the President’s decision was right?” and “Why do you think the President’s decision was or wasn’t right?” is huge.  Where the first question can be answered with a yes or no, the second requires an analysis supporting the speaker’s opinion, as well as discussion of the context and reasons for the decision.
  • Control your own biases .  While you should point out factual errors or ideas that are inaccurate and disrespectful of others, an open process demands that you not impose your views on the group, and that you keep others from doing the same.  Group members should be asked to make rational decisions about the positions or views they want to agree with, and ultimately the ideas that the group agrees on should be those that make the most sense to them – whether they coincide with yours or not.  Pointing out bias – including your own – and discussing it helps both you and group members try to be objective.
A constant question that leaders – and members – of any group have is what to do about racist, sexist, or homophobic remarks, especially in a homogeneous group where most or all of the members except the leader may agree with them.  There is no clear-cut answer, although if they pass unchallenged, it may appear you condone the attitude expressed. How you challenge prejudice is the real question.  The ideal here is that other members of the group do the challenging, and it may be worth waiting long enough before you jump in to see if that’s going to happen.  If it doesn’t, you can essentially say, “That’s wrong, and I won’t allow that kind of talk here,” which may well put an end to the remarks, but isn’t likely to change anyone’s mind.  You can express your strong disagreement or discomfort with such remarks and leave it at that, or follow up with “Let’s talk about it after the group,” which could generate some real discussion about prejudice and stereotypes, and actually change some thinking over time. Your ground rules – the issue of respecting everyone – should address this issue, and it probably won’t come up…but there are no guarantees.  It won’t hurt to think beforehand about how you want to handle it.
  • Encourage disagreement, and help the group use it creatively .  Disagreement is not to be smoothed over, but rather to be analyzed and used.  When there are conflicting opinions – especially when both can be backed up by reasonable arguments – the real discussion starts.  If everyone agrees on every point, there’s really no discussion at all.  Disagreement makes people think.  It may not be resolved in one session, or at all, but it’s the key to discussion that means something.
All too often, conflict – whether conflicting opinions, conflicting world views, or conflicting personalities – is so frightening to people that they do their best to ignore it or gloss it over.  That reaction not only leaves the conflict unresolved – and therefore growing, so that it will be much stronger when it surfaces later– but fails to examine the issues that it raises.  If those are brought out in the open and discussed reasonably, the two sides often find that they have as much agreement as disagreement, and can resolve their differences by putting their ideas together.  Even where that’s not the case, facing the conflict reasonably, and looking at the roots of the ideas on each side, can help to focus on the issue at hand and provide solutions far better than if one side or the other simply operated alone.
  • Keep your mouth shut as much as possible .  By and large, discussion groups are for the group members.  You may be a member of the group and have been asked by the others to act as leader, in which case you certainly have a right to be part of the discussion (although not to dominate).  If you’re an outside facilitator, or leader by position, it’s best to confine your contributions to observations on process, statements of fact, questions to help propel the discussion, and clarification and summarization.  The simple fact that you’re identified as leader or facilitator gives your comments more force than those of other group members.  If you’re in a position of authority or seen as an expert, that force becomes even greater.  The more active you are in the discussion, the more the group will take your positions and ideas as “right,” and the less it will come to its own conclusions.
  • Don’t let one or a small group of individuals dominate the discussion .  People who are particularly articulate or assertive, who have strong feelings that they urgently want to express, or who simply feel the need – and have the ability – to dominate can take up far more than their fair share of a discussion.  This often means that quieter people have little or no chance to speak, and that those who disagree with the dominant individual(s) are shouted down and cease trying to make points.  It’s up to the leader to cut off individuals who take far more than their share of time, or who try to limit discussion.  This can be done in a relatively non-threatening way (“This is an interesting point, and it’s certainly worth the time we’ve spent on it, but there are other points of view that need to be heard as well.  I think Alice has been waiting to speak…”), but it’s crucial to the open process and to the comfort and effectiveness of the group.
  • Don’t let one point of view override others , unless it’s based on facts and logic, and is actually convincing group members to change their minds.  If a point of view dominates because of its merits, its appeal to participants’ intellectual and ethical sensibilities, that’s fine.  It’s in fact what you hope will happen in a good group discussion.  If a point of view dominates because of the aggressiveness of its supporters, or because it’s presented as something it’s wrong to oppose (“People who disagree with the President are unpatriotic and hate their country”), that’s intellectual bullying or blackmail, and is the opposite of an open discussion.  As leader, you should point it out when that’s happening, and make sure other points of view are aired and examined.
Sometimes individuals or factions that are trying to dominate can disrupt the process of the group. Both Sections 1 and 2 of this chapter contain some guidelines for dealing with this type of situation.
  • Don’t assume that anyone holds particular opinions or positions because of his culture, background, race, personal style, etc .  People are individuals, and can’t be judged by their exteriors.  You can find out what someone thinks by asking, or by listening when he speaks.
  • Don’t assume that someone from a particular culture, race, or background speaks for everyone else from that situation .  She may or may not represent the general opinion of people from situations similar to hers…or there may not be a general opinion among them.  In a group discussion, no one should be asked or assumed to represent anything more than herself.
The exception here is when someone has been chosen by her community or group to represent its point of view in a multi-sector discussion.  Even in that situation, the individual may find herself swayed by others’ arguments, or may have ideas of her own.  She may have agreed to sponsor particular ideas that are important to her group, but she may still have her own opinions as well, especially in other areas.
  • Don’t be the font of all wisdom .  Even if you know more about the discussion topic than most others in the group (if you’re the teacher of a class, for instance), presenting yourself as the intellectual authority denies group members the chance to discuss the topic freely and without pressure.  Furthermore, some of them may have ideas you haven’t considered, or experiences that give them insights into the topic that you’re never likely to have.  Model learning behavior, not teaching behavior.
If you’re asked your opinion directly, you should answer honestly.  You have some choices about how you do that, however.  One is to state your opinion, but make very clear that it’s an opinion, not a fact, and that other people believe differently.  Another is to ask to hold your opinion until the end of the discussion, so as not to influence anyone’s thinking while it’s going on.  Yet another is to give your opinion after all other members of the group have stated theirs, and then discuss the similarities and differences among all the opinions and people’s reasons for holding them. If you’re asked a direct question, you might want to answer it if it’s a question of fact and you know the answer, and if it’s relevant to the discussion.  If the question is less clear-cut, you might want to throw it back to the group, and use it as a spur to discussion.

Group discussions are common in our society, and have a variety of purposes, from planning an intervention or initiative to mutual support to problem-solving to addressing an issue of local concern.  An effective discussion group depends on a leader or facilitator who can guide it through an open process – the group chooses what it’s discussing, if not already determined, discusses it with no expectation of particular conclusions, encourages civil disagreement and argument, and makes sure that every member is included and no one dominates.  It helps greatly if the leader comes to the task with a democratic or, especially, a collaborative style, and with an understanding of how a group functions.

A good group discussion leader has to pay attention to the process and content of the discussion as well as to the people who make up the group.  She has to prepare the space and the setting to the extent possible; help the group establish ground rules that will keep it moving civilly and comfortably; provide whatever materials are necessary; familiarize herself with the topic; and make sure that any pre-discussion readings or assignments get to participants in plenty of time.  Then she has to guide the discussion, being careful to promote an open process; involve everyone and let no one dominate; attend to the personal issues and needs of individual group members when they affect the group; summarize or clarify when appropriate; ask questions to keep the discussion moving, and put aside her own agenda, ego, and biases.

It’s not an easy task, but it can be extremely rewarding.  An effective group discussion can lay the groundwork for action and real community change.

Online resources

Everyday-Democracy . Study Circles Resource Center. Information and publications related to study circles, participatory discussion groups meant to address community issues.

Facilitating Political Discussions from the Institute for Democracy and Higher Education at Tufts University is designed to assist experienced facilitators in training others to facilitate politically charged conversations. The materials are broken down into "modules" and facilitation trainers can use some or all of them to suit their needs.

Project on Civic Reflection provides information about leading study circles on civic reflection.

“ Suggestions for Leading Small-Group Discussions ,” prepared by Lee Haugen, Center for Teaching Excellence, Iowa State University, 1998. Tips on university teaching, but much of the information is useful in other circumstances as well.

“ Tips for Leading Discussions ,” by Felisa Tibbits, Human Rights Education Associates.

Print resources

Forsyth, D . Group Dynamics . (2006). (4th edition).  Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth. 

Johnson, D., & Frank P. (2002). Joining Together: Group theory and group skills . (8th edition).  Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

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Top Group Discussion (GD) Topics & Essay Writing Ideas

GD and Essay Topics: GDs (Group Discussions) and Essay Writing (Written assessment test) are integral to the admission process for IIMs and top MBA colleges in India. This article covers some of the most important GD and Essay topics. But before we do that, let's dive into Group Discussions and Essay Writing basics.

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Top Group Discussion (GD) Topics & Essay Writing Ideas

What is a Group Discussion?

Group discussion for part of the decisive selection round in admission interview that applicants must attend after passing their aptitude test or written exam. GDs essentially involve the active participation of a group of candidates who are asked to discuss and discuss various aspects of a topic raised by the interviewers.

Whether you want to attend a top university or apply for a job, you'll have to face the round of group discussion to get one step closer to realising your dream. While many candidates are paralysed when thinking about how they will speak, engage, and participate in a group discussion, the group discussion session is not as dreaded as it seems when you master the proven tricks that help decipher GDs.

Why is a Group Discussion important?

The group discussion round is essential because it allows interviewers to analyse candidates based on various parameters, including their self-confidence, ability to work as a team, communication, leadership, and analytical and logical skills.

Now that you have understood what Group Discussions and Essay Writing are, and why they matter from the selection panel's point of view, the next step of your preparation includes preparing for various topics that might appear in group discussions and essay writing.

What is Essay Writing/WAT?

The Writing Ability Test (WAT) is a selection test with a maximum duration of 30 minutes and forms an essential part of the MBA admission process at top colleges in the country. A few B-schools, such as XLRI and IIFT and also carry out analyses of the WAT or perhaps of case studies similar to the WAT. The WAT at IIMs and most of these take place shortly before the personal interview; the duration can range from 15 to 30 minutes. In fact, as a recent trend, most IIMs have stopped using GDs (group discussions) and instead opt for in the WAT during the final selection process.

Why is Essay Writing/WAT important?

Many top MBA colleges in India have replaced Group Discussions with Essay Writing/WAT for admission to the MBA/PGP program. This is because many candidates could not express their opinions during the group discussion, and their real abilities could not be evaluated. This is where Essay Writing/WAT came in to help in the final selection process, as candidates could write their views and thoughts on paper without fear of being interrupted.

Which is the one good thing about GD and Essay Writing (WAT) Preparation?

The one good thing GDs and Essay Writing is that they have common topics. A topic appearing in a group discussion can also be the subject of your essay. Hence, preparing for a common pool of topics, where you analyse these topics and collect content for them, can go a long way in helping you prepare for the selection procedures. Keeping this in mind, let's go through some of the important GD and Essay Writing topics.

Important GD and Essay Writing Topics

Discuss the importance of financial literacy in today's world.

What are the benefits of a college education?

Analyse the impact of technology on our daily lives.

Is Indian culture in decline?

Should mobile phones and such devices be allowed in schools and colleges?

Who are better managers: men or women?

Should beauty pageants be banned or promoted?

Is India ready for Driverless cars?

Is Indian Culture at threat from Globalisation?

Examine the effects of global warming on the environment.

Discuss the pros and cons of social media.

Evaluate the effectiveness of current methods of enforcing environmental protection laws.

Video games: Virtue or Vice?

Should firecrackers be banned during Diwali?

Hard work vs Smart work - what's the difference?

How do movies impact the young generation?

Compare and contrast the different approaches to health care in India and abroad.

Analyse the positive and negative effects of Globalisation.

Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of multinational corporations.

India's population growth: Can it be controlled?

Should we make Hindi India's national language?

Is a paper ballot system the best way to restore democracy?

How can we reduce poverty and inequality in the world?

Should governments regulate social media?

What are the risks and rewards of online shopping?

Should online data be regulated and protected?

Can E-learning substitute for classroom learning?

Media: Problem or solution?

Examinations – Has education become irrelevant?

Are foreign television channels damaging our culture?

What strategies can be used to protect personal data online?

What are the potential ethical implications of artificial intelligence?

Technology in the classroom: Benefits and drawbacks

E-waste management: Does the topic deserve urgent attention?

Social networking sites: Virtue or Vice?

Is the ever-increasing reliance on digital technologies good or bad?

Brain Drain: Does it need to be stopped?

What are the implications of using facial recognition technology?

Love marriage vs Arranged marriage: Pros and cons

Should alcohol be banned?

What should be the role and ambit of youth in politics?

Generation Gap: Can it ever be bridged?

What changes can be made to promote digital security?

What are the best practices for using the internet safely?

Is the cap on wedding expenditure fair?

Where does the problem lie with ever-growing air pollution levels?

Is it right to kill stray animals?

Should the portrait of Mahatma Gandhi be replaced on Indian currency notes?

Uniforms in schools: Mandatory or optional?

Free WiFi spots – are they always beneficial?

The population explosion – what is its effect?

How should you approach the GD (Group Discussion) and WAT (Essay Writing) topics?

The task here can be divided into two broad parts or phases.

Phase-1: The Research Phase

As a starting point for the topics given above, make a list of points that come to your mind. Then, as additional work, run some quick Google searches for each topic and identify the various points you missed during the research phase. You will find some great resources, essays, and even some Wikipedia pages for some of these topics. Make sure you spend time on these and absorb as much content as possible.

Phase-2: The Articulation Phase

With the points you have gathered above, articulate an argument on a given topic. Coherently and logically sequentially present your points, with one thing leading to the other. Remember, the greater the number of logical connections (such as cause and effect sequences or logical conclusions for a given course of action) you establish in your oral or written arguments, the greater your impact on the examiner.

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Hello aspirant,

All of the Indian Institute of Technology Mandi's placement-related operations are managed by the Career and Placement Cell (CnP) at the institute. Faculty, placement officers, and student volunteers make up the CnP. Numerous businesses come to the campus each year to place employees at IIT Mandi. Campus placements are advantageous to the candidate as well as the recruiter. YSprinklr, Amazon, TI, Adobe, Walmart, Flipkart, Robert Bosch, Uber, Goldman Sachs, Indeed, Tatamotors, and many more companies visited the campus for IIT Mandi placements.

To know complete information about placements, you can visit our website by clicking on the link given below.

https://www.careers360.com/university/indian-institute-of-technology-mandi/placement

Hope this information helps you.

Hello Aspirant,

Most Indian business schools provide preference to applicants who have completed competitive tests such as CAT, MAT, XAT, and so forth. But the real question here is whether it's feasible to get an MBA in India without CAT.  A few renowned B-schools furthermore provide admission for Direct MBA programmes without the need for the CAT. You can refer the below link for private institutions:

https://bschool.careers360.com/colleges/list-of-private-mba-colleges-in-indore

ALL THE BEST

Candidates can acquaint themselves with the format, format, and marking scheme of the MAH CET exam by using a practice question paper and answers. To gain a sense of the kinds of questions that will be asked in the MAH CET exam, candidates getting ready for the MAH MBA CET 2024 should complete at least the last five years' worth of MBA CET previous year question papers.

To download question paper with answers, you can visit our website by clicking on the link given below.

https://bschool.careers360.com/articles/mah-mba-cet-question-paper

The centralised allotment procedure option entry for the first round of Karnataka PGCET MBA counselling 2023 has been launched by the Karnataka Examination Authority (KEA). Additionally, the Karnataka PGCET 2023 first round cutoff for MBA admission has been made public by the authorities on its official website. The candidates of choices 1 and 2 will pay their costs between January 24 and January 29, 2024. For those who passed the PGCET test, KEA offers Karnataka PGCET 2023 counselling. While the counselling procedure is done online, applicants need to make sure they bring the necessary paperwork with them when they report to the designated college.

To know more information you can visit our website by clicking on the link given below.

https://bschool.careers360.com/articles/karnataka-pgcet-mba-counselling

Dear aspirant !

Hope you are doing well.

Don't see the fees just see the quality of the colleges .

  • IIM Ahmedabad. IIM Ahmedabad, founded in 1961, has a recognised reputation and is consistently ranked among the top B-schools in the world. ...
  • IIM Bangalore. ...
  • IIM Calcutta. ...
  • IIM Indore. ...
  • IIM Lucknow.

Apart from iims there are other colleges also which you can refer like !

  • FMS (Faculty of Management Studies), Delhi- ...
  • S.P Jain Institute of Management & Research (SPJIMR), Mumbai- ...
  • X.L.R.I (Xavier School of Management), Jamshedpur. ...
  • X.L.R.I (Xavier School of Management), Jamshedpur..

Hope it helps you !

Thanking you

Explore Career Options (By Industry)

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Data Administrator

Database professionals use software to store and organise data such as financial information, and customer shipping records. Individuals who opt for a career as data administrators ensure that data is available for users and secured from unauthorised sales. DB administrators may work in various types of industries. It may involve computer systems design, service firms, insurance companies, banks and hospitals.

Bio Medical Engineer

The field of biomedical engineering opens up a universe of expert chances. An Individual in the biomedical engineering career path work in the field of engineering as well as medicine, in order to find out solutions to common problems of the two fields. The biomedical engineering job opportunities are to collaborate with doctors and researchers to develop medical systems, equipment, or devices that can solve clinical problems. Here we will be discussing jobs after biomedical engineering, how to get a job in biomedical engineering, biomedical engineering scope, and salary. 

Database Architect

If you are intrigued by the programming world and are interested in developing communications networks then a career as database architect may be a good option for you. Data architect roles and responsibilities include building design models for data communication networks. Wide Area Networks (WANs), local area networks (LANs), and intranets are included in the database networks. It is expected that database architects will have in-depth knowledge of a company's business to develop a network to fulfil the requirements of the organisation. Stay tuned as we look at the larger picture and give you more information on what is db architecture, why you should pursue database architecture, what to expect from such a degree and what your job opportunities will be after graduation. Here, we will be discussing how to become a data architect. Students can visit NIT Trichy , IIT Kharagpur , JMI New Delhi . 

Ethical Hacker

A career as ethical hacker involves various challenges and provides lucrative opportunities in the digital era where every giant business and startup owns its cyberspace on the world wide web. Individuals in the ethical hacker career path try to find the vulnerabilities in the cyber system to get its authority. If he or she succeeds in it then he or she gets its illegal authority. Individuals in the ethical hacker career path then steal information or delete the file that could affect the business, functioning, or services of the organization.

Data Analyst

The invention of the database has given fresh breath to the people involved in the data analytics career path. Analysis refers to splitting up a whole into its individual components for individual analysis. Data analysis is a method through which raw data are processed and transformed into information that would be beneficial for user strategic thinking.

Data are collected and examined to respond to questions, evaluate hypotheses or contradict theories. It is a tool for analyzing, transforming, modeling, and arranging data with useful knowledge, to assist in decision-making and methods, encompassing various strategies, and is used in different fields of business, research, and social science.

Water Manager

A career as water manager needs to provide clean water, preventing flood damage, and disposing of sewage and other wastes. He or she also repairs and maintains structures that control the flow of water, such as reservoirs, sea defense walls, and pumping stations. In addition to these, the Manager has other responsibilities related to water resource management.

Geothermal Engineer

Individuals who opt for a career as geothermal engineers are the professionals involved in the processing of geothermal energy. The responsibilities of geothermal engineers may vary depending on the workplace location. Those who work in fields design facilities to process and distribute geothermal energy. They oversee the functioning of machinery used in the field.

Geotechnical engineer

The role of geotechnical engineer starts with reviewing the projects needed to define the required material properties. The work responsibilities are followed by a site investigation of rock, soil, fault distribution and bedrock properties on and below an area of interest. The investigation is aimed to improve the ground engineering design and determine their engineering properties that include how they will interact with, on or in a proposed construction. 

The role of geotechnical engineer in mining includes designing and determining the type of foundations, earthworks, and or pavement subgrades required for the intended man-made structures to be made. Geotechnical engineering jobs are involved in earthen and concrete dam construction projects, working under a range of normal and extreme loading conditions. 

Budget Analyst

Budget analysis, in a nutshell, entails thoroughly analyzing the details of a financial budget. The budget analysis aims to better understand and manage revenue. Budget analysts assist in the achievement of financial targets, the preservation of profitability, and the pursuit of long-term growth for a business. Budget analysts generally have a bachelor's degree in accounting, finance, economics, or a closely related field. Knowledge of Financial Management is of prime importance in this career.

Underwriter

An underwriter is a person who assesses and evaluates the risk of insurance in his or her field like mortgage, loan, health policy, investment, and so on and so forth. The underwriter career path does involve risks as analysing the risks means finding out if there is a way for the insurance underwriter jobs to recover the money from its clients. If the risk turns out to be too much for the company then in the future it is an underwriter who will be held accountable for it. Therefore, one must carry out his or her job with a lot of attention and diligence.

Operations Manager

Individuals in the operations manager jobs are responsible for ensuring the efficiency of each department to acquire its optimal goal. They plan the use of resources and distribution of materials. The operations manager's job description includes managing budgets, negotiating contracts, and performing administrative tasks.

Finance Executive

A career as a Finance Executive requires one to be responsible for monitoring an organisation's income, investments and expenses to create and evaluate financial reports. His or her role involves performing audits, invoices, and budget preparations. He or she manages accounting activities, bank reconciliations, and payable and receivable accounts.  

Investment Banker

An Investment Banking career involves the invention and generation of capital for other organizations, governments, and other entities. Individuals who opt for a career as Investment Bankers are the head of a team dedicated to raising capital by issuing bonds. Investment bankers are termed as the experts who have their fingers on the pulse of the current financial and investing climate. Students can pursue various Investment Banker courses, such as Banking and Insurance , and  Economics to opt for an Investment Banking career path.

Product Manager

A Product Manager is a professional responsible for product planning and marketing. He or she manages the product throughout the Product Life Cycle, gathering and prioritising the product. A product manager job description includes defining the product vision and working closely with team members of other departments to deliver winning products.  

Welding Engineer

Welding Engineer Job Description: A Welding Engineer work involves managing welding projects and supervising welding teams. He or she is responsible for reviewing welding procedures, processes and documentation. A career as Welding Engineer involves conducting failure analyses and causes on welding issues. 

Transportation Planner

A career as Transportation Planner requires technical application of science and technology in engineering, particularly the concepts, equipment and technologies involved in the production of products and services. In fields like land use, infrastructure review, ecological standards and street design, he or she considers issues of health, environment and performance. A Transportation Planner assigns resources for implementing and designing programmes. He or she is responsible for assessing needs, preparing plans and forecasts and compliance with regulations.

Construction Manager

Individuals who opt for a career as construction managers have a senior-level management role offered in construction firms. Responsibilities in the construction management career path are assigning tasks to workers, inspecting their work, and coordinating with other professionals including architects, subcontractors, and building services engineers.

Environmental Engineer

Individuals who opt for a career as an environmental engineer are construction professionals who utilise the skills and knowledge of biology, soil science, chemistry and the concept of engineering to design and develop projects that serve as solutions to various environmental problems. 

Naval Architect

A Naval Architect is a professional who designs, produces and repairs safe and sea-worthy surfaces or underwater structures. A Naval Architect stays involved in creating and designing ships, ferries, submarines and yachts with implementation of various principles such as gravity, ideal hull form, buoyancy and stability. 

Field Surveyor

Are you searching for a Field Surveyor Job Description? A Field Surveyor is a professional responsible for conducting field surveys for various places or geographical conditions. He or she collects the required data and information as per the instructions given by senior officials. 

Highway Engineer

Highway Engineer Job Description:  A Highway Engineer is a civil engineer who specialises in planning and building thousands of miles of roads that support connectivity and allow transportation across the country. He or she ensures that traffic management schemes are effectively planned concerning economic sustainability and successful implementation.

Conservation Architect

A Conservation Architect is a professional responsible for conserving and restoring buildings or monuments having a historic value. He or she applies techniques to document and stabilise the object’s state without any further damage. A Conservation Architect restores the monuments and heritage buildings to bring them back to their original state.

Orthotist and Prosthetist

Orthotists and Prosthetists are professionals who provide aid to patients with disabilities. They fix them to artificial limbs (prosthetics) and help them to regain stability. There are times when people lose their limbs in an accident. In some other occasions, they are born without a limb or orthopaedic impairment. Orthotists and prosthetists play a crucial role in their lives with fixing them to assistive devices and provide mobility.

Veterinary Doctor

A veterinary doctor is a medical professional with a degree in veterinary science. The veterinary science qualification is the minimum requirement to become a veterinary doctor. There are numerous veterinary science courses offered by various institutes. He or she is employed at zoos to ensure they are provided with good health facilities and medical care to improve their life expectancy.

Pathologist

A career in pathology in India is filled with several responsibilities as it is a medical branch and affects human lives. The demand for pathologists has been increasing over the past few years as people are getting more aware of different diseases. Not only that, but an increase in population and lifestyle changes have also contributed to the increase in a pathologist’s demand. The pathology careers provide an extremely huge number of opportunities and if you want to be a part of the medical field you can consider being a pathologist. If you want to know more about a career in pathology in India then continue reading this article.

Speech Therapist

Gynaecologist.

Gynaecology can be defined as the study of the female body. The job outlook for gynaecology is excellent since there is evergreen demand for one because of their responsibility of dealing with not only women’s health but also fertility and pregnancy issues. Although most women prefer to have a women obstetrician gynaecologist as their doctor, men also explore a career as a gynaecologist and there are ample amounts of male doctors in the field who are gynaecologists and aid women during delivery and childbirth. 

An oncologist is a specialised doctor responsible for providing medical care to patients diagnosed with cancer. He or she uses several therapies to control the cancer and its effect on the human body such as chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiation therapy and biopsy. An oncologist designs a treatment plan based on a pathology report after diagnosing the type of cancer and where it is spreading inside the body.

Audiologist

The audiologist career involves audiology professionals who are responsible to treat hearing loss and proactively preventing the relevant damage. Individuals who opt for a career as an audiologist use various testing strategies with the aim to determine if someone has a normal sensitivity to sounds or not. After the identification of hearing loss, a hearing doctor is required to determine which sections of the hearing are affected, to what extent they are affected, and where the wound causing the hearing loss is found. As soon as the hearing loss is identified, the patients are provided with recommendations for interventions and rehabilitation such as hearing aids, cochlear implants, and appropriate medical referrals. While audiology is a branch of science that studies and researches hearing, balance, and related disorders.

Healthcare Social Worker

Healthcare social workers help patients to access services and information about health-related issues. He or she assists people with everything from locating medical treatment to assisting with the cost of care to recover from an illness or injury. A career as Healthcare Social Worker requires working with groups of people, individuals, and families in various healthcare settings such as hospitals, mental health clinics, child welfare, schools, human service agencies, nursing homes, private practices, and other healthcare settings.  

For an individual who opts for a career as an actor, the primary responsibility is to completely speak to the character he or she is playing and to persuade the crowd that the character is genuine by connecting with them and bringing them into the story. This applies to significant roles and littler parts, as all roles join to make an effective creation. Here in this article, we will discuss how to become an actor in India, actor exams, actor salary in India, and actor jobs. 

Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats create and direct original routines for themselves, in addition to developing interpretations of existing routines. The work of circus acrobats can be seen in a variety of performance settings, including circus, reality shows, sports events like the Olympics, movies and commercials. Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats must be prepared to face rejections and intermittent periods of work. The creativity of acrobats may extend to other aspects of the performance. For example, acrobats in the circus may work with gym trainers, celebrities or collaborate with other professionals to enhance such performance elements as costume and or maybe at the teaching end of the career.

Video Game Designer

Career as a video game designer is filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. A video game designer is someone who is involved in the process of creating a game from day one. He or she is responsible for fulfilling duties like designing the character of the game, the several levels involved, plot, art and similar other elements. Individuals who opt for a career as a video game designer may also write the codes for the game using different programming languages.

Depending on the video game designer job description and experience they may also have to lead a team and do the early testing of the game in order to suggest changes and find loopholes.

Talent Agent

The career as a Talent Agent is filled with responsibilities. A Talent Agent is someone who is involved in the pre-production process of the film. It is a very busy job for a Talent Agent but as and when an individual gains experience and progresses in the career he or she can have people assisting him or her in work. Depending on one’s responsibilities, number of clients and experience he or she may also have to lead a team and work with juniors under him or her in a talent agency. In order to know more about the job of a talent agent continue reading the article.

If you want to know more about talent agent meaning, how to become a Talent Agent, or Talent Agent job description then continue reading this article.

Radio Jockey

Radio Jockey is an exciting, promising career and a great challenge for music lovers. If you are really interested in a career as radio jockey, then it is very important for an RJ to have an automatic, fun, and friendly personality. If you want to get a job done in this field, a strong command of the language and a good voice are always good things. Apart from this, in order to be a good radio jockey, you will also listen to good radio jockeys so that you can understand their style and later make your own by practicing.

A career as radio jockey has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. If you want to know more about a career as radio jockey, and how to become a radio jockey then continue reading the article.

An individual who is pursuing a career as a producer is responsible for managing the business aspects of production. They are involved in each aspect of production from its inception to deception. Famous movie producers review the script, recommend changes and visualise the story. 

They are responsible for overseeing the finance involved in the project and distributing the film for broadcasting on various platforms. A career as a producer is quite fulfilling as well as exhaustive in terms of playing different roles in order for a production to be successful. Famous movie producers are responsible for hiring creative and technical personnel on contract basis.

Fashion Blogger

Fashion bloggers use multiple social media platforms to recommend or share ideas related to fashion. A fashion blogger is a person who writes about fashion, publishes pictures of outfits, jewellery, accessories. Fashion blogger works as a model, journalist, and a stylist in the fashion industry. In current fashion times, these bloggers have crossed into becoming a star in fashion magazines, commercials, or campaigns. 

Photographer

Photography is considered both a science and an art, an artistic means of expression in which the camera replaces the pen. In a career as a photographer, an individual is hired to capture the moments of public and private events, such as press conferences or weddings, or may also work inside a studio, where people go to get their picture clicked. Photography is divided into many streams each generating numerous career opportunities in photography. With the boom in advertising, media, and the fashion industry, photography has emerged as a lucrative and thrilling career option for many Indian youths.

Copy Writer

In a career as a copywriter, one has to consult with the client and understand the brief well. A career as a copywriter has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. Several new mediums of advertising are opening therefore making it a lucrative career choice. Students can pursue various copywriter courses such as Journalism , Advertising , Marketing Management . Here, we have discussed how to become a freelance copywriter, copywriter career path, how to become a copywriter in India, and copywriting career outlook. 

Careers in journalism are filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. One cannot afford to miss out on the details. As it is the small details that provide insights into a story. Depending on those insights a journalist goes about writing a news article. A journalism career can be stressful at times but if you are someone who is passionate about it then it is the right choice for you. If you want to know more about the media field and journalist career then continue reading this article.

For publishing books, newspapers, magazines and digital material, editorial and commercial strategies are set by publishers. Individuals in publishing career paths make choices about the markets their businesses will reach and the type of content that their audience will be served. Individuals in book publisher careers collaborate with editorial staff, designers, authors, and freelance contributors who develop and manage the creation of content.

In a career as a vlogger, one generally works for himself or herself. However, once an individual has gained viewership there are several brands and companies that approach them for paid collaboration. It is one of those fields where an individual can earn well while following his or her passion. 

Ever since internet costs got reduced the viewership for these types of content has increased on a large scale. Therefore, a career as a vlogger has a lot to offer. If you want to know more about the Vlogger eligibility, roles and responsibilities then continue reading the article. 

Individuals in the editor career path is an unsung hero of the news industry who polishes the language of the news stories provided by stringers, reporters, copywriters and content writers and also news agencies. Individuals who opt for a career as an editor make it more persuasive, concise and clear for readers. In this article, we will discuss the details of the editor's career path such as how to become an editor in India, editor salary in India and editor skills and qualities.

Fashion Journalist

Fashion journalism involves performing research and writing about the most recent fashion trends. Journalists obtain this knowledge by collaborating with stylists, conducting interviews with fashion designers, and attending fashion shows, photoshoots, and conferences. A fashion Journalist  job is to write copy for trade and advertisement journals, fashion magazines, newspapers, and online fashion forums about style and fashion.

Multimedia Specialist

A multimedia specialist is a media professional who creates, audio, videos, graphic image files, computer animations for multimedia applications. He or she is responsible for planning, producing, and maintaining websites and applications. 

Corporate Executive

Are you searching for a Corporate Executive job description? A Corporate Executive role comes with administrative duties. He or she provides support to the leadership of the organisation. A Corporate Executive fulfils the business purpose and ensures its financial stability. In this article, we are going to discuss how to become corporate executive.

Production Manager

Quality controller.

A quality controller plays a crucial role in an organisation. He or she is responsible for performing quality checks on manufactured products. He or she identifies the defects in a product and rejects the product. 

A quality controller records detailed information about products with defects and sends it to the supervisor or plant manager to take necessary actions to improve the production process.

Structural Engineer

A Structural Engineer designs buildings, bridges, and other related structures. He or she analyzes the structures and makes sure the structures are strong enough to be used by the people. A career as a Structural Engineer requires working in the construction process. It comes under the civil engineering discipline. A Structure Engineer creates structural models with the help of computer-aided design software. 

Metrologist

You might be googling Metrologist meaning. Well, we have an easily understandable Metrologist definition for you. A metrologist is a professional who stays involved in measurement practices in varying industries including electrical and electronics. A Metrologist is responsible for developing processes and systems for measuring objects and repairing electrical instruments. He or she also involved in writing specifications of experimental electronic units. 

Production Worker

A production worker is a vital part of any manufacturing operation, as he or she plays a leading role in improving the efficiency of the production process. Career as a Production Worker  requires ensuring that the equipment and machinery used in the production of goods are designed to meet the needs of the customers.

AWS Solution Architect

An AWS Solution Architect is someone who specializes in developing and implementing cloud computing systems. He or she has a good understanding of the various aspects of cloud computing and can confidently deploy and manage their systems. He or she troubleshoots the issues and evaluates the risk from the third party. 

Azure Administrator

An Azure Administrator is a professional responsible for implementing, monitoring, and maintaining Azure Solutions. He or she manages cloud infrastructure service instances and various cloud servers as well as sets up public and private cloud systems. 

Information Security Manager

Individuals in the information security manager career path involves in overseeing and controlling all aspects of computer security. The IT security manager job description includes planning and carrying out security measures to protect the business data and information from corruption, theft, unauthorised access, and deliberate attack 

Computer Programmer

Careers in computer programming primarily refer to the systematic act of writing code and moreover include wider computer science areas. The word 'programmer' or 'coder' has entered into practice with the growing number of newly self-taught tech enthusiasts. Computer programming careers involve the use of designs created by software developers and engineers and transforming them into commands that can be implemented by computers. These commands result in regular usage of social media sites, word-processing applications and browsers.

ITSM Manager

.net developer.

.NET Developer Job Description: A .NET Developer is a professional responsible for producing code using .NET languages. He or she is a software developer who uses the .NET technologies platform to create various applications. Dot NET Developer job comes with the responsibility of  creating, designing and developing applications using .NET languages such as VB and C#. 

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Essay on Group Discussion | Types, Importance, Objectives, Purposes

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The Group discussion is a form of discourse in which a group, often a small group of people meet to discuss a topic and reach a decision. It is an essential tool for learning in the classroom. The Group discussion can be used in many ways with students to add variety and vitality to the teaching/learning process.

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Essay on Group Discussion | Objectives, Purpose, Importance, For Students

Group discussion is a process whereby a group of two or more individuals are involved in sharing and discussing common thoughts on particular issues. Briefly, the group discussion is the exchange of ideas between different people on certain issues. The purpose of the group discussion is to enable a group of participants to exchange ideas and views on a given topic, so as to further their understanding of it.

A very important aspect of most classes dealing with Group Discussion is that it makes students learn to express themselves in front of their peers and help them learn how to co-operate with each other. This helps them considerably when they appear for interviews or group discussions outside the college. Group discussion also helps the students in learning the art of dealing with different kinds of people.

Types of Group Discussion:

There are two types of Group discussions:

  • Formal group discussions: In formal group discussions, participants in the group discussion are assigned a formal topic to discuss and they remain within the given timeframe to complete their discussion. The audience is either the teacher or fellow participants in the group discussion. This type of group discussion is mostly conducted for the purpose of teaching the participants about group discussion or for a particular subject.
  • Informal Group discussions: In informal group discussions, the participants are free to kick off any topic they want to discuss among themselves and have no formal restrictions. The audience is most often other students like those who had participated in a Formal Group Discussion before. This type of discussion is mostly conducted for the purpose of entertainment and socializing.

Importance of Group Discussion:

Group Discussion is an important tool for students in their academic life. It helps them to learn and train better and faster than any other learning method available for the students across the globe. A group discussion involves a large number of people who represent different backgrounds and cultures, which makes it possible for the student’s mind to work with multiple inputs at once. This helps the student to learn more effectively and quickly than any other learning method.

Steps Involved in an Effective Group Discussion:

The following are the most important seven steps that must be followed to ensure a perfect group discussion:

  • Preparing or Formulating the Agenda : The organizer should make sure that all his/her participants know the topic to be discussed at every stage of the discussion. This should be made clear before starting off with the formal round of discussion, else it will make participants lose focus on the subject matter at hand.
  • Forming Groups : Arranging or placing all potential participants in an effective manner is very important for conducting a group discussion successfully. They need to be placed in a way that all different kinds of views and opinions are heard.
  • Defining Roles : Once the participants have been arranged effectively, it is very important for the organizer to clearly define roles for each participant at this stage. In other words, an effective role distribution must be done so as to enable everyone participate well in the discussion.
  • Starting off with a formal round of Discussion : In this stage, all participants need to be reminded about the importance of being on time and following the given format of discussion properly. The organizer should ensure that everyone stays focused and is aware of the topic at hand.
  • Introducing New Participants : Once a perfect discussion has begun, it is necessary for the organizer to introduce new participants into the group discussion. This helps all other participants focus and re-align their thoughts after a hypothetical situation involving non-participants was previously discussed.
  • Generating Good Interaction : Once new participants have been introduced into the group, it is time for everyone to interact and discuss with each other. This is the most important step involving all participants in a group discussion.
  • Closing off : Once sufficient time has been given to everyone and the resources required for the final round of discussion have been distributed, it is time to close off and summarize what you learned from this debate/discussion.

Three things to Remember for an Effective Group Discussion:

  • Respect : It is very important for everyone to have a healthy environment during the discussion so as to ensure active participation from everyone involved.
  • Acceptance : In order to facilitate active participation, there should be acceptance from every individual in the group discussion. No one’s opinion should be denied or silenced until it has been evaluated and digested by the other participants.
  • Objectivity : Every individual participating in the group discussion should ensure that their point of view is neutral and positive during interaction with others. This helps people to evaluate each other’s opinions better to generate a good outcome at the end.

Above all, group discussions are a very important part of a student’s life. It is a platform for a student to learn and develop his/her personality as well as speaking skills . To be an effective speaker in front of a large audience, one must have first gained some experience by participating in the different types of group discussions on different topics. In other words, one must first learn how to be a good listener.

Essay on Group Discussions

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IELTS Discussion Essays [Discuss Both Views/Sides]

Posted by David S. Wills | Jun 14, 2021 | IELTS Tips , Writing | 2

IELTS Discussion Essays [Discuss Both Views/Sides]

In this lesson, I’m going to explain what an IELTS discussion essay is and how you can write a good one. I will talk about structure and content, as well as looking briefly at discussion essay thesis statements, which many people find tricky. I’ve also written a sample essay, which you can find at the bottom of this page.

What is a Discussion Essay?

As the name suggests, a discussion essay is an essay that discusses things! More specifically, it is a type of IELTS writing task 2 essay that requires you to look at two different points of view . You can easily recognise these essays by the following phrase:

Discuss both views and give your opinion.

Sometimes it is phrased a little differently. It might say:

Discuss both sides and give your opinion
Discuss both points view and give your opinion

The important thing is that these all mean the same. When you see any of these, you know that you need to write a discussion essay. Importantly, this instruction tells you that you need to do two things:

  • Discuss both views (there will have been 2 views mentioned in the previous sentence(s))
  • Give your opinion (i.e. state which view you agree with)

If you failed to do either of these things, you would not have satisfied the basic criteria for Task Achievement .

Example Discussion Essay Questions

Here is a list of 5 discussion essay questions either from the IELTS exam, reportedly from the IELTS exam, or from reputable publications that have copied the IELTS question style. (Not that you absolutely should avoid fake IELTS questions when practising.)

Some people say that parents should encourage their children to take part in organised group activities in their free time. Others say that is important for children to learn how to occupy themselves on their own. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
Some people prefer to spend their lives doing the same things and avoiding change. Others, however, think that change is always a good thing. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
Some people feel that manufacturers and supermarkets have the responsibility to reduce the amount of packaging of goods. Others argue that customers should avoid buying goods with a lot of packaging. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
Some people believe that higher education should be funded by the government. Others, however, argue that it is the responsibility of individuals to fund their higher education. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
Some people believe that it is important for children to attend extra classes outside school, while others believe that they should be allowed to play after school. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.

You can see in these questions that there is a similar pattern. In each case, the question phrase (“Discuss both views and give your own opinion”) is the same and in the previous sentence or sentences, there are two opposing views. This, then, makes “discuss both views” questions a sort of opinion essay .

How to Answer IELTS Discussion Questions

First of all, it is important when answering any IELTS task 2 question that you read the question carefully so that you understand it, then provide an answer that directly responds to the question, following its instructions carefully.

As discussed above, you are required to do two things: 1) Discuss both views, and 2) Give your own opinion. You absolutely must do both of those. It doesn’t really matter what your opinion is or whether you give equal weighting to both sides of the argument. Instead, you must cover both sides and also give some sort of opinion. (It is important, though, according to the marking rubric , that you are consistent in your opinion.)

Your answer of course should be structured carefully so as to present your ideas in a thoroughly logical way that is easy for your reader to interpret. I almost always use a four-paragraph structure in my essays, but some people prefer to use five paragraphs in this sort of essay. The difference would look like this:

You might be wondering why I have given my opinion in the body of the five-paragraph essay but not in the four-paragraph essay. Well, actually I would give my opinion in the body of both. However, my opinion would be more subtly woven into the text of the four-paragraph essay. I personally find this to be a better method, but it is equally possible that you could write an amazing five-paragraph essay. That issue is discussed further in this video:

Discussion Essay Thesis Statement

In academic writing, a thesis statement (sometimes called an essay outline ) is the part of the essay where you insert your opinion. It typically comes at the end of the introduction and guides the reader by explaining your opinion on the issues that have been introduced.

But do you really need to provide one in such a short essay? Well, a 2018 study into successful IELTS essays concluded that thesis statements were “obligatory” – i.e. you absolutely do need one. In fact, that study found that thesis statements appeared in 100% of successful IELTS discussion essays! Therefore, we can conclude they are very important.

Because a discussion essay will tell you to “Discuss both views and give your opinion,” you must introduce the two views and then give your opinion in the introduction. Here is an example:

Introductory paragraph:

In some parts of the world, children are forced to go to cram schools and other facilities of extracurricular learning, but many people believe that this is unfair and that they should be allowed to enjoy their free time instead. This essay will look at both perspectives and then conclude that it is indeed unfair.

My first sentence clearly introduces two different ideas:

  • Children should do extra classes
  • Children should not do extra classes

Note how I have successfully used synonyms to avoid repeating anything from the question. I have also framed the issue in a new way so that I am not just paraphrasing. (You can learn why paraphrasing is not always helpful here .)

My second sentence is the thesis statement. In this sentence, I outline what the essay will do (“look at both perspectives”) and then give my opinion (“it is unfair”). This is a simple but effective thesis statement.

Thesis Statement Advice

Your IELTS discussion essay thesis statement should do two things:

  • Tell the reader what the essay will do
  • Present your opinion

Because this is a formal essay, it is best not to be too personal. Instead of saying “I will…” or “I think…” it is better to say “This essay will…” Here are some simple templates that you can follow most of the time:

  • This essay will look at both sides and then argue that…
  • This essay will discuss both views but ultimately side with…

Just make sure to avoid being overly vague. You are required to give your opinion consistently throughout the essay, so don’t say “This essay will look at both sides and then give my opinion .” It is not really the best approach because the examiner wants to see that you can be consistent in presenting an opinion. That is clearly stated in the marking rubric. For band 7, it says:

  • presents a clear position throughout the response

It could be concluded, then, that your opinion is not clear from the start and so you have not done enough to warrant a band 7 for Task Achievement.

Body Paragraphs

As I mentioned above, there are really two main approaches you could take to the body paragraphs:

  • Discuss one view per paragraph and incorporate your opinion into each.
  • Discuss one view per paragraph and then have another for your opinion.

I suppose there is also a third option:

  • Compare and contrast the two viewpoints in each paragraph.

This last one may be a little harder to do successfully without jeopardising your score for Task Achievement or Coherence and Cohesion , but advanced candidates may find it useful.

Remember that there is no single perfect formula for an IELTS essay. That’s not how languages work and that’s not how IELTS works. Different people could come up with different ways to present a successful essay. The most common essay structures are mere guidelines for particularly useful methods of approaching an essay.

essay group discussion

Does a Discussion Essay Have to be Balanced?

Because the question says “Discuss both views,” it is quite logical to think that you must provide some degree of balance, but you certainly don’t need to give equal weighting to both sides. Remember that you are also going to give your opinion, so if you come down strongly on one side of the issue, it might be odd to give equal attention to both.

If you do feel very strongly about one side, you might want to present your discussion of the other side as quite negative. However, IELTS is a thinking exam as well as an English exam and an intelligent person can always look at both sides of an issue and explain – at the very least – why someone might believe a thing that is different to his own view. This seems quite important, but there is nothing explicitly mentioned in the marking rubric.

I would suggest that if you think a two-sided issue is basically one-sided (i.e. you strongly disagree with the other view), you should still write one or two sentences about why people believe that and then devote the rest of your essay to disputing their view.

Another approach is to write BP1 as a very short paragraph that explains why people might think one thing, but then have BP2 as a very long paragraph that debunks the opposing view and then explains why the other is correct.

(You can read more about IELTS essays and balance here .)

Sample Answer

Here is my full sample answer to the above question about whether or not children should be made to do extracurricular activities:

In some parts of the world, children are forced to go to cram schools and other facilities of extracurricular learning, but many people believe that this is unfair and that they should be allowed to enjoy their free time instead. This essay will look at both perspectives and then conclude that it is indeed unfair. In countries like South Korea, most children are made to go to an array of cram schools outside of regular school hours. Their parents do this in order to give their child a better future because it helps the child to learn more and thus gives them the academic advantages needed to apply to the best universities or jobs in future. These schools often provide children with an advantage over their peers because they improve their foreign language or math skills more quickly, and thus the children who do not attend these schools might have comparatively poor grades. However, whilst this attitude may result in better academic performance, it is certainly not good for the mental health of these children. It is no coincidence that places like South Korea have the highest rates of suicide among their young populations. The fact is that children are not equipped to spend fourteen or sixteen hours per day in classrooms, memorising facts and figures. In a sense, it is a form of child abuse. Children should be allowed to go home and spend time with friends and family to build social skills. They should be allowed to occupy themselves in order to become more creative and learn how to understand their own mind instead of being trained to repeat what they are told. In conclusion, it is understandable that some parents want their children to go to extra classes, but this is damaging to children and they should be given the freedom to play and socialise outside of regular school hours.

In BP1, I have looked at the topic of cram schools (ie the side of the argument in favour of extra lessons). I explored why parents might want their kids to do this and show the supposed benefits. Note that I never embraced any of these benefits. I was careful to use language that distanced these ideas from my own opinion, which was the opposite, so I said “Their parents do this in order to…”

In BP2, I looked at the opposite side. I was careful to make sure that my first sentence linked to the previous paragraph, highlighting that the benefits are quite minor compared to the drawbacks. All of my sentences here justify my position, which is that it is cruel to force these extra lessons on children.

My conclusion ties all of this together. The first clause references BP1 and the second summarises the main argument in BP2.

You can find two more sample essays here:

  • A discussion essay about sports facilities
  • A discussion essay about sports abilities

About The Author

David S. Wills

David S. Wills

David S. Wills is the author of Scientologist! William S. Burroughs and the 'Weird Cult' and the founder/editor of Beatdom literary journal. He lives and works in rural Cambodia and loves to travel. He has worked as an IELTS tutor since 2010, has completed both TEFL and CELTA courses, and has a certificate from Cambridge for Teaching Writing. David has worked in many different countries, and for several years designed a writing course for the University of Worcester. In 2018, he wrote the popular IELTS handbook, Grammar for IELTS Writing and he has since written two other books about IELTS. His other IELTS website is called IELTS Teaching.

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DIRWAN

It is sometimes debatable whether asking children to get extra education after school or letting them play that is actually beneficial for them. Even though both viewpoints have benefits and drawbacks but I believe ,in the childhood age, children have to take rough and discipline education after school to be succeed in the future.

To begin with, many educational experts believe that playing is one of the essential aspects that have to be gotten by children to grow and happy. By using the playing approach, children can have a good mental and psychic health. Besides, letting children play after school can also support them to increase their emotional stimuli and get a positive social interaction. With this way, experts believe children can grow as a better adult in the future and have a freedom to get a better life in the upcoming times.

However, I completely contra with the first idea because I believe childhood is a better time to train children about academic or other skills that benefits them in the future. Based on scientific journal that I read, the ability of children in learning new things are more spectacular compared to adults. A lot of artists, scientist, and even football player who currently becoming a superstar in this era is a string of process that is began since their in the childhood. For instance, nowadays, I am working in the field of election supervision, it because since in my childhood my father love to force me learning about social and political issues by getting additional class. Thus, making children to get extra class after school is an appropriate preference if parents desire to see their son getting a good future.

To conclude, based on experts children have to get a freedom to play after schools but in my viewpoint it will be more advantages if they utilize the playing time with joining additional class after school.

tufail khan

VERY GOOD MR DIRWAN But actually you mixed both of the ideas , you need to take one side for this sort of essay writting, as it is mentioned in the above instruction. By the way WELL DONE . love from Pakistan to my sweet brother.

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Grow Your Business

1,400+ easy topics for group discussion with your students, share this article.

Get over 1,000 group discussion topic ideas, and understand the key ways to have productive discussions with your students.

Are you searching for new ways to keep your students on their toes? Sometimes it can feel overwhelming always looking for new, fun, and upbeat ways to keep your students engaged and entertained in your group discussions. 

Helping your students feel compelled to participate in group discussions has proven to be beneficial in more ways than one – besides the fact that it can help strengthen the bonds of your community (whether it be online or in-person), group discussions are an important part of the learning process for students. 

Group discussions facilitate student interactions, helping them learn how to communicate effectively with others. They promote a deeper understanding and help increase long-term information retention. Group discussions can also help increase students’ attention and help maintain their focus by involving them in the learning process. 

In this article, we will discuss why group discussions are so beneficial to the learning environment. We’ve also included some templates with a ton of easy topics for group discussions that can help you build a strong learning environment for your students! 

Related: What Are Learning Communities?

If you know what you are looking for right away, feel free to jump around and explore right away: 

Skip ahead here:

  • Benefits of Group Discussion in Online Courses & Communities

Easy Topics for Group Discussion

Gd topics to avoid, how to have a successful group discussion.

  • 1400 Group Discussion Topics Categorized

Benefits of Group Discussion in Online Courses & Learning Communities

While we already mentioned some of the major benefits of group discussions, we just want to highlight the importance of group discussions in online courses and communities.

The purpose of having interesting discussion topics in an online course is to provide opportunities for students to interact with each other, the content, and the instructor. 

There are already certain barriers to learning in an online community – such as self-motivation, distractions, and isolation to name a few – which is why it is even more crucial to engage your students in a fun and meaningful way! 

Sometimes it’s hard for more traditional classroom experiences to translate nicely to engaging online learning experiences. Introducing new topics to discuss in a group at the beginning of each class could be the key to making your online course effective. This is because social interactions (especially in the online learning community) foster meaningful connections and involvement between your students. 

Social elements like incorporating interesting topics to discuss in a group complement online courses because they enable social learning , peer-to-peer support, and student-to-instructor support. They also enable students to hold each other accountable for learning goals while creating a sense of community and belonging.

Adding different topics for group discussion in online learning communities is another great and effective way for students to collaborate and connect with one another. A learning community is a shared place for discussion, so why not spice up your interactions by throwing in some thought-provoking and interesting topics to discuss in a group? 

Online vs. in-person group discussion

Now that we’ve covered some of the benefits of group discussions in online courses and communities, let’s discuss whether it is better to have online or in-person group discussions. 

We find purpose and accountability in learning communities, regardless if they are from online or in-person group discussions. The style of traditionally learning in a classroom is currently being sidelined as the online classroom learning style has gained popularity in recent years. However, there are some upsides and downsides to each option, which we will cover. 

Online group discussion

  • 27% said they have trust in the knowledge of their peers in an online community.
  • 45% said they value diverse opinions. Online communities allow space for a respectful way to learn, and can change the way students see the world. 
  • 37% said they appreciate a non-intimidating/judgemental space in an online community. 
  • 37% said they value the shared collective experience/pursuit. 
  • 52% agree that it’s easier to find others who share interests and passions in a community online vs in-person.
  • People can participate from the comfort of their homes or offices – they don’t need to travel to a classroom, meaning there are also no travel costs or facility rental costs.
  • Students can join in no matter where they are in the world.
  • Participants need to have the correct technology – a computer with a webcam, and typically certain browser configurations. This can limit the population to only people who have this equipment, which narrows down the participant range.
  • It is sometimes difficult with the virtual format to capture the richness of people together in a room, reading each other’s body cues and participating in exercises that require more than just speaking back and forth.

In-person group discussion

  • Non-verbal cues are a rich data source and contribute to how others may respond when people are in the room together. 
  • Can incorporate a wider variety of written and brainstorming exercises such as having students team up and sketch out concepts together. 
  • The course instructor can pick up on non-verbal cues and facilitate the conversation more personally.
  • There may not be very diverse populations, as people are limited to which area and city the course is being held in.
  • Cost is a prohibitive factor to assembling a group – either because of moderator travel costs or facility rental costs.

Ultimately, the structure of the course – whether it is online or in-person – will depend on the nature of the course itself and the environment that the course instructor thinks will be the most beneficial for their students. 

If you are looking for some easy topics, here are a few ideas to get you started.

Favorite Online Resources

The first topic on our list is “What are your favorite online resources?”. This is a great question to get people talking about the different websites and tools that they use on a daily basis. It can also be a great way to find new resources that people may not be aware of. It’s an easy conversation started that can lead to more in-depth topics along the way.

  • What is your favorite website or app for travel planning?
  • What is your favorite website or app for finding new recipes to try?
  • What is your favorite website or app for productivity and organization?
  • What is your favorite website for learning new skills or information?

Thoughts On The Internet

If you’re looking for a topic that will get people thinking, then you might want to try “What are your thoughts on the current state of the internet?”. This is a great way to get people to share their thoughts and opinions on the current state of the internet, and it can also be a great way to start a discussion about how the internet can be improved.

  • The role of the internet in promoting freedom of speech and censorship
  • The funniest memes and internet trends
  • How has the internet changed the music industry?
  • The role of the internet in creating and fostering online communities
  • The role of the internet in education and the future of traditional learning methods

The Impact of Social Media On Our Lives

This is another great topic that can get people thinking and talking. Social media has had a huge impact on our lives, and it’s definitely something worth discussing. It’s a topic that tends to have differing opinions, so the conversation may include many talking points with opportunities to share real-life examples of the impact. You can ask questions referring to what others may have seen on social media like Facebook groups . These groups often have a growing discussion board that can influence opinions. 

  • The impact of social media on our communication skills and real-life relationships
  • The use of social media for cyberbullying and harassment
  • The impact of social media on the economy and job market
  • The most absurd social media and internet trends and phenomena

The Pros and Cons of Technology

This is a great topic for discussion, particularly because it’s something that we all use on a daily basis. We rely heavily on technology, so understanding how people view it, both the negative and positive sides, can be quite interesting. It’s also a great way to start a conversation about how we can use technology more effectively, and how we can avoid its negative effects.

  • The effects of technology on job security and employment opportunities
  • The impact of technology on our ability to communicate and form relationships
  • The role of technology in promoting and suppressing privacy and data security
  • The effects of technology on our attention spans and memory retention
  • The role of technology in promoting and suppressing entrepreneurship and innovation

The Changing Landscape of Education

This is a great topic for discussion, especially if you have an online community full of students or educators. Education is constantly changing, so it’s important to stay up-to-date on the latest trends. This discussion can help people learn about new changes in education, and it can also be a great way to get different perspectives on the issue.

  • The impact of technology on the education system and traditional learning methods
  • The impact of big data and personalization in education on student privacy and autonomy
  • The role of online education and distance learning in the future of education
  • The role of education in shaping the future
  • The future of virtual reality education

The Importance of Connection

This is a great topic for discussion, particularly in online communities. It can be easy to feel isolated when we’re spending so much time online, so it’s important to find ways to connect with others. This discussion can help people find ways to connect with others, and it can also be a great way to get different perspectives on the issue.

  • How can we create a sense of community in our neighborhood?
  • How can we support and connect with people who are going through difficult times?
  • How can we connect with people with different communication styles?
  • How do shared interests foster connections between people?

Things That Inspire Your Creativity

This is a great topic for discussion, particularly in online communities. It can be easy to feel uninspired when we’re spending so much time online, so it’s important to find ways to get our creative juices flowing. This discussion can help people find inspiration, and it can also be a great way to get different perspectives on the issue.

Whatever the context, it is helpful to structure the discussions in a way that defines boundaries for the process and provides some degree of closure within the classroom. Be sure the topics you choose are relevant to your community and that they will promote critical thinking and analysis among your members. With some thoughtful planning, you can use group discussion to build a strong online community .

  • The role of positive emotions and happiness in inspiring creativity
  • How does culture and diversity influence creativity?
  • What is the role of creativity in education?
  • What are some common myths about creativity?
  • How can creativity be used to solve real-world problems?

“Would you rather” questions

These always make for a great discussion, and sometimes the answers will surprise you.

  • Would you rather travel to the past or future?
  • Would you rather speak every language or communicate with animals?
  • Would you rather go on a beach vacation or a ski vacation?
  • Would you rather be invisible or be able to fly?

There are a few topics that you may decide to avoid when having a group discussion. These topics can be controversial, and they can often lead to arguments. Some examples of these topics include:

If you’re not sure whether or not a topic is appropriate for discussion, then it’s always best to err on the side of caution.

Before you start using these topics in your course, how you can approach the group discussion to ensure its success, whether online or in person. Here are a few tips:

Create an inclusive environment

The effective facilitation of a group discussion involves recognizing that there will be many different perspectives and different skills needed to create an inclusive environment. 

In order to do so, it’s important to consider the components of effective group discussions and the conditions that promote small group interactions and engagement. Discussion is a powerful technique for active learning, and a well-facilitated discussion allows students to explore new ideas while recognizing and valuing the contributions of others.

To create an inclusive environment…

  • Allow participants to introduce themselves (you can even set up an ice breaker to have pairs of students introduce each other)
  • Be clear about group expectations and intentions 
  • Use inclusive language 
  • Don’t hesitate to ask for clarification if a question or comment is unclear 
  • Treat every student with respect and consideration
  • Develop an awareness of barriers to learning (cultural, social, personal) 
  • Provide sufficient time and space for students to gather their thoughts and contribute to group discussions
  • Provide opportunities for participants to get into pairs to share their ideas in a one-on-one setting (some students may be more comfortable with this initially)

Create a process to begin and end the group discussion

To ensure that your group discussion is off to a great start, it’s important to have a plan for the conversation. Think about possibly creating an introduction process. This can be as simple as having everyone introduce themselves and their thoughts on the topic at the beginning of class. 

Have an idea of how you want to wrap up the discussion, especially if there are time constraints. It may be a good idea to summarize the solid points that were brought up throughout the discussion, and praise everyone for participating. This will help to keep the momentum going for the next group discussion, ensuring that your learning community continues to connect with each other.

Make sure everyone has a chance to speak

When leading a group discussion, the one thing you don’t want happening is for one student to monopolize the conversation completely – the benefit of having a group discussion is to listen and hear everyone’s unique perspective on the topic!

One of the most important aspects of a successful group discussion is making sure that everyone has a chance to share their thoughts and opinions. If certain parties are dominating the discussion, actively call on others as you moderate the discussion to give them the floor. You could even go alphabetically. This is especially useful to help engage students who are more shy and would rather not say anything at all. 

Encourage people to ask questions 

A great way to get people talking is to encourage student participation. This helps keep the flow of the conversation steady, as well as actively engaging people to listen and think critically. 

Getting students to ask or write down follow-up questions to share allows them to voice their own thoughts and opinions. It may also be beneficial for the instructor to initiate some questions to help bring out their students’ ideas further.

Have an open mind

In good group discussions, conflicts will sometimes arise. It’s important to remember that not everyone is going to have the same exact opinion as you, and that’s okay. What’s important is that you’re able to listen to other people’s thoughts and perspectives, and have an open mind. 

Keep discussions constructive and positive

At the beginning of each group discussion, clarify the goals of each discussion and establish some of the ground rules for the group.

This can include:

  • Allowing all students time to speak
  • Sharing personal experiences rather than making general statements about groups of people (stereotyping)
  • Encouraging others to add their reactions or ideas to build on someone’s comment
  • Keeping discussions on track by listing the questions to cover on the board or in the chat, and summarizing the discussion as it proceeds 

Plan topics for group discussions that will resonate with your students 

When you’re planning your group discussion, make sure to choose topics that will resonate with your community to ensure that the discussion will be engaging and beneficial for everyone involved.

Perhaps at the end of class, you can ask everyone to leave a question that they would like to discuss the next time you all meet together. 

Identify potential problems in group discussions

It’s probable that not all group discussions will go smoothly, depending on the group and the nature of the topic. 

Some potential problems in group discussions include:

  • Disengaged students. If you have members who are no longer active in your community, try to engage them by sending them private messages or starting a discussion on a topic that they’re interested in. Also provide opportunities for smaller group discussions. 
  • Students who talk too much. Try redirecting the discussion to another person or another topic. Alternatively, you may wish to reframe their comments, making them viable additions to the discussion.
  • A discussion that turns into an argument. The course instructor may need to take a strong position as moderator, preventing students from interrupting each other or speaking simultaneously. Also, they could list both sides of the argument, allowing for respectful rebuttals.

Give students feedback 

Let your students know how they did in the group discussion. Offering individual constructive feedback can help your students feel more included and motivated to participate even more during the next group discussion. 

Create discussion forums

Discussion forums are essential to learning communities because they give students a place to keep the conversation going and generate more ideas on the topic. Discussion forums also help foster connection and engagement between your students. 

Related: It’s Time to Tap Into Togetherness with Communities

Creating an Engaging Online Community with Group Discussions

Online communities can be a great way to bring your students together in one place where they can discuss course content, apply their learnings, and ask questions. This also helps you get a pulse check on what your audience wants to learn from you.

When building an online community, it’s important to outline community guidelines —helping to improve communication, avoid conflict, and prevent chaos in your community.

Group discussion can be a great way to build an online community if you can get students talking and thinking about different topics. Just remember to keep an open mind, be respectful, and make sure that everyone has a chance to speak. With these tips, you’ll be well on your way to having a successful group discussion.

If you’re still looking for more ideas for GD topics, keep scrolling! Or try one of our Group Discussion Topic Generators:

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Animal welfare, diversity and inclusion, easy topics.

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Interesting

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Young adult discussion topics.

  • What is animal welfare and why is it important?
  • How can we promote awareness about animal welfare issues in our communities?
  • What role should governments play in protecting animal welfare?
  • Should animals have legal rights and protections?
  • How can we reduce the environmental impact of animal agriculture while still ensuring animal welfare?
  • Should animal testing be banned?
  • What is the impact of animal entertainment, such as circuses and zoos, on animal welfare?
  • How can we reduce the number of animals used for food, clothing, and other products?
  • How can we ensure that animals in research labs are treated ethically and with respect?
  • Should we prioritize animal welfare over economic interests in industries such as agriculture and tourism?
  • How can we encourage responsible pet ownership and prevent animal neglect and abuse?
  • How can we ensure that animals used for human consumption are raised and slaughtered in humane conditions?
  • Should we prohibit the breeding of certain breeds of animals for cosmetic purposes?
  • How can we reduce the impact of human activity on wildlife habitats?
  • Should we restrict the use of animals in sports and other entertainment activities?
  • How can we prevent the spread of diseases between animals and humans?
  • What is the impact of climate change on animal welfare?
  • Should we prohibit the use of animals in military operations and experiments?
  • How can we ensure that animals used in educational and scientific exhibits are treated humanely?
  • Should we restrict the use of animals in fashion and beauty industries?
  • What is the impact of animal trafficking and poaching on animal welfare?
  • Should we restrict the use of animals in rodeos and other similar events?
  • How can we ensure that animals used for therapy and service purposes are treated ethically?
  • Should we ban the use of animals in circuses and other traveling shows?
  • How can we prevent animal cruelty and abuse in the food industry?
  • What is the impact of animal overpopulation on animal welfare?
  • Should we restrict the breeding and sale of exotic animals as pets?
  • How can we prevent animal cruelty in the entertainment industry, such as in films and television shows?
  • Should we prohibit the use of animals in product testing for cosmetics and personal care products?
  • How can we ensure that animals used for transportation are treated humanely?
  • Should we restrict the breeding and sale of animals for sport hunting?
  • How can we prevent animal cruelty in puppy mills and other large-scale breeding operations?
  • Should we restrict the use of animals in scientific research and testing?
  • How can we prevent animal cruelty in the fur and leather industries?
  • Should we restrict the use of animals in tourism and entertainment activities, such as elephant rides and swimming with dolphins?
  • How can we ensure that animals used for religious practices are treated humanely?
  • Should we restrict the use of animals in pest control?
  • How can we prevent animal cruelty and abuse in the entertainment industry, such as in theme parks and water parks?
  • Should we restrict the use of animals in hunting and fishing for sport?
  • How can we ensure that animals used for food are raised and slaughtered humanely in small-scale farming operations?
  • What is the impact of factory farming on animal welfare?
  • Should we restrict the breeding and sale of animals for use in laboratory testing?
  • How can we prevent animal cruelty and abuse in the pet industry, such as in pet stores and breeding operations?
  • Should we restrict the use of animals in traditional medicine practices?
  • How can we ensure that animals used for wool and silk production are treated humanely?
  • What is the impact of deforestation on animal welfare?
  • What is marketing and why is it important?
  • How can marketing help businesses connect with customers?
  • What are some common marketing strategies used by businesses today?
  • How can businesses effectively use social media for marketing?
  • Should businesses focus more on digital marketing or traditional marketing methods?
  • How can businesses effectively use email marketing to reach customers?
  • What is the role of customer research in marketing?
  • How can businesses effectively use influencer marketing?
  • Should businesses focus more on B2B or B2C marketing?
  • How can businesses effectively use content marketing to build their brand?
  • How can businesses effectively use search engine optimization (SEO) to improve their online visibility?
  • How can businesses measure the success of their marketing campaigns?
  • What is the impact of customer reviews on marketing?
  • How can businesses effectively use video marketing to engage with customers?
  • Should businesses focus more on inbound marketing or outbound marketing strategies?
  • How can businesses effectively use paid advertising, such as Google Ads and Facebook Ads?
  • What is the role of storytelling in marketing?
  • How can businesses effectively use mobile marketing to reach customers on-the-go?
  • How can businesses use gamification in their marketing strategies?
  • How can businesses effectively use location-based marketing?
  • Should businesses focus more on direct marketing or indirect marketing strategies?
  • How can businesses effectively use customer feedback to improve their marketing efforts?
  • What is the impact of influencer fraud on influencer marketing?
  • How can businesses effectively use affiliate marketing?
  • How can businesses effectively use customer segmentation in their marketing strategies?
  • How can businesses effectively use referral marketing to grow their customer base?
  • What is the role of experiential marketing in today’s business world?
  • How can businesses effectively use chatbots in their marketing strategies?
  • Should businesses focus more on global or local marketing strategies?
  • How can businesses effectively use customer retention strategies in their marketing efforts?
  • What is the impact of customer data privacy on marketing?
  • How can businesses effectively use loyalty programs in their marketing efforts?
  • How can businesses effectively use augmented reality in their marketing strategies?
  • What is the impact of customer experience on marketing?
  • How can businesses effectively use customer service as a marketing tool?
  • How can businesses use user-generated content in their marketing efforts?
  • What is the role of personalization in marketing?
  • How can businesses effectively use chat marketing in their strategies?
  • How can businesses effectively use artificial intelligence in their marketing efforts?
  • Should businesses focus more on brand awareness or lead generation in their marketing strategies?
  • How can businesses effectively use native advertising in their marketing strategies?
  • How can businesses effectively use retargeting in their marketing efforts?
  • What is the role of video ads in marketing?
  • How can businesses effectively use customer advocacy in their marketing strategies?
  • How can businesses use data analytics to improve their marketing efforts?
  • How can businesses effectively use social listening to improve their marketing strategies?
  • Should businesses focus more on emotional marketing or rational marketing strategies?
  • How can businesses effectively use chatbots for customer service and support?
  • What is the role of mobile apps in marketing?
  • How can businesses effectively use customer reviews in their marketing efforts?
  • How can businesses use memes and viral marketing in their strategies?
  • How can businesses effectively use podcast marketing to reach new audiences?
  • Should businesses focus more on omnichannel or multichannel marketing strategies?
  • How can businesses effectively use direct mail marketing in the digital age?
  • What is the impact of customer experience on brand loyalty?
  • What is sales and why is it important for businesses?
  • What are some common sales techniques used by sales professionals today?
  • How can businesses effectively train their sales teams?
  • What is the role of customer relationship management (CRM) in sales?
  • How can businesses effectively use data analytics to improve their sales efforts?
  • Should businesses focus more on inbound or outbound sales strategies?
  • What is the role of customer service in sales?
  • How can businesses effectively use sales automation tools?
  • How can businesses effectively use social selling to connect with customers?
  • What is the impact of customer retention on sales?
  • How can businesses effectively use referral selling to grow their customer base?
  • Should businesses focus more on product knowledge or customer knowledge in their sales efforts?
  • What is the role of storytelling in sales?
  • How can businesses effectively use video selling to engage with customers?
  • How can businesses effectively use sales forecasting to plan for the future?
  • How can businesses effectively use sales enablement tools?
  • Should businesses focus more on B2B or B2C sales strategies?
  • How can businesses effectively use account-based selling to target specific customers?
  • What is the impact of customer experience on sales?
  • How can businesses effectively use upselling and cross-selling techniques?
  • Should businesses focus more on inbound or outbound prospecting strategies?
  • How can businesses effectively use customer feedback to improve their sales efforts?
  • What is the role of emotional intelligence in sales?
  • How can businesses effectively use value-based selling techniques?
  • How can businesses effectively use objection handling techniques in their sales efforts?
  • Should businesses focus more on relationship selling or transactional selling?
  • How can businesses effectively use storytelling in their sales pitches?
  • What is the impact of social proof on sales?
  • How can businesses effectively use customer personas in their sales efforts?
  • Should businesses focus more on inside sales or outside sales strategies?
  • What is the role of empathy in sales?
  • How can businesses effectively use competitive analysis in their sales efforts?
  • How can businesses effectively use social media for sales?
  • Should businesses focus more on product selling or solution selling?
  • How can businesses effectively use customer advocacy in their sales strategies?
  • What is the role of sales coaching in developing sales professionals?
  • How can businesses effectively use customer success stories in their sales pitches?
  • Should businesses focus more on consultative selling or transactional selling?
  • What is the impact of sales process optimization on sales?
  • How can businesses effectively use customer segmentation in their sales efforts?
  • How can businesses effectively use persuasive language in their sales pitches?
  • Should businesses focus more on inbound or outbound lead generation strategies?
  • What is the role of social listening in sales?
  • How can businesses effectively use sales funnels to guide customers through the sales process?
  • How can businesses effectively use customer data to personalize their sales pitches?
  • Should businesses focus more on account management or new business development in their sales efforts?
  • What is the impact of sales productivity on overall business success?
  • How can businesses effectively use sales promotions to drive sales?
  • Should businesses focus more on online sales or offline sales strategies?
  • What is the role of customer experience in post-sales support?
  • How can businesses effectively use sales contests to motivate sales teams?
  • Should businesses focus more on sales specialization or generalization?
  • What is the impact of sales pipeline management on sales success?
  • How can businesses effectively use email marketing for sales?
  • How can businesses effectively use virtual selling in the digital age?
  • Should businesses focus more on lead qualification or lead generation in their sales efforts?
  • What is the role of market research in sales?
  • How can businesses effectively use account-based marketing to support their sales efforts?
  • How can businesses effectively use storytelling in their sales follow-up efforts?
  • Should businesses focus more on price-based selling or value-based selling?
  • What is the impact of sales forecasting accuracy on overall business success?
  • How can businesses effectively use customer surveys to improve their sales efforts?
  • Should businesses focus more on product differentiation or brand differentiation in their sales strategies?
  • What is the role of networking in sales?
  • How can businesses effectively use sales collateral to support their sales efforts?
  • Should businesses focus more on lead nurturing or lead conversion in their sales strategies?
  • What is the impact of sales culture on sales success?
  • How can businesses effectively use customer testimonials to support their sales efforts?
  • Should businesses focus more on sales specialization or cross-functional collaboration?
  • What is the role of sales performance metrics in sales management?
  • How can businesses effectively use online advertising for sales?
  • Should businesses focus more on inbound or outbound account-based marketing strategies?
  • What is the impact of product packaging on sales?
  • How can businesses effectively use sales incentives to motivate their sales teams?
  • Should businesses focus more on inside sales or field sales strategies?
  • What is the role of product demos in sales?
  • How can businesses effectively use content marketing for sales?
  • Should businesses focus more on product features or customer benefits in their sales pitches?
  • What is the impact of sales coaching on sales performance?
  • How can businesses effectively use lead scoring to prioritize their sales efforts?
  • Should businesses focus more on sales specialization or sales generalization?
  • What is the role of sales territories in sales management?
  • Should businesses focus more on referral selling or cold calling in their sales strategies?
  • What is the impact of sales technology on sales productivity?
  • How can businesses effectively use chatbots for sales?
  • Should businesses focus more on relationship building or closing techniques in their sales efforts?
  • What is the role of sales incentives in improving customer loyalty?
  • How can businesses effectively use sales gamification to engage their sales teams?
  • Should businesses focus more on customer acquisition or customer retention in their sales strategies?
  • What is the impact of sales training on sales performance?
  • How can businesses effectively use customer success stories to support their sales efforts?
  • The role of art in society
  • The impact of technology on contemporary art
  • The evolution of art throughout history
  • The future of art and technology
  • The Influence of culture on Art
  • The importance of art education
  • The impact of public art on communities
  • The power of public art in creating social change
  • The value of art in mental health and wellbeing
  • The role of Museums in preserving art history
  • The relationship between art and politics
  • The impact of globalization on art
  • The Influence of religion on Art
  • The role of the artist in society
  • The ethics of art censorship
  • The power of art to create empathy
  • The impact of art on social justice movements
  • The relationship between art and science
  • The role of art in personal expression
  • The evolution of street art and graffiti
  • The impact of art on urban spaces
  • The influence of art on popular culture
  • The role of art in healing trauma
  • The importance of art therapy
  • The role of art in preserving cultural heritage
  • The impact of art on the economy
  • The future of virtual reality art
  • The ethics of art forgery and plagiarism
  • The power of art to bring people together
  • The role of art in environmental activism
  • The impact of art on tourism
  • The influence of art on fashion
  • The role of art in education
  • The impact of art on advertising
  • The relationship between art and literature
  • The evolution of art movements throughout history
  • The impact of color theory on art
  • The power of art to convey emotions
  • The role of art in documenting history
  • The influence of art on interior design
  • The impact of art on cultural identity
  • The role of art in social media
  • The ethics of cultural appropriation in art
  • The role of art in protest movements
  • The power of art to promote diversity and inclusion
  • The impact of art on fashion photography
  • The role of art in community development
  • The influence of architecture on art
  • The impact of art on fashion design
  • The role of art in marketing and advertising
  • The ethics of graffiti art and vandalism
  • The power of art to tell personal stories
  • The influence of art on theater and performance
  • The role of art in the digital age
  • The impact of art on video game design
  • The future of augmented reality in art
  • The role of art in political propaganda
  • The ethics of art ownership and copyright
  • The power of art to challenge societal norms
  • The impact of art on fashion illustration
  • The role of art in branding and identity
  • The influence of music on art
  • The impact of art on graphic design
  • The role of art in public speaking and presentations
  • The ethics of public art and community engagement
  • The power of art to inspire creativity
  • The impact of art on product design
  • The role of art in the beauty industry
  • The influence of nature on art
  • The impact of art on animation and film
  • The role of art in spiritual and religious expression
  • The ethics of art as a commodity
  • The power of art to promote self-reflection
  • The influence of art on product packaging
  • The role of art in branding and marketing
  • The impact of art on fashion advertising
  • The future of art in artificial intelligence
  • The role of art in video production
  • The influence of art on industrial design
  • The impact of art on public relations
  • The role of art in visual storytelling
  • The ethics of street art and property rights
  • The power of art to promote cultural understanding
  • The impact of art on web design
  • The role of art in event planning
  • The influence of art on packaging design
  • The impact of art on interior decorating
  • The role of art in journalism and news reporting
  • The ethics of cultural heritage preservation and restoration
  • The power of art to convey social commentary
  • The influence of art on fashion accessories
  • The impact of art on architecture and building design
  • The role of art in fashion styling and image consulting
  • The future of art in virtual and augmented reality
  • The ethics of art and cultural sensitivity
  • The power of art to promote social change and activism
  • The impact of art on product branding and marketing
  • The role of art in international diplomacy and relations.
  • What are some ways to overcome shyness or social anxiety and connect with others?
  • How can we build stronger relationships with our family members?
  • What are some effective ways to communicate and connect with coworkers?
  • How can we create a sense of community in our neighborhoods?
  • What are some ways to connect with people who have different cultural backgrounds?
  • How can we use social media to connect with others in a meaningful way?
  • How can we deepen our friendships and maintain strong connections with people?
  • What are some ways to connect with people who share our interests or passions?
  • What are some ways to build trust and create a safe space for sharing with others?
  • How can we be more empathetic and understanding in our interactions with others?
  • What are some ways to connect with people who have different political views?
  • How can we create a sense of belonging in groups or organizations?
  • What are some ways to connect with people in our local community?
  • How can we be more vulnerable and open in our relationships with others?
  • What are some ways to connect with people in different age groups?
  • How can we create a supportive environment for sharing personal experiences?
  • What are some ways to connect with people in different professions or industries?
  • How can we connect with people who have different lifestyles or values?
  • How can we practice active listening and show genuine interest in others?
  • What are some ways to connect with people through volunteering or community service?
  • How can we connect with people through shared hobbies or activities?
  • How can we connect with people who are geographically distant?
  • What are some ways to build positive relationships with our coworkers?
  • How can we connect with people who have different communication styles?
  • What are some ways to connect with people from different socioeconomic backgrounds?
  • How can we connect with people who have different religious or spiritual beliefs?
  • How can we connect with people who are experiencing loneliness or isolation?
  • What are some ways to connect with people who speak a different language?
  • How can we connect with people who are part of marginalized communities?
  • What are some ways to connect with people through acts of kindness or generosity?
  • How can we connect with people who have different personality types?
  • How can we build stronger relationships with our romantic partners?
  • What are some ways to connect with people who have different learning styles?
  • How can we connect with people through shared goals or aspirations?
  • How can we connect with people who have different abilities or disabilities?
  • What are some ways to connect with people who have different life experiences?
  • How can we build stronger relationships with our children or parents?
  • How can we connect with people who have different communication barriers?
  • What are some ways to connect with people through shared values or beliefs?
  • How can we build stronger relationships with our friends?
  • How can we connect with people who have different senses of humor?
  • How can we connect with people who have different dietary preferences?
  • What are some ways to connect with people through shared music or art?
  • How can we connect with people who have different opinions on controversial issues?
  • How can we build stronger relationships with our mentors or mentees?
  • How can we connect with people who have different relationship styles?
  • How can we connect with people who have different career goals or aspirations?
  • What are some ways to connect with people through shared travel experiences?
  • The role of cooking in cultural identity and tradition
  • The impact of technology and innovation on cooking techniques and recipes
  • The importance of using fresh, whole ingredients in cooking and meal preparation
  • The benefits and challenges of cooking with different diets, such as vegetarian, vegan, gluten-free, etc.
  • The role of cooking in building community and relationships
  • The history and evolution of cooking methods and cuisine
  • The benefits of cooking with family and friends, and the role of cooking in bringing people together
  • The impact of food waste and sustainability on cooking and meal planning
  • The importance of cooking skills and meal planning for healthy eating and living
  • The role of cooking in stress relief and self-care
  • The benefits and challenges of cooking with limited time and resources
  • The impact of social media and popular culture on cooking trends and styles
  • The importance of food presentation and plating in cooking and meal presentation
  • The benefits of cooking with seasonal and local ingredients
  • The role of cooking in economic and financial well-being, including meal planning and budgeting
  • The impact of cultural exchange and fusion in cooking and cuisine
  • The importance of knife skills and kitchen safety in cooking
  • The benefits and challenges of cooking for large groups and events
  • The role of cooking in exploring and understanding other cultures through food
  • The impact of food allergies and intolerances on cooking and meal planning
  • The importance of experimentation and creativity in cooking and recipe development
  • The benefits and challenges of cooking for one or cooking solo
  • The role of cooking in maintaining and improving mental and physical health
  • The impact of cooking and food education in schools and communities
  • The importance of cooking as a lifelong skill for personal and professional development.
  • The role of nature and the great outdoors in inspiring creativity
  • The impact of travel and new experiences on creativity and imagination
  • The effects of music, art, and literature on the imagination and creative expression
  • The impact of play and unstructured time on imaginative thinking and creative problem solving
  • The effects of mindfulness and meditation on creative thought and inspiration
  • The role of curiosity and exploration in stimulating creative ideas and solutions
  • The impact of social and cultural diversity on creative expression and innovation
  • The effects of collaboration and teamwork in inspiring creative solutions and ideas
  • The role of failure and setbacks in fostering creative growth and resilience
  • The impact of quiet time and solitude on the creative process and imaginative thinking
  • The effects of playfulness and humor on creative expression and problem solving
  • The role of storytelling and oral traditions in inspiring imaginative thinking and creative expression
  • The impact of physical activity and exercise on the imagination and creative thinking
  • The effects of mindfulness and being present in the moment on the imagination and creative thinking
  • The role of sleep and rest in fostering creative ideas and inspiration
  • The impact of surrounding oneself with positive and supportive people on creative expression and problem solving
  • The effects of taking breaks and allowing the mind to wander on the imagination and creative process
  • The role of creating a supportive and stimulating physical environment for creativity
  • The impact of taking on new challenges and learning new skills on imaginative thinking and creative expression
  • The effects of connecting with one’s passions and personal interests on creative expression and problem solving
  • The role of dreaming and the subconscious mind in inspiring creative ideas and solutions
  • The impact of overcoming obstacles and challenges on creative growth and resilience
  • The effects of nature and exposure to the elements on creative inspiration and problem solving
  • The role of experimentation and trying new things in fostering creative expression and innovative thinking.
  • What is creativity and how can we define it?
  • What are the benefits of creativity in our personal and professional lives?
  • How can we encourage creativity in the workplace or in school?
  • How can we overcome creative blocks and generate new ideas?
  • What role does environment play in fostering creativity?
  • How can technology be used to enhance creativity?
  • How can we balance structure and freedom to encourage creativity?
  • How can different forms of art inspire creativity in other areas of our lives?
  • How can collaboration lead to more creative ideas?
  • How can we measure creativity and its impact?
  • How can we use creativity to improve mental health and well-being?
  • What are some examples of innovative and creative companies?
  • How can we use creativity to promote sustainability and environmentalism?
  • How can we use creativity to improve communication and empathy?
  • How can we incorporate creativity into our daily routines?
  • What are some creative ways to approach problem-solving?
  • How can we overcome fear and take risks in our creative pursuits?
  • How can we use creativity to challenge and disrupt the status quo?
  • How can we use creativity to build community and bring people together?
  • What are some common obstacles to creativity and how can we overcome them?
  • How can we use creativity to express ourselves and our identities?
  • How can we use creativity to foster innovation and entrepreneurship?
  • How can we use creativity to improve our physical health and fitness?
  • How can we use creativity to bridge cultural and social divides?
  • How can we use creativity to explore and understand complex ideas?
  • What are some examples of successful creative projects or initiatives?
  • How can we use creativity to drive social and political change?
  • How can we use creativity to improve our relationships with others?
  • How can we use creativity to create memorable and impactful experiences?
  • How can we use creativity to inspire and motivate ourselves and others?
  • How can we use creativity to preserve and celebrate cultural traditions?
  • How can we use creativity to foster critical thinking and problem-solving skills?
  • How can we use creativity to create a better future for ourselves and others?
  • How can we use creativity to explore and express our emotions?
  • How can we use creativity to promote empathy and understanding?
  • How can we use creativity to create more inclusive and equitable societies?
  • How can we use creativity to improve our cognitive and intellectual abilities?
  • How can we use creativity to promote self-discovery and personal growth?
  • How can we use creativity to create more meaningful and fulfilling lives?
  • How can we use creativity to connect with nature and the environment?
  • How can we use creativity to promote positive social and cultural change?
  • How can we use creativity to promote innovation and progress in different fields?
  • How can we use creativity to improve our ability to adapt to change?
  • How can we use creativity to create new opportunities and possibilities?
  • How can we use creativity to overcome adversity and difficult circumstances?
  • How can we use creativity to promote healing and recovery from trauma?
  • The impact of implicit biases and stereotypes on diversity and inclusion
  • The importance of allyship and solidarity in promoting diversity and inclusion
  • The benefits and challenges of workplace diversity and inclusion initiatives
  • The role of education and awareness in promoting diversity and inclusion
  • The impact of historical and systemic discrimination on diversity and inclusion
  • The benefits and challenges of actively seeking out diverse perspectives and experiences
  • The importance of embracing and celebrating cultural differences in promoting diversity and inclusion
  • The role of diversity and inclusion in personal and professional development
  • The impact of media representation and media literacy on diversity and inclusion
  • The benefits and challenges of actively addressing privilege and power dynamics in promoting diversity and inclusion
  • The importance of open-mindedness and empathy in promoting diversity and inclusion
  • The role of language and communication in promoting diversity and inclusion
  • The impact of intersectionality on diversity and inclusion
  • The benefits and challenges of diversity and inclusion in community organizations and activism
  • The importance of actively promoting and advocating for diversity and inclusion in all areas of life
  • The role of technology and innovation in promoting diversity and inclusion
  • The impact of globalization and cultural exchange on diversity and inclusion
  • The benefits and challenges of promoting diversity and inclusion in education
  • The importance of encouraging diverse leadership and representation in all industries
  • The role of diverse representation in politics and government in promoting diversity and inclusion
  • The impact of personal experiences and narratives on diversity and inclusion
  • The benefits and challenges of creating inclusive and welcoming spaces for all individuals
  • The importance of examining and addressing personal biases in promoting diversity and inclusion
  • The role of diversity and inclusion in promoting overall equality and justice
  • The impact of individual actions and choices on promoting diversity and inclusion in communities and society.
  • The benefits of daily exercise
  • Ways to reduce stress
  • The importance of good sleep
  • The impact of social media on relationships
  • Budgeting and saving money
  • The benefits of volunteering
  • The effects of technology on work-life balance
  • Healthy eating habits
  • The benefits of traveling
  • The importance of hydration
  • The impact of the internet on communication
  • The benefits of mindfulness and meditation
  • Time management strategies
  • The importance of setting goals
  • The impact of technology on education
  • The benefits of reading
  • The importance of self-care
  • The effects of social media on self-esteem
  • The benefits of spending time in nature
  • The importance of emotional intelligence
  • The impact of social media on politics
  • The benefits of team sports
  • The importance of friendships
  • The effects of technology on personal relationships
  • The benefits of public speaking
  • The importance of positive thinking
  • The impact of social media on mental health
  • The benefits of community service
  • The importance of good leadership
  • The effects of technology on privacy
  • The benefits of networking
  • The importance of good communication skills
  • The impact of social media on body image
  • The benefits of continuous learning
  • The importance of time with family
  • The effects of technology on relationships with others
  • The benefits of having a support system
  • The importance of forgiveness
  • The impact of social media on personal branding
  • The benefits of creativity and innovation
  • The importance of public speaking skills
  • The effects of technology on productivity
  • The benefits of being organized
  • The importance of taking breaks
  • The impact of social media on personal relationships
  • The benefits of spending time alone
  • The importance of resilience
  • The effects of technology on memory retention
  • The benefits of public speaking and presentation skills
  • The importance of work-life balance

Elementary school students (age related)

  • The importance of kindness and empathy
  • The benefits of outdoor play
  • The role of imagination in creativity
  • The importance of eating healthy food
  • The benefits of having a positive attitude
  • The role of teamwork in solving problems
  • The importance of good hygiene
  • The benefits of physical activity
  • The role of honesty in building trust
  • The importance of helping others
  • The benefits of being grateful
  • The role of perseverance in achieving goals
  • The importance of being environmentally responsible
  • The benefits of creativity and self-expression
  • The role of cooperation in friendships
  • The importance of good manners and etiquette
  • The benefits of reading and learning
  • The role of positive self-talk in building confidence
  • The importance of empathy and understanding towards others
  • The benefits of kindness and compassion
  • The role of friendship in building strong relationships
  • The importance of being safe in daily life
  • The benefits of laughter and humor
  • The role of respect in building strong relationships
  • The importance of taking care of one’s body
  • The role of teamwork in group activities
  • The importance of being responsible and reliable
  • The benefits of practicing gratitude
  • The role of patience in achieving success
  • The importance of using one’s imagination
  • The benefits of creative problem solving
  • The role of resilience in overcoming challenges
  • The benefits of expressing oneself through art and music
  • The role of empathy in developing strong relationships
  • The importance of positive self-image
  • The benefits of practicing forgiveness
  • The role of trust in building strong relationships
  • The importance of healthy sleep habits
  • The benefits of teamwork and cooperation
  • The role of responsibility in daily life
  • The importance of positive role models
  • The benefits of physical activity and exercise
  • The role of goal setting in personal development
  • The importance of being environmentally conscious
  • The benefits of helping others and giving back
  • The role of good communication in resolving conflicts
  • The importance of healthy boundaries in relationships
  • The benefits of practicing empathy and compassion.
  • Who is your favorite English author and why?
  • Can literature influence society and culture?
  • How has English literature evolved over the years?
  • Is it necessary to have a degree in English literature to appreciate it?
  • Is the study of English literature relevant in today’s world?
  • Should English literature be taught in schools?
  • What is your favorite English novel and why?
  • Can literature be used as a form of escapism?
  • Is it important for authors to have personal experiences to write good literature?
  • Is it necessary for authors to write in a particular style?
  • Can literature be used to understand different cultures and perspectives?
  • Is it important for literature to have a moral message?
  • Is it necessary for literature to be entertaining?
  • Should literature be judged on its literary merit or popularity?
  • Can literature be used to promote social change?
  • Is it necessary for literature to reflect real-life issues?
  • Is the literary canon too focused on white male authors?
  • Can literature be considered a reflection of society?
  • Is it necessary for authors to have a particular writing process?
  • Can literature be used to improve empathy and emotional intelligence?
  • Should literature be used in therapy?
  • Is it important for literature to be historically accurate?
  • Is it necessary for literature to be timeless?
  • Is it important for literature to be relatable?
  • Is it necessary for literature to have a plot?
  • Can literature be considered a form of art?
  • Is it important for literature to be accessible to all?
  • Is the use of symbolism in literature important?
  • Can literature be used to improve language skills?
  • Should literature be free from censorship?
  • Is it important for literature to be culturally diverse?
  • Can literature be used to understand human nature?
  • Is it necessary for literature to have a moral lesson?
  • Is it important for literature to be optimistic?
  • Can literature be used to explore human emotions and relationships?
  • Is it necessary for literature to have a happy ending?
  • Should literature be used to inspire social activism?
  • Can literature be used to educate people about historical events?
  • Is it necessary for literature to have a protagonist and antagonist?
  • Should literature be used to teach critical thinking?
  • Is it necessary for literature to have a clear message?
  • Should authors be held responsible for the messages in their literature?
  • Can literature be used to explore political ideologies?
  • Is it necessary for literature to have a realistic portrayal of characters?
  • Can literature be used to explore the meaning of life?
  • Is it important for literature to be unique and original?
  • Can literature be used to explore the human psyche?
  • Is it necessary for literature to have a specific genre?
  • Should literature be used to explore controversial topics?
  • Can literature be used to understand the past and predict the future?
  • Can literature be used to promote tolerance and understanding?
  • Should literature be used to challenge societal norms?
  • Can literature be used to teach empathy and compassion?
  • Is it necessary for literature to have a specific structure?
  • Can literature be used to explore philosophical ideas?
  • Should literature be used to explore the supernatural?
  • Is it necessary for literature to have a resolution?
  • Can literature be used to explore the mysteries of the universe?
  • Should literature be used to explore the absurdities of life?
  • Can literature be used to explore the human condition?
  • Is it necessary for literature to have a hero’s journey?
  • The most useful online resources for students
  • The best online resources for learning a new skill
  • Online resources for remote work and collaboration
  • Online resources for mental health and wellness
  • The most helpful online resources for cooking and recipe ideas
  • The most informative online resources for current events and news
  • Online resources for budgeting and personal finance management
  • The most entertaining online resources for movies and TV shows
  • The best online resources for fitness and exercise inspiration
  • The most helpful online resources for travel and adventure planning
  • The most useful online resources for job search and career development
  • The most informative online resources for science and technology news
  • Online resources for self-improvement and personal growth
  • The most entertaining online resources for music and concerts
  • The most helpful online resources for shopping and fashion tips
  • The most informative online resources for sports news and analysis
  • The most useful online resources for language learning
  • The best online resources for art and design inspiration
  • The most helpful online resources for home improvement and DIY projects
  • The most informative online resources for political news and analysis
  • Online resources for spiritual growth and wellness
  • The most entertaining online resources for comedy and humor
  • The most useful online resources for car and vehicle maintenance
  • The best online resources for gardening and horticulture tips
  • The most helpful online resources for pet care and animal welfare
  • What is your go-to website for news and current events?
  • What is your favorite social media platform and why?
  • Do you have a favorite website or app for productivity or organization? If so, what is it?
  • What is your favorite website or app for entertainment?
  • Do you have a favorite website or app for staying healthy or fit? If so, what is it?
  • What is your favorite website or app for online shopping?
  • Do you have a favorite website or app for travel planning? If so, what is it?
  • What is your favorite website or app for booking events or activities?
  • Do you have a favorite website or app for language learning? If so, what is it?
  • What is your favorite website or app for music streaming?
  • Do you have a favorite website or app for discovering new books to read? If so, what is it?
  • What is your favorite website or app for watching movies or TV shows?
  • Do you have a favorite website or app for connecting with friends or family online? If so, what is it?
  • What is your favorite website or app for creating and sharing videos?
  • Do you have a favorite website or app for discovering new podcasts? If so, what is it?
  • What is your favorite website or app for finding and booking local services, such as haircuts or massages?
  • Do you have a favorite website or app for finding and booking travel accommodations? If so, what is it?
  • What is your favorite website or app for online banking?
  • Do you have a favorite website or app for finding and booking flights? If so, what is it?
  • What is your favorite website or app for finding and booking rental cars?
  • Do you have a favorite website or app for managing your finances or investments? If so, what is it?
  • What is your favorite website or app for job searching and career development?
  • Do you have a favorite website or app for learning about new technology or gadgets? If so, what is it?
  • What is your favorite website or app for discovering new podcasts? If so, what is it?
  • Do you have a favorite website or app for discovering and booking local events, such as concerts or festivals? If so, what is it?
  • What is your favorite website or app for finding and booking fitness classes or workouts?
  • Do you have a favorite website or app for finding and booking beauty services, such as manicures or facials? If so, what is it?
  • What is your favorite website or app for staying up-to-date on pop culture?
  • Do you have a favorite website or app for finding and booking outdoor activities, such as hiking or kayaking? If so, what is it?
  • What is your favorite website or app for learning about mental health and wellness?
  • Do you have a favorite website or app for finding and booking volunteer opportunities? If so, what is it?
  • What is your favorite website or app for discovering and booking travel experiences, such as tours or cultural activities?
  • Do you have a favorite website or app for finding and booking pet services, such as dog walking or pet grooming? If so, what is it?
  • What is your favorite website or app for finding and booking home services, such as cleaning or repairs?
  • Do you have a favorite website or app for finding and booking outdoor adventure experiences
  • The importance of effective communication in fostering good relationships
  • The benefits and challenges of setting and maintaining healthy boundaries in relationships
  • The role of trust and honesty in fostering good relationships
  • The impact of emotional intelligence on fostering good relationships
  • The benefits and challenges of active listening and empathy in relationships
  • The importance of mutual respect and understanding in fostering good relationships
  • The role of shared values and interests in fostering good relationships
  • The impact of past experiences and traumas on fostering good relationships
  • The benefits and challenges of overcoming conflicts and resolving disputes in relationships
  • The importance of maintaining individual autonomy and independence in relationships
  • The role of compromise and negotiation in fostering good relationships
  • The impact of effective time management and prioritization on fostering good relationships
  • The benefits and challenges of managing expectations and setting realistic goals in relationships
  • The importance of forgiveness and letting go in fostering good relationships
  • The role of self-awareness and self-reflection in fostering good relationships
  • The impact of social and cultural norms on fostering good relationships
  • The benefits and challenges of actively expressing gratitude and appreciation in relationships
  • The importance of physical and emotional intimacy in fostering good relationships
  • The role of transparency and open-mindedness in fostering good relationships
  • The impact of personal growth and development on fostering good relationships
  • The benefits and challenges of fostering good relationships with in-laws and extended family members
  • The importance of supporting and encouraging personal growth and success in relationships
  • The role of compromise and compromise in fostering good relationships
  • The impact of technology and social media on fostering good relationships
  • The benefits and challenges of promoting honesty, vulnerability, and authenticity in fostering good relationships.
  • The funniest movies and TV shows of all time
  • The most ridiculous fashion trends in history
  • The funniest jokes and puns you’ve ever heard
  • The most embarrassing moments you’ve experienced
  • The funniest pranks you’ve played or seen
  • The most ridiculous celebrity gossip and rumors
  • The funniest accents and impressions you can do
  • The most ridiculous names you’ve heard
  • The funniest autocorrect and typo fails
  • The most bizarre conspiracy theories you’ve heard
  • The most ridiculous superstitions and beliefs
  • The funniest quotes from comedians and celebrities
  • The most embarrassing personal habits you’ve noticed in others
  • The funniest animals and their antics
  • The most ridiculous trends and fads from your childhood
  • The funniest bloopers and outtakes from movies and TV shows
  • The most absurd laws and regulations you’ve heard of
  • The funniest jokes about different countries and cultures
  • The most ridiculous tech fails and glitches
  • The funniest nicknames and pet names you’ve heard
  • The most absurd celebrity interviews and appearances
  • The funniest parodies and mock commercials
  • The most ridiculous new year’s resolutions you’ve heard
  • The funniest pick-up lines and one-liners you’ve heard.
  • The most absurd internet challenges and trends
  • The funniest celebrity impressions and parodies
  • The most ridiculous product inventions and infomercials
  • The funniest jokes about different professions
  • The most absurd news headlines and articles
  • The funniest jokes about different languages and accents
  • The most ridiculous tourist attractions and roadside attractions
  • The funniest jokes about different cultures and customs
  • The most absurd fashion and beauty trends and products
  • The funniest jokes about different types of food
  • The most ridiculous wedding and baby shower trends
  • The funniest jokes about different types of sports
  • The most absurd reality TV shows and competitions
  • The funniest jokes about different types of hobbies and interests
  • The most ridiculous historical events and figures
  • The funniest jokes about different types of music and musicians
  • The most absurd TV and movie spin-off shows and sequels
  • The funniest jokes about different types of relationships and dating
  • The most ridiculous beauty and grooming products and rituals
  • The funniest jokes about different types of transportation
  • The most absurd urban legends and ghost stories
  • The funniest jokes about different types of weather and natural disasters
  • The most ridiculous fashion and beauty mishaps and fails
  • The funniest jokes about different types of pets and animals
  • The most absurd holiday and seasonal traditions and customs
  • The funniest jokes about different types of technology and gadgets
  • The most ridiculous business and marketing strategies and campaigns
  • The funniest jokes about different types of health and wellness practices
  • The most absurd historical and scientific discoveries and theories
  • The funniest jokes about different types of entertainment and media
  • The most ridiculous personal and lifestyle trends and fads
  • The funniest jokes about different types of fashion and beauty
  • The most absurd political and social movements and issues
  • The funniest jokes about different types of art and creativity
  • The most ridiculous environmental and sustainability efforts and causes
  • The funniest jokes about different types of travel and tourism
  • The funniest jokes about different types of education and learning
  • The most ridiculous personal and social norms and expectations
  • The funniest jokes about different types of work and careers
  • The most absurd philosophical and spiritual beliefs and practices
  • The funniest jokes about different types of history and heritage
  • The most ridiculous conspiracy theories and mysteries
  • The funniest jokes about different types of food and drink
  • The most absurd personal and social quirks and idiosyncrasies
  • The funniest jokes about different types of nature and the outdoors
  • The most ridiculous personal and social insecurities and anxieties

Health and fitness

  • The impact of technology and innovation on health and fitness practices
  • The importance of a balanced diet and nutrition for overall health and well-being
  • The benefits and challenges of incorporating physical activity into a busy lifestyle
  • The role of genetics and family history in health and fitness
  • The impact of stress and mental health on physical health and well-being
  • The benefits and challenges of mindfulness and meditation in promoting health and fitness
  • The importance of sleep for overall health and fitness
  • The role of community and social support in health and fitness practices
  • The impact of technology and screen time on physical and mental health
  • The benefits and challenges of outdoor and environmental fitness
  • The importance of injury prevention and recovery in fitness and physical activity
  • The role of fitness and physical activity in managing and preventing chronic conditions
  • The impact of cultural and societal influences on health and fitness practices and beliefs
  • The benefits and challenges of strength training and weightlifting for health and fitness
  • The importance of individualized and customized fitness plans for personal health goals
  • The role of health and fitness in personal and professional development
  • The impact of climate change and the environment on health and fitness
  • The benefits and challenges of group fitness classes and training programs
  • The importance of mental health and body image in overall health and fitness
  • The role of health and fitness in disease prevention and management
  • The impact of food culture and food industry on health and fitness
  • The benefits and challenges of performance-enhancing drugs and supplements in fitness
  • The importance of hydration and fluid intake for health and fitness
  • The role of health and fitness in promoting overall happiness and well-being
  • The impact of international travel and relocation on health and fitness practices and habits.

High school students (age related)

  • The impact of social media on society
  • The importance of diversity and inclusion
  • The benefits of college education
  • The role of technology in shaping the future
  • The impact of climate change
  • The importance of self-care and mental health
  • The benefits of volunteering and community service
  • The role of critical thinking in problem solving
  • The impact of politics on society
  • The importance of good time management
  • The role of teamwork in achieving success
  • The impact of fake news and misinformation
  • The importance of healthy relationships
  • The benefits of effective communication skills
  • The role of leadership in community development
  • The impact of social media on self-esteem
  • The importance of goal setting and personal development
  • The role of creativity and innovation in problem solving
  • The importance of stress management
  • The benefits of financial literacy and budgeting
  • The role of self-reflection in personal growth
  • The impact of technology on work-life balance
  • The importance of a healthy work-life balance
  • The benefits of civic engagement and community involvement
  • The role of perseverance in achieving success
  • The impact of the media on body image
  • The importance of a positive self-image
  • The benefits of community service and volunteerism
  • The impact of social media on privacy
  • The importance of self-expression and creativity
  • The role of positive thinking in personal development
  • The impact of technology on the environment
  • The importance of mental and emotional intelligence
  • The benefits of physical and mental well-being
  • The importance of setting and achieving personal goals
  • The benefits of continuous learning and self-improvement
  • The role of diversity and cultural understanding in a global society
  • The importance of strong personal relationships
  • The benefits of taking risks and stepping outside of one’s comfort zone
  • The role of accountability in personal development
  • The impact of the internet on privacy and security
  • The importance of maintaining a healthy work-life balance.
  • What is your favorite historical era and why?
  • Can we learn from history and prevent past mistakes?
  • How has history been taught and remembered differently in different cultures and countries?
  • Should history be rewritten to correct past inaccuracies and injustices?
  • How has technology changed the way we study and understand history?
  • How has historical fiction influenced our understanding of history?
  • Can historical events and figures be seen in shades of gray rather than black and white?
  • How has globalization impacted the study and understanding of history?
  • Should controversial historical figures and events be celebrated or condemned?
  • What role does propaganda play in shaping our understanding of historical events?
  • How has imperialism impacted the world’s history and current state of affairs?
  • Can history be used to predict the future?
  • What is the importance of preserving historical artifacts and landmarks?
  • How has the interpretation of history changed over time?
  • What can we learn from the study of history that can be applied to the present day?
  • How have historical events impacted social and cultural movements?
  • Should history be used to justify present-day actions and policies?
  • Can history be a source of inspiration?
  • How has the history of colonization impacted indigenous cultures and communities?
  • Should the study of history be mandatory in schools?
  • How has historical revisionism impacted our understanding of events and figures?
  • Can history be used to challenge present-day prejudices and biases?
  • How have gender and race influenced our understanding of history?
  • Should history be taught in a more objective or subjective manner?
  • How have historical events influenced art, literature, and culture?
  • How has the study of history impacted scientific and technological advancements?
  • How have historical events shaped the current political landscape?
  • Should history be taught in a global or regional context?
  • How have wars and conflicts impacted the world’s history and current state of affairs?
  • Can we learn from the mistakes of past leaders and societies?
  • How have historical events impacted international relations and diplomacy?
  • Should historical figures who committed atrocities be remembered and celebrated?
  • How has the study of history impacted our understanding of human nature?
  • Can we ever truly understand the motives and actions of historical figures?
  • How has the study of history influenced our understanding of religion and spirituality?
  • Should history be used to inspire activism and social change?
  • How have historical events impacted the natural environment and conservation efforts?
  • Can we learn from the successes and achievements of historical figures?
  • How has the study of history influenced our understanding of economics and trade?
  • Should history be used to inform policy decisions?
  • How has the history of medicine and healthcare impacted our current understanding and practices?
  • How have historical events shaped our understanding and treatment of mental health?
  • Can we learn from the mistakes of past civilizations and prevent their downfall?
  • How has the history of education impacted current systems and practices?
  • Should we prioritize the study of global or national histories?
  • How have historical events impacted human migration and displacement?
  • Can we learn from the successes and failures of past social movements?
  • How has the history of science and technology impacted our current understanding and practices?
  • Should historical events and figures be judged by present-day standards and values?
  • How has the study of history impacted our understanding and treatment of human rights and social justice?
  • Artificial intelligence and its impact on society
  • Climate change and global warming
  • The future of space exploration
  • The effects of social media on human interaction
  • The history and evolution of the internet
  • Ethical issues in biotechnology
  • Alternative energy sources
  • The impact of technology on job market
  • Privacy concerns in the digital age
  • The role of government in education
  • The importance of mental health
  • The role of media in shaping public opinion
  • The impact of the gig economy
  • The history of civil rights movements
  • The impact of globalization on local cultures
  • The effects of income inequality
  • The role of technology in healthcare
  • The future of transportation
  • The influence of advertising on consumer behavior
  • The impact of COVID-19 on the global economy
  • The role of social media in politics
  • The history and future of virtual reality
  • The effects of climate change on wildlife
  • The ethics of animal testing
  • The impact of automation on employment
  • The history of the feminist movement
  • The effects of economic sanctions
  • The role of technology in agriculture
  • The influence of peer pressure on young people
  • The impact of the music industry on society
  • The history and future of renewable energy
  • The ethics of genetic engineering
  • The impact of the digital divide on society
  • The role of technology in urbanization
  • The effects of fast fashion on the environment
  • The history and future of cybersecurity
  • The impact of political correctness on free speech
  • The role of social media in activism
  • The influence of artificial intelligence on human creativity
  • The impact of economic globalization on local businesses
  • The ethics of drones and autonomous weapons
  • The history and future of space tourism
  • The effects of online education on traditional education
  • The role of technology in disaster response and recovery
  • The influence of technology on interpersonal communication
  • The impact of gentrification on urban communities
  • The ethics of surveillance in a digital age
  • The history and future of renewable energy storage
  • The effects of income tax policies on the economy
  • The role of technology in solving global problems.
  • The impact of technology on society and daily life
  • The changing landscape of education and its effects on students and society
  • The pros and cons of social media and its impact on communication and relationships
  • The ethics and moral implications of new advancements in science and technology
  • The role of government and politics in shaping society and individual freedoms
  • Environmental concerns and sustainability efforts in the face of global climate change
  • The meaning and purpose of life and personal fulfillment
  • The effects of globalization and cultural exchange on society and identity
  • Mental health and wellness in the modern world
  • The impact of media and pop culture on attitudes and beliefs.

Kindergarden group discussion topics (age related)

  • The importance of sharing and taking turns
  • My favorite animals and why
  • The colors of the rainbow and how to mix them
  • My favorite foods and why
  • My family and where I live
  • The different seasons and what I like about each
  • My favorite toys and games
  • My favorite shapes and how to draw them
  • The different types of weather and how it affects us
  • My favorite books and stories
  • The importance of being polite and using kind words
  • My favorite numbers and how to count
  • The different types of transportation and how they work
  • My favorite fruits and vegetables and why they are good for us
  • My favorite things to do outside
  • My favorite songs and why
  • The importance of following rules and staying safe
  • My favorite animals and their habitats
  • My favorite art materials and how to use them
  • The different types of buildings and their functions
  • My favorite TV shows and movies
  • The importance of being active and moving our bodies
  • My favorite holidays and celebrations
  • The different types of plants and how they grow
  • The importance of good hygiene and keeping our bodies clean.
  • The role of math in everyday life and real-world applications
  • The challenges and benefits of learning and understanding higher-level math concepts
  • The impact of technology on the teaching and learning of math
  • The history and evolution of mathematical concepts and theories
  • The use of real-world problems and examples to enhance understanding of math
  • The importance of critical thinking and problem solving skills in mathematics
  • The role of math in fields such as science, engineering, finance, and economics
  • The benefits and limitations of using calculators and other technology in math education
  • The impact of cultural and societal attitudes on the perception and study of math
  • The relationship between math and creativity, including the use of visual and imaginative thinking in solving mathematical problems
  • The use of manipulatives and hands-on learning in math education
  • The role of group work and collaboration in enhancing understanding of math concepts
  • The impact of individual learning styles and preferences on the study and understanding of math
  • The benefits and challenges of teaching and learning math in a multilingual and multicultural classroom
  • The role of failure and persistence in enhancing math skills and understanding
  • The impact of math on society and advancements in areas such as medicine, transportation, and space exploration
  • The relationship between math and art, including the use of mathematical principles in artistic expression
  • The benefits of learning and using multiple methods and strategies in solving mathematical problems
  • The role of assessment and feedback in improving math skills and understanding
  • The impact of incorporating real-world data and statistics in math education
  • The importance of understanding the connections between math concepts and their applications
  • The role of prior knowledge and experiences in shaping math skills and understanding
  • The impact of parental and community involvement in math education and success
  • The benefits and challenges of integrating technology and digital resources in math education
  • The importance of ongoing professional development for math teachers to enhance their teaching practices and student outcomes.
  • Is music a universal language?
  • How has music evolved over the years?
  • Should music be considered an art form?
  • Can music influence your mood?
  • Is there a particular genre of music that you prefer?
  • How important is music in your life?
  • Is it possible for music to bring people together?
  • What role does music play in society?
  • Is it necessary to have a good voice to be a successful musician?
  • Is music becoming too commercialized?
  • Can music be used as a form of therapy?
  • Is the music industry too focused on looks and image?
  • Is it necessary for musicians to write their own songs?
  • Should music be taught in schools?
  • Is autotune ruining music?
  • Can music be used as a political tool?
  • Is the music industry inclusive enough?
  • Is it ethical to use samples in music?
  • Is streaming killing the music industry?
  • Should musicians be role models?
  • Is it important for a musician to be able to play an instrument?
  • Is classical music relevant in today’s world?
  • Should music be free?
  • Does music have a positive impact on mental health?
  • Should music be censored?
  • Is music becoming too explicit?
  • Is it necessary for a musician to have a gimmick?
  • Is music becoming too formulaic?
  • Can music be used to bring about social change?
  • Is it important for a musician to have formal training?
  • Is the Grammys the ultimate recognition of a musician’s talent?
  • Is it necessary for musicians to tour?
  • Is music becoming too digitized?
  • Is it necessary for a musician to have a good stage presence?
  • Can music be considered a form of self-expression?
  • Is it necessary for a musician to have a unique sound?
  • Should music videos be considered an art form?
  • Can music be used to promote peace?
  • Should musicians collaborate with artists from other genres?
  • Is it necessary for musicians to have a manager?
  • Is the music industry sexist?
  • Is it necessary for a musician to be a good performer?
  • Should musicians be involved in politics?
  • Is it necessary for musicians to be good songwriters?
  • Is it ethical for musicians to sell merchandise at their concerts?
  • Is it necessary for a musician to have a distinct look?
  • Should music critics be taken seriously?
  • Can music be used to bridge cultural divides?
  • Is it necessary for a musician to be able to read sheet music?
  • Should musicians be paid more for their work?
  • Is music becoming too repetitive?
  • Should musicians be judged on their personal lives?
  • Is it necessary for a musician to have a message in their music?
  • Is it necessary for a musician to have a good personality?
  • Should musicians be involved in charity work?
  • Is it necessary for a musician to have a strong social media presence?
  • Should music be used in advertising?
  • Is music becoming too focused on technology?
  • Should music festivals have more diverse lineups?
  • Is it necessary for a musician to have a brand?
  • Should musicians have a say in how their music is used?
  • Can music be used to raise awareness about social issues?
  • Is it necessary for a musician to have a certain image?
  • Should musicians be involved in fashion?
  • Is music becoming too political?
  • Should musicians have more control over their music?
  • The importance of hand washing in promoting personal hygiene
  • The benefits and challenges of maintaining a regular grooming routine
  • The role of dental hygiene in overall health and well-being
  • The impact of diet and nutrition on personal hygiene
  • The benefits and challenges of maintaining personal hygiene while traveling
  • The importance of showering and bathing in promoting personal hygiene
  • The role of hygiene in preventing the spread of illnesses and diseases
  • The impact of personal hygiene on social and professional interactions
  • The benefits and challenges of maintaining personal hygiene in communal living spaces
  • The importance of regular grooming of hair and nails in promoting personal hygiene
  • The role of personal hygiene in preventing body odor and bad breath
  • The impact of personal hygiene on self-esteem and confidence
  • The benefits and challenges of promoting personal hygiene for children and teenagers
  • The importance of personal hygiene in promoting mental and emotional well-being
  • The role of hygiene in preventing skin irritation and infections
  • The impact of environmental factors on personal hygiene
  • The benefits and challenges of promoting personal hygiene for individuals with disabilities
  • The importance of personal hygiene in promoting a healthy and clean living environment
  • The impact of hygiene habits on the longevity and health of personal items, such as clothing and bedding
  • The benefits and challenges of promoting personal hygiene in public spaces
  • The importance of personal hygiene in promoting a positive body image
  • The role of hygiene in maintaining a healthy vaginal and genital area for women
  • The impact of hygiene on overall hygiene and hygiene on the environment
  • The benefits and challenges of promoting personal hygiene for individuals with limited resources and access to personal care products.
  • The impact of scientific advancements on society and daily life
  • The ethics and morality of scientific research and experimentation
  • The role of science in understanding and solving global problems such as climate change and disease
  • The history and evolution of scientific theories and discoveries
  • The importance of interdisciplinary collaboration in scientific research
  • The role of technology and innovation in advancing scientific understanding
  • The benefits and challenges of science education and outreach to the public
  • The relationship between science and religion, and the perception of science in different cultures
  • The role of experimentation and observation in scientific inquiry
  • The impact of funding and resources on scientific research and discovery
  • The importance of critical thinking and skepticism in evaluating scientific claims
  • The benefits and limitations of computer modeling and simulation in scientific research
  • The role of science in shaping public policy and decision-making
  • The impact of science on industry and commerce, including the development of new products and technologies
  • The role of diversity and representation in science and scientific research
  • The relationship between science and art, including the use of scientific principles in artistic expression
  • The importance of communication and presentation skills in sharing and promoting scientific discoveries
  • The impact of science on global health and medicine, including the development of new treatments and vaccines
  • The role of science in exploring and understanding the natural world, including astronomy and geology
  • The benefits of cross-cultural exchange and collaboration in scientific research
  • The impact of science on energy and the environment, including alternative and sustainable energy sources
  • The role of science in understanding and exploring the human mind and behavior
  • The importance of science literacy and understanding among the general public
  • The impact of science on communication and information technology, including the development of the internet
  • The role of science in advancing our understanding of the universe and the origins of life.
  • The importance of effective communication in solving disputes
  • The benefits and challenges of using active listening and empathy in dispute resolution
  • The role of compromise and negotiation in solving disputes
  • The impact of emotions and biases on the resolution of disputes
  • The benefits and challenges of using mediation and alternative dispute resolution methods
  • The importance of understanding the root causes of disputes in finding a resolution
  • The role of power dynamics and fairness in solving disputes
  • The impact of cultural and social norms on resolving disputes
  • The benefits and challenges of using humor and levity in resolving disputes
  • The importance of identifying and managing expectations in solving disputes
  • The role of trust and transparency in solving disputes
  • The impact of past experiences and traumas on resolving disputes
  • The benefits and challenges of using data and facts in solving disputes
  • The importance of considering multiple perspectives in resolving disputes
  • The role of laws, regulations, and policies in resolving disputes
  • The impact of online and digital communication in resolving disputes
  • The benefits and challenges of seeking outside help and support in resolving disputes
  • The importance of taking responsibility and accountability in resolving disputes
  • The role of forgiveness and letting go in resolving disputes
  • The impact of personal beliefs and values on resolving disputes
  • The benefits and challenges of using positive reinforcement in resolving disputes
  • The importance of maintaining relationships and avoiding retaliation after resolving disputes
  • The role of patience and persistence in resolving disputes
  • The impact of personal growth and development on resolving disputes
  • The benefits and challenges of promoting long-term solutions and preventative measures in resolving disputes.
  • The impact of technology on traditional education methods and the classroom experience
  • The effects of standardized testing and high-stakes exams on student learning and motivation
  • The impact of budget cuts and decreased funding on the quality of education
  • The role of educators and schools in promoting diversity, inclusivity, and social justice
  • The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the education system and students’ learning experiences
  • The impact of the achievement gap and educational inequities on student outcomes and opportunities
  • The role of parents and families in supporting and participating in their children’s education
  • The effects of the increasing cost of higher education on student debt and access to opportunities
  • The impact of the growing emphasis on STEM education and the devaluation of the arts and humanities
  • The role of schools and educators in addressing and preventing bullying and harassment
  • The effects of the political climate and political debates on the education system and curriculum
  • The impact of the use of big data and personalization in education on student privacy and autonomy
  • The role of schools and educators in fostering critical thinking, creativity, and independent learning
  • The effects of the growing use of technology in education on student attention spans and focus
  • The impact of the growing push for vocational and trade schools on traditional four-year colleges and universities
  • The role of schools and educators in promoting mental health and wellness in students
  • The effects of the achievement gap and education disparities on the workforce and economic opportunities
  • The impact of the changing job market and workforce demands on the education system and curriculum
  • The role of schools and educators in promoting and supporting student engagement and activism
  • The effects of the growing emphasis on high-stakes testing and data-driven decision making on teaching quality and creativity
  • The impact of the use of standardized assessments and national standards on local control and autonomy of schools
  • The role of schools and educators in addressing the digital divide and unequal access to technology
  • The effects of the growing use of online resources and digital materials on the preservation of traditional knowledge and skills
  • The impact of the changing political climate and immigration policies on access to education for all students.
  • The effects of social media on self-esteem and body image
  • The role of social media in promoting and suppressing diversity and inclusivity
  • The effects of social media on our political beliefs and activism
  • The impact of social media on privacy and personal data security
  • The role of social media in promoting and suppressing mental health and wellness
  • The effects of social media on the traditional news media and journalism
  • The impact of social media on our ability to focus and concentrate
  • The role of social media in fostering online communities and support groups
  • The effects of social media on our understanding of the world and current events
  • The role of social media in promoting and suppressing entrepreneurship and innovation
  • The effects of social media on our attention spans and memory retention
  • The impact of social media on the entertainment industry and the distribution of creative content
  • The role of social media in promoting and suppressing freedom of speech and censorship
  • The effects of social media on the education system and traditional learning methods
  • The impact of social media on advertising and consumer behavior
  • The role of social media in promoting and suppressing political discourse and activism
  • The effects of social media on our ability to form and maintain romantic relationships
  • The impact of social media on the healthcare industry and access to medical information
  • The role of social media in promoting and suppressing environmental sustainability and eco-consciousness
  • The effects of social media on our sense of humor and comedic taste
  • The impact of social media on the criminal justice system and law enforcement
  • The role of social media in promoting and suppressing democracy and human rights.
  • The impact of technology on our ability to communicate and form real-life relationships
  • The role of technology in promoting and suppressing privacy and personal data security
  • The effects of technology on mental health and well-being
  • The role of technology in promoting and suppressing freedom of speech and censorship
  • The impact of technology on the entertainment industry and the distribution of creative content
  • The effects of technology on our physical health and fitness
  • The impact of technology on the economy and job market
  • The role of technology in promoting and suppressing environmental sustainability and eco-consciousness
  • The effects of technology on our political beliefs and activism
  • The impact of technology on the healthcare industry and access to medical information
  • The role of technology in promoting and suppressing diversity and inclusivity
  • The effects of technology on self-esteem and body image
  • The impact of technology on advertising and consumer behavior
  • The role of technology in promoting and suppressing democracy and human rights
  • The effects of technology on the traditional news media and journalism
  • The impact of technology on our understanding of the world and current events
  • The role of technology in promoting and suppressing mental health and wellness
  • The effects of technology on our ability to form and maintain romantic relationships
  • The impact of technology on the criminal justice system and law enforcement
  • The role of technology in fostering online communities and support groups
  • The effects of technology on our sense of humor and comedic taste.

Thoughts on the internet

  • The impact of social media on society and relationships
  • The role of the internet in shaping political discourse and activism
  • The effects of internet addiction and technology overuse on mental health
  • The role of the internet in spreading false information and misinformation
  • The impact of e-commerce and online shopping on brick and mortar businesses
  • The use of the internet for privacy invasion and government surveillance
  • The impact of the internet on traditional forms of media, such as newspapers and television
  • The effects of the internet on employment and job opportunities
  • The impact of the internet on relationships and dating
  • The use of the internet for cybercrime and hacking
  • The impact of the internet on cultural exchange and global interconnectedness
  • The effects of the internet on language and communication
  • The role of the internet in promoting and suppressing diversity and inclusivity
  • The impact of the internet on the economy and job market
  • The use of the internet for virtual reality and augmented reality experiences
  • The role of the internet in promoting and suppressing entrepreneurship and innovation
  • The impact of the internet on healthcare and access to medical information
  • The effects of the internet on environmental sustainability and eco-consciousness
  • The role of the internet in promoting and suppressing democracy and human rights
  • The impact of the internet on the entertainment industry and the distribution of creative content
  • The use of the internet for telemedicine and remote healthcare services
  • The role of the internet in the future of work and the impact on job security.
  • The impact of technology on personal well-being
  • The importance of self-care and self-compassion in promoting well-being
  • The benefits and challenges of mindfulness and meditation practices
  • The role of social connections and community in promoting well-being
  • The impact of stress and anxiety on personal well-being
  • The benefits and challenges of exercise and physical activity for well-being
  • The importance of sleep for overall well-being
  • The role of nature and the environment in promoting well-being
  • The impact of work-life balance on personal well-being
  • The benefits and challenges of spiritual practices and beliefs for well-being
  • The importance of relationships and communication skills in promoting well-being
  • The role of creative expression in promoting well-being
  • The impact of financial stability and financial planning on personal well-being
  • The benefits and challenges of volunteering and giving back for well-being
  • The importance of play and leisure activities for overall well-being
  • The role of personal values and purpose in promoting well-being
  • The impact of cultural and societal norms on personal well-being
  • The benefits and challenges of therapy and mental health support for well-being
  • The importance of self-reflection and personal growth for overall well-being
  • The role of humor and laughter in promoting well-being
  • The impact of travel and new experiences on personal well-being
  • The benefits and challenges of community involvement and activism for well-being
  • The importance of healthy boundaries and personal space for overall well-being
  • The role of gratitude and positive thinking in promoting well-being
  • The impact of media consumption and social media on personal well-being.
  • Would you rather have a superpower that allows you to read minds or one that allows you to become invisible?
  • Would you rather have a guaranteed job offer after graduation or have the opportunity to travel for a year before starting your career?
  • Would you rather have a job where you work with your hands or one where you work with your mind?
  • Would you rather have a job where you work independently or one where you work closely with others?
  • Would you rather have a job that is physically demanding or one that is mentally demanding?
  • Would you rather have a job with a lot of responsibility or one where you have less responsibility?
  • Would you rather have a job that allows you to be creative or one that is more structured?
  • Would you rather have a job with a set schedule or one that is flexible?
  • Would you rather have a job that is fast-paced or one that is more relaxed?
  • Would you rather work in an environment that is quiet or one that is more lively and social?
  • Would you rather have a job where you have to learn new things constantly or one that is more routine?
  • Would you rather work for a small company or a large corporation?
  • Would you rather have a job with a set salary or one where you get paid based on performance?
  • Would you rather have a job where you can work from home or one where you have to go into the office?
  • Would you rather have a job that involves a lot of travel or one where you can stay close to home?
  • Would you rather work in a job that allows you to help others or one that primarily benefits yourself?
  • Would you rather have a job where you work outdoors or one where you are indoors all day?
  • Would you rather have a job where you have to use your creativity or one where you have to use your analytical skills?
  • Would you rather work in a job that involves a lot of public speaking or one where you can avoid it?
  • Would you rather have a job that involves a lot of physical activity or one where you can sit at a desk?
  • Would you rather work in a job that allows you to dress casually or one where you have to dress professionally?
  • Would you rather have a job where you work with children or one where you work with adults?
  • Would you rather work in a job that involves a lot of math or one where you don’t have to use math?
  • Would you rather have a job that is challenging but rewarding or one that is easy but less fulfilling?
  • Would you rather work in a job where you have a lot of autonomy or one where you have to follow strict guidelines?
  • Would you rather have a job that involves a lot of creativity or one that is more analytical?
  • Would you rather have a job where you have a lot of interactions with people or one where you work more independently?
  • Would you rather have a job where you work during traditional business hours or one where you work during non-traditional hours?
  • Would you rather work in a job where you have to make a lot of decisions or one where you don’t have to make many decisions?
  • Would you rather work in a job where you have a set schedule or one where the schedule is more flexible?
  • Would you rather have a job where you get to work with animals or one where you don’t?
  • Would you rather work in a job where you have a lot of physical contact with others or one where you have less physical contact?
  • Would you rather travel to the past or the future?
  • Would you rather live without internet or live without air conditioning/heating?
  • Would you rather be a superhero or a villain?
  • Would you rather have a pet dragon or a pet unicorn?
  • Would you rather have the power to read minds or the power to teleport?
  • Would you rather always be 10 minutes late or always be 20 minutes early?
  • Would you rather have a photographic memory or have the ability to forget anything you want?
  • Would you rather be a famous musician or a famous actor/actress?
  • Would you rather live in a world without music or a world without movies?
  • Would you rather have a personal chef or a personal assistant?
  • Would you rather have the ability to speak any language fluently or be a master of every musical instrument?
  • Would you rather have the power of super strength or the power of telekinesis?
  • Would you rather have a personal chauffeur or a personal trainer?
  • Would you rather have the ability to talk to animals or the ability to speak any human language fluently?
  • Would you rather be a professional athlete or a successful business owner?
  • Would you rather live in a world where everyone can read minds or a world where everyone can fly?
  • Would you rather always have to speak in rhyme or always have to sing everything you say?
  • Would you rather have the ability to breathe underwater or the ability to fly underwater?
  • Would you rather be a character in a romantic comedy or a horror movie?
  • Would you rather live in a world where it never stops raining or a world where it never stops snowing?
  • Would you rather have a job that pays well but you hate, or a job that pays poorly but you love?
  • Would you rather be able to time travel but never come back to the present or be stuck in the present forever?
  • Would you rather have the power to heal any illness or have the power to bring the dead back to life?
  • Would you rather have the power to control the weather or have the power to control time?
  • Would you rather be able to speak every language in the world or be able to communicate with animals?
  • Would you rather be able to teleport anywhere in the world or be able to create any object with your mind?
  • Would you rather have the power to fly or have the power to become invisible?
  • Would you rather be able to travel to any fictional world or be able to bring fictional characters to life?
  • Would you rather live in a world with no technology or a world with no nature?
  • Would you rather be able to breathe fire or be able to breathe ice?
  • Would you rather be a famous author or a famous painter?
  • Would you rather have the ability to turn invisible or have the ability to walk through walls?
  • Would you rather be able to communicate with the dead or have the ability to see the future?
  • Would you rather be able to transform into any animal or have the power to control any animal’s mind?
  • Would you rather have a photographic memory or be able to instantly learn anything?
  • Would you rather be able to talk to plants or be able to talk to machines?
  • Would you rather be a famous scientist or a famous musician?
  • Would you rather be able to travel to any point in history or be able to travel to any point in the future?
  • Would you rather have the ability to breathe underwater or have the ability to swim as fast as a dolphin?
  • Would you rather be able to understand and speak all languages or be able to read minds?
  • Would you rather be able to move objects with your mind or have the power of super speed?
  • Would you rather be able to create illusions or have the ability to shape shift?
  • Would you rather be able to control fire or control water?
  • Would you rather have a flying car or a submarine car?
  • Would you rather be able to see in the dark or have night vision?
  • Would you rather be a famous athlete or a famous chef?
  • Would you rather be able to control the internet or control the media?
  • Would you rather live in a world with no books or a world with no movies?
  • The impact of social media on modern communication
  • The importance of mental health awareness
  • The benefits and drawbacks of remote work
  • The ethics of genetic engineering and gene editing
  • The future of renewable energy
  • The impact of technology on personal relationships
  • The influence of pop culture on society
  • The rise of entrepreneurship and the gig economy
  • The effect of music on mental health
  • The challenges and benefits of multiculturalism
  • The impact of climate change on the world
  • The ethics of artificial intelligence
  • The benefits and drawbacks of virtual reality
  • The future of healthcare technology
  • The impact of immigration on society
  • The role of religion in modern society
  • The effect of the internet on democracy
  • The ethics of space exploration
  • The future of cryptocurrency and blockchain technology
  • The impact of video games on mental health
  • The benefits and drawbacks of social welfare programs
  • The role of the media in shaping public opinion
  • The impact of aging populations on society
  • The ethics of genetically modified foods
  • The future of artificial organs and transplants
  • The influence of fashion on culture
  • The role of the family in modern society
  • The impact of automation on the job market
  • The benefits and drawbacks of a cashless society
  • The future of augmented reality
  • The ethics of human cloning
  • The influence of celebrities on society
  • The role of sports in society
  • The impact of poverty on education
  • The benefits and drawbacks of nuclear power
  • The future of self-driving cars
  • The ethics of assisted suicide and euthanasia
  • The impact of urbanization on the environment
  • The influence of social class on opportunities
  • The role of government in shaping society
  • The impact of income inequality on society
  • The benefits and drawbacks of renewable energy subsidies
  • The future of 3D printing
  • The ethics of animal rights and animal welfare
  • The influence of social norms on behavior
  • The role of community service in society
  • The impact of cyberbullying on mental health
  • The benefits and drawbacks of universal basic income
  • The future of smart homes and the internet of things
  • The ethics of censorship and free speech
  • The influence of the beauty industry on self-esteem
  • The role of volunteerism in society
  • The impact of natural disasters on communities
  • The benefits and drawbacks of gun control
  • The future of space tourism
  • The ethics of organ donation
  • The influence of technology on physical fitness
  • The role of charity in society
  • The impact of sexual harassment on mental health
  • The benefits and drawbacks of mandatory voting
  • The future of sustainable agriculture
  • The ethics of privacy in the age of social media
  • The influence of stereotypes on behavior
  • The role of philanthropy in society
  • The impact of substance abuse on society
  • The benefits and drawbacks of open borders
  • The future of space colonization
  • The ethics of embryonic stem cell research
  • The influence of peer pressure on decision-making
  • The role of activism in society
  • The impact of human trafficking on communities
  • The benefits and drawbacks of mandatory military service
  • The ethics of animal captivity in zoos and aquariums
  • The influence of gender roles on society
  • The role of social support networks in mental health
  • The impact of addiction on families
  • The benefits and drawbacks of free college education
  • The future of renewable materials and sustainable fashion
  • The ethics of surrogacy and reproductive technology
  • The influence of cultural appropriation on society
  • The role of forgiveness in healing relationships
  • The impact of cyberstalking and online harassment
  • The benefits and drawbacks of renewable energy storage solutions
  • The future of space debris management
  • The ethics of animal research and testing
  • The influence of beauty standards on body image
  • The role of mindfulness and meditation in mental health
  • The impact of homelessness on communities
  • The benefits and drawbacks of mandatory vaccination policies
  • The future of smart cities and urban planning
  • The ethics of biohacking and DIY biology
  • The influence of language on culture and identity.

This article was originally written August 2022, and was updated July 2023 to be even more helpful.

Colin is a Content Marketer at Thinkific, writing about everything from online entrepreneurship & course creation to digital marketing strategy.

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Importance of Group Discussion Report

Group discussion helps the students to understand what they are taught during the normal class sessions. Group discussion, like any other task, requires following certain important procedures. This paper, therefore, will discuss the importance of group discussion and analyze the important procedures that are required for it to be effective. In addition, it will handle this task by giving a report on the suitable procedures that ensure success in the discussion.

Normal teaching in schools whereby the teacher stands in front of the students with pre-written notes to give a lecture is not sufficient in ensuring that all the students understand the subject. Group discussion, therefore, comes in as the best supplement for normal tuition and is significant in learning institutions. Like any other classroom tasks, discussions are very important and of great help to the students. Once the lecturer or the course instructor assigns the tasks, there are specific procedures that the students ought to follow in order to complete the task successfully. The procedures are to be of great importance in ensuring that all the students benefit from this task.

To begin with, the subject of discussion had to be there, and it was of great importance. The students could choose the subject of discussion, or the lecturer could assign one. Once the students decided on the discussion topic, each student had to try as much as possible to understand it. The students, therefore, had to take initiatives as individuals to understand the topic of discussion by searching from the available literature, reading the class notes, or consulting from the lecturer.

After each student was okay with the topic of discussion, the next procedure was the formation of a group. The course instructor or the lecturer could play an active role in selecting the members of a particular group, or he could be influential in the choice made by the students in selecting the group members. The other option that worked was the lecturer giving the students the freedom to choose their group members. The students preferred the latter option and formation of groups was according to the choice of the students.

After the formation of the groups was complete, selecting and setting the stage or the place for discussion was the next important procedure. For effectiveness in this task, all the members of a particular group had to be satisfied with the stage selected. Setting the stage was also of great importance and the best-set stage was the one with chairs arranged in a circular manner.

The other step was for the students in a particular group to familiarize with each other. At this stage, it was important for the students to choose the group leader and the group secretary. These persons had to play the important roles of leading the discussion and recording of the proceedings.

Outlining the points that were to form the basis for discussion was the next important procedure. In this point, the students could participate in raising the points or the group leader could make the suggestion. The group secretary had to carry out his role of recording all the points that arose during this session so that they could help for future reference.

The actual discussion had to be the final and the most important part in this task. In the discussion, each of the group members had to play an active role in contributing to the discussion. The students participated in the discussion process by either being for or against the point or the motion of discussion as well as applying the knowledge they had in tackling the subject of discussion. During this procedure, the group secretary had to record all the points raised or agreed upon by all members in the discussion.

  • Chicago (A-D)
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IvyPanda. (2021, February 24). Importance of Group Discussion. https://ivypanda.com/essays/importance-of-group-discussion/

"Importance of Group Discussion." IvyPanda , 24 Feb. 2021, ivypanda.com/essays/importance-of-group-discussion/.

IvyPanda . (2021) 'Importance of Group Discussion'. 24 February.

IvyPanda . 2021. "Importance of Group Discussion." February 24, 2021. https://ivypanda.com/essays/importance-of-group-discussion/.

1. IvyPanda . "Importance of Group Discussion." February 24, 2021. https://ivypanda.com/essays/importance-of-group-discussion/.

Bibliography

IvyPanda . "Importance of Group Discussion." February 24, 2021. https://ivypanda.com/essays/importance-of-group-discussion/.

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Geektonight

What is Group Discussion? (GD), Objectives, Types, Prerequisites, Steps

  • Post last modified: 4 June 2023
  • Reading time: 24 mins read
  • Post category: Business Communication

What is Group Discussion?

Group Discussion (GD) is a technique where the group of participants share their views and opinions on a topic for a specific duration. Companies conduct this evaluation process because business management is essentially a team activity and working with groups is an essential parameter in organisations.

What is Group Discussion

Table of Content

  • 1 What is Group Discussion?
  • 2 Group Discussion (GD) Definition
  • 3 Objectives of Group Discussion (GD)
  • 4.1 Topic-based GDs
  • 4.2 Case-based GDs
  • 4.3 Article-based GDs
  • 5.1 Prior knowledge
  • 5.2 Active listening
  • 5.3 Effective communication
  • 5.4 Appropriate body language
  • 6.1 Initiate
  • 6.3 Summarise
  • 7 Do’s and Don’ts of Group Discussion
  • 8.1 Communication skills
  • 8.2 Analytical and interpretative skills
  • 8.3 Interpersonal skills
  • 8.4 Persuasive skills
  • 9.1 Objective of conducting a GD
  • 9.2 Venue setup
  • 9.4 Pre-instructions for participants
  • 9.5 Defined parameters for selection
  • 9.6 Role of assessor/evaluator
  • 9.7 Clear communication of results post GD

GD is an opportunity for an organisation to evaluate a candidate’s communication skills, knowledge, leadership skills, listening skills, social skills, ability to think on the spot and improvise. A typical GD has about 8-12 participants and 2 or more assessors. The assessors sit where they can clearly see and hear all the candidates.

They record the behaviour of participants during the group discussion. Then, they evaluate the recorded observations against the desired traits and finalise a few candidates from the group.

Group Discussion (GD) Definition

Group discussion is a communication process that involves the exchange of ideas, information, and opinions among a group of people. It is a powerful tool for problem-solving, decision-making, and generating new ideas. – Stephen P. Robbins, author of “Organizational Behavior”

A group discussion is an interactive process where a group of individuals come together to exchange ideas, opinions, and information on a specific topic. The goal of a group discussion is to arrive at a collective decision or solution that is acceptable to all members of the group.” – The Indian Institute of Technology (IIT)

Group discussion is a method of communication in which a small group of people come together to discuss a topic or problem. The group members share their ideas and perspectives with one another in order to arrive at a solution or decision that benefits the group as a whole.” – The American Psychological Association (APA)

Group discussion is an effective means of exploring and analyzing complex issues, generating creative ideas, and arriving at consensus among participants. It provides a platform for individuals to express their views, clarify their understanding, and learn from the perspectives of others.” – The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

Objectives of Group Discussion (GD)

Group discussions are conducted to serve various purposes. It is a two-way communication process through which recruiters get to assess the soft skills of candidates, while the candidates can gain clarity about their own thoughts, opinions and views.

The following are some of the objectives of a group discussion activity:

  • To collect data
  • To breed fresh ideas and take inputs from a particular group
  • To perceive the common ideas of people on a particular topic
  • To identify the solution of a specific problem or issue
  • To select a candidate for hiring in a company
  • To select candidate for admission in an educational institute
  • To arrive at a consensus regarding a common concern

Types of Group Discussion (GDs)

A group discussion delineates how a candidate participates, behaves and contributes in a group. There are three main types of GDs :

Topic-based GDs

Case-based gds, article-based gds.

These are based on certain practical topics, such as the harmful effects of plastics on the environment or the need of college degree for entrepreneurship. These GDs can be further classified into:

  • Factual GDs : These are informative GDs that require comprehensive knowledge about a subject. For example, the economic growth of India since independence.
  • Controversial GDs : These GDs are based on controversial topics, which test the ability of a candidate to handle a situation, control anger, display patience and think critically. For example, arranged marriage vs. love marriage.
  • Abstract GDs : These GDs are based on certain conceptual topics that are used to evaluate a candidate’s creative thinking and analytical ability. For example, challenges before humanity.

In these GDs, a case study is presented to group members to read and analyse in a given period. Candidates need to discuss the case study among themselves and reach on a com- mon consensus to solve the given situation. This helps to evaluate their problem solving, analytical ability, critical thinking and creative thinking skills.

Candidates are presented with an article on any field, such as politics, sports, or technology, and asked to discuss the given situation.

Prerequisites of Group Discussion (GD)

There are some essential requirements for gaining success in a group discussion. The following are some important requirements to be fulfilled by a candidate in order to ensure a successful GD:

Prior knowledge

Active listening, effective communication, appropriate body language.

A candidate with in-depth knowledge and command over the topic initiates the discussion. He/she gets noticed and usually selected in a group discussion. However, starting the discussion does not guarantee the selection and also it does not show the leadership qualities.

Therefore, one should start a discussion only when he/she is well acquainted with the topic. In case, one is not well acquainted with the topic, he/she should first listen to others and then speak.

Only good listeners can be active participators in a discussion. Such persons listen to others and remain attentive and active throughout the discussion. Therefore, a listener is more likely to imbibe knowledge than a speaker. By listening carefully, a candidate can contribute by formulating his/her own thoughts that can be verbally delivered.

Candidates should have good communication skills and they should take care of the overtones. One should be able to understand other participants’ perception and thoughts. Then, accordingly, Agree to or refute the ideas or viewpoints presented by other candidates.

Therefore, healthy and clear thoughts should be exchanged while pursuing a group discussion to gain attention of the assessors.

Gestures, facial expressions, eye contact and tone of voice show the amount of interest a candidate has in a group discussion. It is important to maintain eye contact with the evaluator(s) when starting a discussion. The coordinator notices the body language of the candidates to assess their confidence level.

Steps of Effective Group Discussion

A GD is a method used by organisations to analyse the skills of candidates and decide whether their personality traits are desirable for the job or not.

While facing a GD, the following steps should be performed:

If you want to quickly grab the attention of assessors, then start the GD. However, you must have good knowledge or understanding of the subject being discussed. To make your speech more interesting, you can start with a relevant quote or a short/interesting story; but keep track of time.

There might be a situation when you do not have enough knowledge to start a discussion. In that case, wait, watch and listen to others. As soon as you get an opening, jump in and take charge. Move the conversation forward to make it impactful. However, remember not to over-drag the topic. Sometimes, less is more.

Closing a GD is another opportunity to get the attention of the evaluators. Recap the discussion, connect the dots, highlight the key points and summarise them. Make sure that the summary includes both the positive and negative viewpoints on the topic presented by the candidates.

Do’s and Don’ts of Group Discussion

In this section, we will discuss some Do’s and Don’ts to be taken care of by all the candidates who wish to perform well in a GD.

Some Do’s to be kept in mind during a GD are:

  • Be a good listener by being patient.
  • Acknowledge everyone else and what they say.
  • Articulate views in a way that is comprehensible to others.
  • Structure your thoughts and present them logically.
  • Read newspapers, current affairs, essays and articles to develop thought structuring.
  • Respect others for what they are.
  • Be open-minded and acknowledge the fact that people think differently about issues.
  • Train your mind for analytical thinking by taking all aspects into consideration.

It is also important to avoid doing certain things while participating in a GD. Some Don’ts to be aware of while pursuing a GD are:

  • Avoid irrelevant talk.
  • Avoid interrupting others while they are talking. If you need to cut short a speaker, then do so politely and with due apology.
  • Avoid dominating the conversation. Ask others to contribute. Acknowledge their viewpoints.
  • Avoid getting into an argument. Try to express clearly in a healthy manner.
  • Do not show lack of interest and negative attitude.
  • Avoid stating only your viewpoint.
  • Avoid dwelling only on one aspect of the GD.

Group Discussion Evaluation Criteria

Each group discussion exercise is assessed by one or more individuals who are trained to observe and assess behavioural traits relevant for a specific job. The four main behavioural traits assessed through a group discussion are shown in Figure

Let us discuss these behavioural traits in detail.

Communication skills

Analytical and interpretative skills, interpersonal skills, persuasive skills.

These skills are judged on the basis of how a participant is getting his/her message across, how he/she is using his/her body language and also listening skills.

Assessors draw conclusions about a participant’s interpreting and analysing skills by observing how he/she uses facts and data, considers complex problems and issues, suggests solutions, etc.

Assessors observe the participants’ interactions with one another, how they allow one another to express themselves, etc.

The influencing skills of participants are as- sessed based on how well they are able to persuade one another, convince others about a viewpoint or impact others’ behaviour.

Organising a Group Discussion

A Group Discussion generally involves a group of 8-10 participants who are evaluated by a selection panel. GDs are used to evaluate whether a candidate is a perfect fit for an organisation or not. Be it college placements, MBA courses, job interviews or general researches, GDs are conducted almost in every field to gauge whether the candidate possesses the required skills and personality traits to be a part of the concerned institution. A facilitator has to take care of all the nitty-gritties of organising a GD.

In order to conduct a successful GD, the following aspects need to be taken into consideration:

Objective of conducting a GD

Venue setup, pre-instructions for participants, defined parameters for selection, role of assessor/evaluator, clear communication of results post gd.

Every GD has a specific purpose such as selecting deserving candidates for admission in professional course or gaining new talented employees in an organisation. Therefore, the objective of a GD should be clear to all the members of the selection panel in order to select the most deserving candidate.

An appropriate venue should be set up to conduct a GD. The venue should not be overcrowded, which may make the participants feel uncomfortable. The space selected for conducting the GD should be well-ventilated, equipped with proper lighting and should have a proper seating arrangement.

A stipulated time limit should be set for each participant to present his/her views. Firstly, participants are given a topic and some time to understand the topic and organise their thoughts. Thereafter they start presenting their views and opinions over the given topic. The time provided to the participants should be logical and it should start at that time only with no delay and waiting.

Prior communication with the participants should be properly conducted along with mentioning the time allotted to one participant to speak. The topic of discussion should be specified clearly along with the instructions and timings of when to start and stop. Big MNCs have their well-panned GD guide that provides instructions to the participants.

There are various parameters based on which a candidate is evaluated. Some of these parameters are listening power, level of confidence, decision-making ability, analytical skills, leadership skills, etc.

Candidates can speak whatever they like on the subject under discussion. The assessors note down their observations for each candidate. Once the discussion is over, the assessors review the information recorded against the desired behaviour. Therefore, a proper evaluation sheet should be maintained for writing down observations so that no errors occur while the selection of candidates.

The results should be announced clearly post the GD. The facilitator should ensure that the participants should not be made to wait for too long for the results.

The following are some points that you should take care of while preparing for a group discussion:

  • Ensure your contribution to the group : Candidates need to make sure that they contribute to the conversation. Candidates having avoiding behaviours or actions do not contribute to the discussion’s outcome. Such behaviours need to be avoided and involvement in the GD is necessary to make a mark.
  • Manage conflicts effectively : In case of any disagreement with members of the group, ensure that you persuade them without getting rude and aggressive. Assessors will pick such arrogant behaviour and highlight it as your negative aspect.
  • Manage your time : Candidates need to stick to the timeline al- lotted for the discussion as the same would suggest that they are punctual and follow the timeline persistently.
  • Include others : Encourage those who do not speak up during the discussion and urge them to give their opinions. This will gain assessors’ praise and group members appreciation.
  • Be a team player : Generally, group discussion exercises require that the members come to an agreement on the topic being discussed. However, ensure that you do not impose your ideas on others. A better way is to include everyone’s ideas and centre it around the organisation rather than express something that might only benefit one member.

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Essay on Group Discussion

Students are often asked to write an essay on Group Discussion in their schools and colleges. And if you’re also looking for the same, we have created 100-word, 250-word, and 500-word essays on the topic.

Let’s take a look…

100 Words Essay on Group Discussion

Introduction.

Group Discussion, often abbreviated as GD, is a method of assessing individuals in a group. It’s a tool to gauge a person’s ability to communicate effectively, express thoughts, and influence others.

Importance of GD

GD helps in developing critical thinking, listening skills, and articulation of thoughts. It’s a platform where students learn to respect different opinions and develop team spirit.

Conducting a GD

In a GD, a topic is given, and participants are expected to discuss it. Everyone gets a chance to express their views. The aim is not to win an argument but to exchange ideas.

Overall, GD is a vital tool in education, helping students to grow both personally and academically. It fosters a sense of respect, understanding, and cooperation among participants.

Also check:

  • Advantages and Disadvantages of Group Discussion

250 Words Essay on Group Discussion

Introduction to group discussion.

Group Discussion (GD) is a methodology employed in educational and corporate settings to encourage a structured and critical exchange of ideas. It is a platform where participants express their views, opinions, and knowledge on a particular topic.

Significance of Group Discussion

GD is instrumental in assessing communication skills, leadership qualities, and team spirit. It also showcases one’s ability to analyze, reason, and think critically. It facilitates the development of interpersonal skills and the ability to work collaboratively.

Effective Participation in Group Discussions

Effective participation in GD requires active listening, clear articulation, and respect for others’ viewpoints. It is not about dominating the conversation but contributing meaningfully and constructively. Participants should display logical thinking, clarity of thoughts, and the ability to persuade others without disrespecting their opinions.

Role of Group Discussion in Education and Corporate World

In academia, GD helps in the holistic development of students, preparing them for real-world challenges. It enhances their analytical skills, boosts confidence, and promotes healthy competition. In the corporate world, GD often forms part of the selection process, testing candidates’ problem-solving abilities, leadership skills, and adaptability to team dynamics.

In conclusion, Group Discussion is an essential tool in both educational and professional domains. It fosters critical thinking, effective communication, and collaborative problem-solving. By engaging in GD, individuals can not only broaden their knowledge base but also refine their interpersonal skills, preparing them for future challenges.

500 Words Essay on Group Discussion

Group discussion, an interactive activity where individuals exchange ideas and opinions, is a crucial part of the modern academic and corporate world. It is not merely a conversation, but a structured process that tests the ability to think critically, communicate effectively, and work in a team.

The Importance of Group Discussion

Group discussions are vital for several reasons. They foster active learning, promote critical thinking, and enhance communication skills. By engaging in group discussions, students can understand different perspectives, thereby expanding their knowledge and broadening their horizons. It also helps in developing problem-solving skills, as the group works together to find solutions to complex issues.

Components of an Effective Group Discussion

An effective group discussion consists of several components. Firstly, it requires active participation from all members. Each person should contribute their thoughts and ideas, ensuring a wide range of perspectives. Secondly, it necessitates effective communication. Participants must articulate their thoughts clearly and listen attentively to others. Thirdly, it involves critical thinking, where individuals analyze and evaluate ideas before accepting them. Lastly, it requires mutual respect among the participants, as differing viewpoints are inevitable.

Role of a Moderator in Group Discussion

The role of a moderator in a group discussion is pivotal. They ensure that the discussion stays on track and that every participant gets a fair chance to express their views. They handle conflicts and manage time effectively, ensuring that the discussion is productive and reaches a conclusion.

Challenges in Group Discussion

Despite its benefits, group discussions can pose certain challenges. Dominance by a few members, lack of preparation, and miscommunication can hinder the effectiveness of a group discussion. It is essential to address these issues to ensure a fruitful discussion.

Group discussions are an integral part of the learning process, fostering critical thinking, effective communication, and teamwork. While they may present certain challenges, these can be mitigated with proper preparation and the effective role of a moderator. As students, mastering the art of participating in group discussions can significantly enhance your academic and professional journey.

That’s it! I hope the essay helped you.

If you’re looking for more, here are essays on other interesting topics:

  • Essay on Greetings
  • Essay on Go Green
  • Essay on Green Movement

Apart from these, you can look at all the essays by clicking here .

Happy studying!

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Creating Photo Essays About Community: A Guide to Our Where We Are Contest

Step-by-step directions for depicting what’s memorable and meaningful about groups and the places where they gather.

A group of young people lying on a weathered wooden stage, with their heads resting on one another's stomachs and their arms embracing one another. Some of the people are texting or holding their phones up to take selfies.

By Katherine Schulten

It’s hard not to be inspired by the immersive 2023 photo-essay series Where We Are .

As you scroll through and are introduced to young female wrestlers in India , rappers in Spain , band kids in Ohio and Black debutantes in Detroit , you can’t help but think about the communities you have been a part of — or have noticed in your own neighborhood or school.

That’s why we hope you’ll participate in our new contest , which invites teenagers to use these photo essays as mentor texts to document the local, offline communities that most interest them.

How do you go about that? The steps are outlined below.

Have fun, and if you are submitting to our contest, make sure you do so by March 20.

How to Create Your Photo Essay

Step 1: read the where we are series closely., step 2: decide what local community will be the subject of your photo essay., step 3: take photos that show both the big picture and the small details., step 4: interview members of the community about why it is special., step 5: give your photo essay context via a short written introduction., step 6: write captions for your photos that give new information or add depth or color., step 7: edit all the pieces together and submit..

Immerse yourself in several of these photo essays, using our related activity sheet to help you start to notice and name some of the things that make this series special.

When you’re done, we’ll help you use those same strategies to document the community you have chosen.

Here are free links to the entire series:

1. The Magic of Your First Car 2. At This Mexican Restaurant, Everyone is Family 3. Where the Band Kids Are 4. In This Nigerian Market, Young Women Find a Place of Their Own 5. At Camp Naru, Nobody Is ‘an Outlier’ 6. For Black Debutantes in Detroit, Cotillion Is More Than a Ball 7. At This Wrestling Academy, Indian Girls Are ‘Set Free’ 8. In Seville, Spain, These Young Rappers Come Together to Turn ‘Tears Into Rhymes’ 9. For a Queer Community in Los Angeles, This Public Park Is a Lifeline 10. In Guatemala, a Collective of Young Artists Finds Family Through Film 11. On a Caribbean Island, Young People Find Freedom in ‘Bike Life’ 12. At This Texas Campus Ministry, ‘Inclusive Love’ Is the Mission 13. For Young Arab Americans in Michigan, the Hookah Lounge Feels like Home

A local band and its fans? The kids who hang out at a nearby basketball court? The people who tend a community garden? Your grandpa’s weekly breakfast with old friends at a local diner?

Our related Student Opinion forum will help you brainstorm ideas and then encourage you to detail what’s special about the people and place you choose. Remember that our rules allow you to work with up to three other people on this project, so consider sharing ideas with others to find a project that excites all of you.

Though we will allow you to choose a community you are a part of, we encourage you not to. Approaching a group as an outsider can help you notice and document aspects of that community with relative objectivity, capturing details that insiders may be too close to see.

Once you’ve chosen a group to photograph, begin by introducing yourself to ensure the participants are open to your project. Make sure they understand that, if you are a finalist, the pictures you take may be published on the New York Times website. You should also be sure to get contact information from each member of the group for any follow-up questions.

Next, spend a day or so just observing, noticing how and where the members of this community spend time, what they do together and how they relate to one another. Start to plan your piece, keeping in mind that, via six to eight photos, photo captions and a short introduction, you’ll need to impart the following:

What is this community?

Who is in it?

Where and when does it meet?

How did the community come to be? How does it operate?

Why does it matter to its participants? What is it about the connections people make in this space that makes it special? Why should it matter to viewers?

If there’s one thing to notice about the Where We Are series, it is that the photos and the writing both “zoom out” to provide a big picture and “zoom in” to focus on the meaningful details. If you have followed our related activity sheet , you’ve already noted how individual pieces do that.

You might have also observed that in each photo essay there are images that show the physical space; images that spotlight the people who gather there; and close-up images that focus on meaningful objects or details, like food, clothing, tattoos, jewelry, hair or hands.

Here are some steps you can take to do this too.

1. Ground your piece in a specific physical space.

Keep in mind that our contest allows you to submit only eight photos, so the more specific you can be about the place you choose, the easier it will be to tell a story. For example, rather than trying to document everything about the boys’ soccer team at your school, you might focus on their Wednesday practices at a local field.

Take photos that establish that space, perhaps at different times of day, from a variety of angles, with and without people. Here, for instance, is Sarapes, a Mexican restaurant in a quiet Connecticut suburb that is a “headquarters” for a group of 20-somethings.

As you look at this image and the ones below, ask yourself:

What can you tell about this space from the photograph?

What can you guess about the people who gather here, and what might this place might mean to them? What do you see that makes you say that?

Here is a meeting area at the Texas Wesley Foundation , a Methodist campus ministry group at University of Texas at Austin.

And here is the caption that comes with it:

“We call ourselves a Methodist group, but we are enthusiastic to accept people of other faiths, people who might not have any faith, or who are questioning their faith,” said Brandon. “We really like to meet people where they’re at.”

How do the caption and image echo and build on each other?

Next is one of many shots of Camp Naru , a summer camp for Korean American youth, where fostering a “strong, secure sense of identity and community is one of the main goals.” How can you see that in this image?

Finally, here is a big-picture look at the Southern California landscape that is the setting for “ The Magic of Your First Car .” What adjectives come to mind? Before you read the full piece, what can you already imagine about the teenagers who “get away from the prying eyes of parents” by driving? What additional images might you expect to see in the full essay?

2. Focus on the people who gather there.

Community is all about people, so consider the ways you can document both the ways they come together and the ways they might experience the group individually.

For instance, here is an arresting close-up image from “ For a Queer Community in Los Angeles, This Public Park Is a Lifeline .” What is interesting about it to you? How does the photo speak to the title of the piece?

Here is an image from “ Where the Band Kids Are .” What adjectives would you use to describe this community based on what you see here?

Here is another group shot. What adjectives would you use to describe this community? What would you expect individual portraits of its members to show?

Now, look at the related photo essay to see how close your answers were.

Here are some of the people that call Sarapes , the Mexican restaurant, their refuge. Action shots like this one often tell a viewer more than posed photos. What does this one say to you?

Finally, here is an image from “ On a Caribbean Island, Young People Find Freedom in ‘Bike Life.’ ” Though we don’t see any faces, the composition of the photo tells us a great deal. What do you think is going on here? What do you see that makes you say that? After you make your guesses, click into the photo essay and see how accurate your ideas were.

3. Zoom in on telling details about the people and the place.

You looked at a “zoomed out” image above from “ The Magic of Your First Car .” Here is a close-up. What does it tell you? What compositional elements give you that information? Why do you think the photographer chose this focus?

If you’ve already looked at several of the photo essays, you may have noticed that many, like this one, contain close-ups of hands. Why do you think that is?

Next, can you guess which photo essay the image below is from?

Before we reveal the answer, here is another close-up from the same photo essay, this one taken at night. Are you getting warmer?

Answer: “ At Camp Naru, Nobody Is ‘an Outlier.’ ” If you got it right, what clues in the photos helped? How do the images echo the idea expressed in the title?

Below is a photo that focuses on one member of a queer community in Los Angeles . What do you notice? What do you admire about the composition, the lighting, the angle or anything else? Why?

Now let’s look at a big-picture image and a close-up to see how they work together. Here is a shot from “ For Black Debutantes in Detroit, Cotillion Is More Than a Ball .”

Finally, here is a close-up. What do the two tell you together? What would be missing if you only took one type of shot?

4. Don’t forget to experiment and have fun.

If you’ve mastered the ideas above, now it’s time to play. As you worked through the images, you asked yourself, “How does composition convey meaning?” even if you didn’t realize that was what you were doing.

Our detailed photo guide , developed for an earlier contest, encourages you to think about how to experiment with basic composition techniques like rule of thirds, angle, depth of field, leading lines, framing and distance. It also helps you think about lighting, color and cropping, as well as making the best use of the tools available on most smartphones.

Read through it before and after you have documented your community and then look through the images you have taken. Do you have enough variety? Can you identify techniques like rule of thirds and leading lines in the images from the Where We Are series? If you haven’t used them in your own work, could you experiment?

Below are a few more images from Where We Are essays for inspiration. What do you notice? What compositional choices did the photographer make? How would different choices change the meaning?

Last question: Two of the four images above are from the same photo essay. Which are they, which piece do they come from, and how did you know? What unites the two images?

According to the rules of our contest, you only need one quote from a member of the community you have chosen, but, of course, you are allowed to use many more. We encourage you to weave them into both your captions and your introduction, just as the authors of the Where We Are series did.

Never conducted an interview before? We have advice. Scroll down to Steps 3 and 4 in this guide we created for our Profile Contest to find many practical tips from Times journalists for preparing for and conducting an interview.

But to start, you just need a few good questions. For example, you might ask:

What’s special about this community for you?

What do you like to do here?

What are some of your favorite memories or stories about this group?

What would an outsider to this community not understand or notice?

Is there history about this place or these people that I should understand?

If you were photographing this community, what important places, objects or moments would you try to capture? Why?

Finally, many journalists end interviews with this question: “Is there anything I didn’t ask that you wish I did?” Sometimes the most interesting information is elicited that way!

Then look over what you wrote down and choose the best quotes. Maybe they give information that your photo essay needs, maybe they are colorful and show personality or maybe they do all of those things.

To see how this works, we’ll look at one of the essays, “ At This Texas Campus Ministry, ‘Inclusive Love’ Is the Mission .”

Here is how the first quote was used, in the introduction:

Sydney had grown up Methodist and thought she knew what to expect from a Christian student organization. But she was surprised by just how welcoming the Wesley was. The students and adult leaders seemed genuinely invested in drawing her out of her shell and getting to know her, with no agenda. “It’s really not about getting people into this religion,” she said. “It’s just about being a community who supports others and loves others. And that was huge to me.”

How does it both paraphrase Sydney’s words and directly quote her? What does that quote tell the reader up front about this community? Why is that information important, and why might a participant’s own words be a compelling way to express this?

Later we meet Ethan. What does his experience — again, both paraphrased and directly quoted — add to your understanding of the inclusivity of this community? What colorful description does he offer for what happens in this group? How does this description add information to what is depicted in the photos?

Ethan’s parents are Buddhist and were surprised when their son started spending so much time with a Methodist organization. For his part, Ethan describes himself as agnostic and says he hasn’t felt any pressure from the Wesley to change that, but he appreciates the camaraderie the group offers. “There was this one worship where, when there was a swell in the music, someone burst into tears, and then they hugged one of their friends. I am not sure what was going on there, but it was definitely a very profound experience,” he said.

Listen for the same things as you interview. How can one person’s description of an experience add necessary information, depth, history or background to what you have depicted in images? Did you get any quotes that are too good not to use? How could you highlight them? Do they belong in your introduction or as a photo caption?

The essays in the Where We Are series are longer than the introductions you will write if you are participating in this contest. Many of those essays are about 600 words, double what we have allowed student participants. (You have up to 300 words, but you can use fewer if you can still convey what you need to.)

But you can use the first few paragraphs of each essay — what appears before the first photos — as mentor texts for your own introductions, and we’ll show you how, below.

First though, let’s remember your broader goals. As we wrote at the top of this post, together, your introduction, photo essay and captions should answer these questions:

Why does it matter to its participants? Why should it matter to viewers?

Take a look at “ In This Nigerian Market, Young Women Find a Place of Their Own ” as an example. Here is the introduction, the first 200 or so words before the photo essay begins to scroll:

At the bustling Yaba Market in Lagos, Nigeria, there is something for everyone. Chatter rises from the traders, whose stalls sprawl over miles of cracked gray concrete and packed earth. They might be selling baskets of fresh fruit, wheelbarrows stuffed with phone cases, piles of sequined fabrics or racks of second-hand clothes. If you’re lucky, you might find a vintage jacket you’ve been searching for, or a pair of long-lasting Levi’s jeans. But you’re never going to be as lucky as Dencity : the coolest of the cool kids of Lagos. These skaters, often clad in a uniform of baggy pants and crop tops, head to the market to go thrifting each week. They’re armed with fashion knowledge only the young, fun and determined can possess and seek out the best streetwear they can find. Founded by 26-year-old Blessing Ewona in 2020 in response to the dearth of spaces for young queer people and female skaters in Nigeria, Dencity skate, dream and thrift together. From their trips to the market to regular skate meet-ups at the dilapidated National Stadium or Tarkwa Bay beach, they have traced their own map of the city.

How many of the questions we listed above do these paragraphs answer? How do they work with the top image, which we’ve embedded above this section? What descriptions stand out? What context and background does it provide?

Now let’s break your task down.

1. Make your writing as vivid and varied as your images.

Much of the writing in these essays is just as interesting as the photos, as the example above shows. Here is another, the opening of “ At This Wrestling Academy, Indian Girls Are ‘Set Free’ ”:

As the winter sun ascends over a mustard farm, pale orange bleeding into sharp yellow, a line of 36 girls all dressed alike — T-shirts, track pants, crew cuts — emerges into an open field, rubbing sleep from their eyes. Under a tin shed, they sit on their haunches, bent over stone mortars. For the next 20 minutes, they crush raw almonds into a fine paste, straining out a bottle of nut milk. They will need it to regain their strength.

And here is how “ On a Caribbean Island, Young People Find Freedom in ‘Bike Life’ ” begins:

On a warm evening in October 2021, Enzo Crispin mounted his cobalt motorcycle and set off into the night. Hundreds of others joined his caravan, the rumbles of their engines filling the air of Fort-de-France, the capital of the French Caribbean island territory of Martinique. The riders popped up on one wheel, stood up on their bikes, brushed their hands along the ground — all while zooming along at top speed. Completely exhilarating. Potentially illegal, at least on public streets. This is “cabrage,” which roughly translates from French as a rodeo on wheels.

How do these introductions both “zoom out” and “zoom in”? How do they play on your senses, helping you see, hear, taste, touch and smell this place and what happens in it? How could you do those things in your introduction?

2. Offer background to help viewers understand what they are seeing and what it means.

Here is the introduction to “ For Young Arab Americans in Michigan, the Hookah Lounge Feels Like Home ”:

Coming of age is marked by a series of firsts. Your first kiss. Your first job. Your first drink. Many who grew up in Dearborn, Mich., would add to the list: your first hookah. Located just outside downtown Detroit, Dearborn is home to one of the United States’ largest Arab American communities: Nearly 50 percent of residents identify as having Arab ancestry, according to the U.S. census . Middle Eastern shops, where you may find portable hookah cups , dot the streets. There is also the Arab American National Museum (which sells hookah-themed socks) and the Islamic Center of America , one of the nation’s oldest and largest mosques. And then there is the long list of hookah lounges, where locals spend hours leisurely smoking flavored tobacco through water pipes while catching up, watching soccer games or enjoying a live Arabic music performance. “A spot like a hookah lounge, it’s sacred,” particularly for immigrants and refugees far from home, said Marrim (pronounced Mariam) Akashi Sani, 25, who is Iraqi-Iranian. “And it’s something you have to create for yourself when you’re displaced, and you might not ever be able to go back home because you don’t really know what home is anymore.”

How do the opening two lines grab your attention? How does the demographic information in the third paragraph explain the focus on hookah lounges? How does the quote at the end offer important information that complements the demographic data and gives it meaning?

Next is the introduction to “ For Black Debutantes in Detroit, Cotillion Is More Than a Ball ”:

In a heady swirl of bright white silk and lace, the young ladies of the Cotillion Society of Detroit Educational Foundation are presented as debutantes. The Society’s annual ball is the culmination of eight months of etiquette lessons, leadership workshops, community service projects and cultural events. As the girls take to the dance floor, they become part of a legacy of Black debutantes in the city and beyond. Debutante balls, which traditionally helped girls from high society find suitable husbands, emerged from Europe in the 18th century. Black Americans have adopted a unique version of them since at least 1895 . Responding to the politics of the Jim Crow era, these balls, which emphasized women’s education, echoed the work of the racial upliftment movement and women’s clubs, said Taylor Bythewood-Porter, the curator of a recent exhibition on Black cotillions at the California African American Museum. Organizers saw the balls as a way to “dismiss the idea of Black people not being smart enough, or good enough, or worthy enough.” For today’s debutantes, many of whom grew up in predominantly white neighborhoods of Detroit, gaining an informal network of Black adult mentors was “life-changing,” said Sage Johnson, 17. “Signing up for debutantes, I thought it was just one big ball. But there were a lot more layers to it.”

How do the second and third paragraphs add key context and history to this photo essay? How does the quote at the end bring these cotillions into the 21st century, and help you anticipate what is to come?

Ask yourself, What background will my viewers need to understand what they are seeing, and appreciate its nuances? Do I need to add that information myself, or can some of the quotes from participants do that work for me?

In most traditional newspaper articles, you will find a caption under each photo explaining more detail about the image and its relationship to the story. As you scroll through Where We Are, however, you’ve probably noticed that, thanks to the elegant way these pieces are produced, the captions float up on or around the photos.

In these essays, the captions continue the story. Your captions will do that too. But in the Where We Are pieces, photo captions are interspersed with more of the written essay. Because you are doing a “mini” version of this project, however, after your initial introduction, the only writing we will read will come from your captions. Make sure they continue to tell your story in a way that makes sense to the reader and helps build meaning.

For instance, here is an image from “ In Guatemala, A Collective of Young Artists Finds Family Through Film .”

The caption?

The team has quickly become a family, meeting up for dinners and to celebrate each other’s birthdays. They are, said Sebastián, a community first and a production house second.

Notice how those words work with the image. Can you see “family” and “community” and “team” conveyed in the way this image is composed, the looks on the faces, the colors and light? How?

Here is another example, from “ In Seville, Spain, These Young Rappers Come Together to Turn ‘Tears Into Rhymes’ .” Before you read the caption, what do you imagine is happening in this picture?

Here is the caption, which both offers some background about the group and includes a wonderful quote:

Luis Rodríguez Collado, at right, the youngest of the group, grew up in Spain, the child of Mexican immigrants. “We aren’t just emoting with language, but with song and dance, with sounds and rhythm,” said Luis, a.k.a. Luis 3K. “At 19, I sincerely don’t know anything more liberating than this.”

As you construct your captions, ask yourself:

What information do I need to add to these images to make the meaning and nuances clear?

Can using quotes from participants work? What might they add?

How do these captions continue the story I started in my introduction? Do they build on one another and make sense both separately and together? Do they avoid repetition, with each other or with the introduction? Do they strengthen the key ideas of my piece? How?

At this point you may have dozens of images, and pages of notes. How do you put it all together?

Way back when you were first analyzing the Where We Are series, we called your attention to the fact that the images, essay and captions don’t repeat information exactly the same way . Each element adds something new.

We also talked about how, from the very first image, the one the authors chose for the top, a theme is hinted at, and then echoed in the introduction and continued in the captions. Whatever key ideas about this community you want to get across — maybe that it is a refuge or home, that it offers freedom or that it challenges participants creatively or athletically — look through your images and writing and find all the ways you think you have done that. Do you need more emphasis on this theme? A variety of ways of showing it?

Speaking of variety , that’s another lens to look through when considering your piece as a whole. In terms of both the photos and the writing, have you “zoomed out” enough to establish a place and a context? Have you “zoomed in” to show detail? Are your images taken from different angles and points of view? Do they show both the group and individuals? Are they dynamic and interesting and surprising?

Then, show your work to others, and, perhaps, ask them to analyze it using the last four questions on our related activity sheet . That will prompt them to tell you what is working, but make sure to also ask them if there is anything confusing about your piece, or if they think there is information missing.

Then, go back and fill in anything your piece needs, and play with the sequence of your images until they tell the story you want to tell.

Good luck. We can’t wait to see the results!

Katherine Schulten has been a Learning Network editor since 2006. Before that, she spent 19 years in New York City public schools as an English teacher, school-newspaper adviser and literacy coach. More about Katherine Schulten

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"Olympic Movement in Asia" 2024 International Conference of Sport History and Culture in Conjunction with the 9th International Conference of Sport for Development and Peace

Call for Papers

" Olympic Movement in Asia"

2024 International Conference of Sport History and Culture in

Conjunction with

the 9th International Conference of Sport for Development and Peace

Co-Organisers: Asian Journal of Sport History and Culture; Asian-Pacific Association of Sports

Studies, University of Pendidikan Indonesia (UPI) Bandung, Indonesia University of Education

Venue: Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia (UPI), Bandung

Time: 5-7 November 2024

Theme: Olympic Movement in Asia

“Olympic Movement in Asia” 2024 International Conference of Sport History and Culture in Conjunction with the 9th International Conference of Sport for Development and Peace Conference November 5, 2024 - November 7, 2024

  • Announcement
  • Olympic Studies
  • Asian studies

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IMAGES

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  3. How to Write a Discussion Essay

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  4. How to Write a Discussion Essay

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  1. How to Write a Discussion Section

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