Essay on Education Of The Middle Ages
Dbq the middle ages essay.
The Middle Ages is a time period that took place between 500’s and 1400’s In Western Europe. This was a time of feudalism, sickness, death, poverty, war, and faith. In this time people had a government called feudalism which was a political, economic, and social system in which nobles were granted the use of land that legally belonged to the king as payment for their military, their loyalty and protection. There was also a manor which had a manor house, a church, a village, and farm land. In medieval times people went through hard time and many were unsafe there were many deaths and diseases which at the time a disease basically meant death. There are many names you could call the Middle Ages but the two best that describe this time period
Dbq Essay On The Middle Ages
The Middle ages came after the fall of Rome, no single state or government united the people who lived on the European continent. Instead, the Catholic Church became the most powerful institution of the medieval period. Kings, queens and other leaders derived much of their power from their alliances with and protection of the Church. There were many different events that occurred during the middle ages that gave this time periods all of the different titles. The impacts on the middle ages were feudalism, dark ages, and most importantly faith.
The Roman Catholic Church in Medieval Times Essay
The Medieval monastery was established during the middle Ages, this was a place where people got together (mostly monks, nuns and other spiritual beings) and they spent their time praying, studying and most of all helping
The Purpose of Education Essay
Education has existed throughout history in one form or another. The process of passing down accumulated information from one generation to the next has been present in every human society, past and present. From the young listening to the stories of the elders around the hearths of the ancient world, to pupils being instructed in the alphabet in a one room schoolhouse on the American frontier, to the present day online teaching sessions; the tradition of teaching and learning has been a constant in the ever changing world. Education has been and continues to be used for many purposes, chief among them being the creation of an educated citizenry, the empowerment of that citizenry, and improvement of the
Comparing Mennonites And Zen Buddhism
main religions at the time. They did so by living in monasteries, in the monasteries help the less
The Middle Ages or the Dark Ages Essay
Imagine having to bury your own children. How awful would that be? The Middle Ages were a brutal time that included the bubonic plague, many wars and other horrible things. This period is considered to be one of religion and the Catholic Church, but this was overshadowed by chaos and confusion. Although the Middle Ages is often known as the age of faith, a more appropriate title for the time period would be The Dark Ages because of the black death, wars and the collapse of government.
This proves that they took faith and religion very seriously. In addition to document (8), monks did not only have religious responsibilities, but also had to participate in work and studies in the fields, workshops, and scriptoria (Pearson World History, 2011). Also, document (5) explains how the church controls the daily life of people. The observance of the Truce of God explains the rules of keeping the holy days. It states that peace should be observed on Sunday, Friday, Saturday, and days of fasting.
Intellectual Developments In 18th Century Japan And Europe
Throughout this century, as more and more intellectual developments occur the increase in education becomes more important than ever. Thankfully the Enlightenment period and the French Revolution brought along with them the development of the educational system. The new forms of printing lead to an increase of available books which overall produced a larger reading public. At one point of time education was only a privilege of the upper class, but as the 18th century rolled in and changes were made education became available to all classes. As Europe continued to advance surrounding countries like japan would try to copy and recreate the same types of evolution in their country to keep up with the rest of the world, some the same and others not so much.
Life in the Medieval Era Essay
Living in the medieval time period was not as glamorous as it is often portrayed; peasants and serfs led hard lives, however, kings, lords, and knights lived lavishly and at the expense of those under them. In this paper you will read about all of these lifestyles, as well as the castles in which these lords and kings lived in. Mainly castle designs, fortifications, and siege tactics will be revealed to you; yet there are several sections, dealing with the lifestyles of the above mentioned, leading up to that.
Middle Ages Essay
The history of the modern world derives from thousands of years of human history. Embedded in its history are the many eras of man which have constructed our modern learning, art, beliefs, and order. The middle ages, although represented as “dark”, backwards, and idle, were in fact a bridge linking the classical and modern world. Medieval society may not have been in a sense glorious, but the era of itself was a prime foundation of the modern world’s newfound stability, a revival of the law and teachings from the classical era, a reinvestment and reform in the church, and a precursor to the golden age of art.
The Monastery played a role in supplying priests for the Churches since the monasteries were also theological seminaries for those who wanted to join the priesthood. The medieval monasteries thought priests how to live a holy Christian life and the necessity of purity and humility. The monks were the ones who used to save the church especially when problems arose between the priests and the congregation. . It was also an institution of scrutiny and correction of oneself. The main reason for this was because the monks were highly trusted by the people and people expected them to be like God. Confession of one’s wrongdoing was usually made on a daily basis during prayer time. Monasticism had a positive impact from the political, social, educational and religious point of
Medieval Ages Research Paper
The Medieval Ages that descended upon the Europeans following the deconstruction and devolution of the formerly grand institutions of the Roman Empire left a world darkened to the eyes of history. The world lost touch with simple concepts to a modern history student of writing, economy, culture, and government—the mainstay of that which we cannot see ourselves without—civilization. What was left of Europe was a state of chaos. In all other periods of human history I have studied there were similarities among them from which I could draw conclusions upon the condition of the respective times. The Text helped to give order to the progression of European history from the ancient to the modern drawing
Medieval Universities Essay
The appearance of universities was part of the same high-medieval education boom. Originally universities were institutions where students could attain specialized instruction in advanced studies. These types of studies were not available in the average cathedral schools. Advanced schools existed in the ancient world, but did not promote a fixed curricula or award degrees.
Characteristic Features of the Middle Ages Essay
Also called the middle ages, the medieval ages were influential in European history. It dates between the 5th and the 15th centuries of european history. The beginning of the period was marked by the collapse of Rome while its end was marked by the end of Renaissance. The Roman Empire’s fall bringing forth an idea of uniting Europe in what was called Christendom, this was based on the beliefs of the church. Features such as migration of people, invasions, population distribution, and deurbanization characterized this period. The medieval ages had three periods, which include the antiquity, the medieval periods, and the modern period, all of which exhibited different characteristics. The end of this period saw various challenges coming
Essay Effects of Modernity
Furthermore, education changed. Pre-industrial societies addressed education only to the elite and the rich. Being educated at that time was considered a privilege. In modern societies, however, basic education is open for everyone, and the number of persons achieving higher education is rising all the time, while the number of illiterate is diminishing (Macionis: 514-515).
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Education in the Middle Ages 3 Pages 795 Words
Education in the Middle Ages was directly linked to the church. Medieval scholars designed their own brand of philosophy, interpreting the teachings of Aristotle to agree with their religious beliefs. Their combination of philosophy and theology is known as scholasticism. These scholars, known as Schoolmen, were careful that their reasoning did not contradict the reasoning of the church. Providing rational proof that God exists proved to be quite difficult, considering the lack of educational resources in the early Middle Ages. Education in the Middle Ages had taken a giant step back from the Greek and Roman eras. In the middle ages very few laymen knew how to read or write. In fact even the nobles were uneducated. Priests practically had a monopoly on knowledge. Since the only schools were created to educate priests, the church controlled the curriculum. This made the church the ultimate authority on knowledge of any sort, and had the power to edit classic Greek and Roman writings to fit their needs. The purpose of Scholasticism was to provide explanations for the faith demanded by religion. If the church could demonstrate educated reasoning to back up their teachings they would draw more followers. The scholars used many sources of information to make their arguments. The main source was the Bible and writings of the church fathers. Other sources included ancient authors, the most common being Aristotle. On many occasions secular sources did not agree with the church. The church could not teach such contradictions. The churchmen would have several options, the first option being the omission of a contradictory statement, the second option being to change the secular authors words to agree with the church. Medieval Christian thinkers were faced with the difficult task of assigning reason to support their faith. They started by asserting that the wisdom of ancient philosophers was from divine inspiration, coming directly fro...
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Education During The Middle Ages
Although many people were illiterate in the Middle Ages, this time period was also the beginning of the university system and more widespread education. The development of the educational system in the Middle Ages was a crucial step in the development of the western world, and ultimately evolved into today’s university system. Classical, medieval education , and the educational tactics used in the Middle Ages are still prevalent today in the United States, and other countries’ higher educational systems. In this paper I will examine the education systems in place during the Middle Ages, including the aspects of student life, the subjects that were taught and how they were taught, and how all of these aspects evolved into the modern university …show more content…
The masters established criteria for certification, created basic rights, curriculum, schedules, and helped the students throughout their schooling (Stiles, Medieval Thought). Their job was somewhat like a combination of a dean and an advisor in the modern system. At Bologna, and other universities, there were “three main types of schools: the episcopal and municipal schools of letters, the lay schools of roman law, and school of canon law at one or more of the monasteries” (Knowles, p. 159). Out of those three schools, the lay schools are what most resemble the universities of today, mainly because they fell entirely outside of the control of the bishop and the church (Knowles, p.159). In the beginning, teachers had little to no say at universities, but as time went on the system changed, looking more similar to the modern one, and salaried professors obtained more control over the universities (Knowles, p.161). This shift in power is the main difference between modern universities and medieval universities. In the first universities teachers were expected to be subservient to their students, even being subjected to fines if a class started a minute early or ended a minute late, if he did a poor job at explaining a difficult reading, or if he failed to complete all of the material in the syllabus (Knowles, p. …show more content…
Grammar, rhetoric, and logic were grouped together as the trivium set and the other four courses, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music were the quadrivium set of classes (“The Rise of Universities”, p. 87). Although there are many other courses offered in modern universities, the grouping of classes into trivium and quadrivium sets resembles the modern grouping of general education courses versus major specific
In this essay, the author
- Explains that the middle ages was a crucial step in the development of the western world, and ultimately evolved into the modern university system.
- Explains that the first universities were established in bologna, paris, and oxford in the late eleventh and early twelfth centuries.
- Compares medieval and modern students in terms of power and control over the system. modern students have similar motivations for attending college, like getting a better job and becoming doctors or professors.
- Explains that the early universities consisted of chancellors, masters and professors. the lay schools resembled the universities of today because they were outside the control of the bishop and church.
- Explains the basis of education in the early middle ages consisted of the seven liberal arts. grammar, rhetoric, and logic were grouped together as the trivium set.
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The Church: The Guardian of Culture in the Middle Ages
The Middle Ages were characterized by a rigidly hierarchical society, which was justified by the view that, like the branches of a tree, every level of society was preordained and important. While the nobility and the clergy stood at the top of the society hierarchy, Jews and those who pursued dishonorable professions were branded outsiders. The Church acted as guardian of culture, particularly within its monasteries and convents. They preserved the scholarship of antiquity, often through the mediation of Muslim scientists. In the 12th century, the first universities developed from the monasteries and cathedral schools. Opposite to the clergy were the lords and nobility who developed their own culture, which was centered on chivalry.
Dbq Essay On The Middle Ages
The Middle Ages was a time of knights, the lords they supported, and the kings and queens they worked under. A time the Roman Catholic Church took over the European landmass like rapid fire, and when moral codes designated the manner in which people acted. Almost most influential of all was feudalism. At the time of the medieval period, the social, political, and economic lives of Europeans were defined by feudalism.
Education in Elizabethan England
The Elizabethan Era was a turning point in England's history. It marked an advanced new age of poetry and literature. Often referred to as the golden age in English history, the Renaissance brought new light to the citizens (“Elizabethan Era”). Thanks to Queen Elizabeth I (1558-1603), England emerged as a leading naval and commercial power (Pressley J.M.). In addition to becoming a major world power, England became a leading nation in education. As people became more educated, England was pulled out of the Dark Ages. The English Renaissance, which spanned from roughly the 1500s to the early 1600s, was a highly significant time for England. Queen Elizabeth came to power and encouraged education. She was a major advocate for the theatre ("English Online"). The popularity of the study of Greek and Roman texts increased as well (Turnpike, Sherman). As a wides all result of this sudden craving for knowledge, literacy among the residents of England improved greatly (Greaves, Richard). This literary Renaissance was a major turning point in history as education was seen as important. The education and literacy of the people of England was a crucial part of Elizabethan daily life because it allowed the people to flourish.
Public Education In Elizabethan Times
The Elizabethan time was a time for growth for the middle class to get an education. Never ever before this time more middle class boys have been educated at a university, also the sons of craftsmen were able to go to university with a scholarship. Understudies at the colleges concentrated on in a few zones: liberal arts, which included sentence structure, rationale (the science that arrangements with the standards of thinking), music, space science (the logical investigation of the stars, planets, and other divine bodies), and math; human expressions, comprising of reasoning, talk, and verse; regular history (the investigation of nature); religion; medicine; and
Humanities in the Early, High And Late Middle Ages
Learning Team A will use several research methods including text, internet and other methods to explore the humanities and the effects and developments that the humanities of the Early, High and Late Middle ages had on society. We have made some very interesting findings and come up with some intriguing conclusions. The findings are most definitely in condensed form for the simplicity of our assignment, although if given an unbridled word count, surely we would demonstrate volumes of text form such interesting periods.
Middle Ages and The Renaissance
In the year of 1348 the black death (a.k.a Plague) arrived in England. Everyone dying left and right it was a major disaster. people in the middle ages were confused and scared or what was going on and curious to why this is happening. Nearly half of the population was dead cause by the black death. However after this world wide catastrophe along came the Renaissance. In my opinion the Renaissance is a pick up from what had happen early ( Black Death). However there have their similarities and differences for examples in the Middles Ages God was control to peoples live and the Renaissance did not apply to that. Furthermore the Renaissance they had invention creativity. Finally both The Middle ages and The Renaissance was Art Architecture.
Education In The Middle Colonies
“Because of the many different religions in the Middle Colonies, education was different from the other colonies. In the New England Colonies, school was based on a Puritan education, so more children went to schools.”
Hroswitha Of Gandersheim's Poetry
They both have similar curriculum such as; law, medicine, liberal arts, and theology. Although in modern universities things like theology and liberal arts are more of a specialized school, rather than the typical university you can still find these areas of study in our universities today. In medieval universities students typically began a lot younger than we do in our university systems today, but other than that students were there to learn and get professional training just like we go to school for today. The student life differed from our modern day universities in the sense that prostitutes were popular back then, but not so much today. The undergraduate curriculum differs from ours as well because they did not have finals, midterms, or any assignments at all. Their curriculum also differed from ours because it was very religious and students were expected to tend prayer every day, but today there is usually a separation of church and state unless you attend a private university. Their students also consisted of only boys whereas our universities have both males and females in them today. Their facilities were different from ours because they did not have actually buildings or campuses at first they just taught anywhere they had the space to do so. Their educators were scholars and depending on where the university was located depended on who paid the teachers, whereas our
The Knight and the Cart
By the end of eleventh century, Western Europe had experienced a powerful cultural revival. The flourish of New towns provided a place for exchange of commerce and flow of knowledge and ideas. Universities, which replaced monasteries as centers of learning, poured urbanized knowledge into society. New technological advances and economics transformations provided the means for building magnificent architectures. These developments were representative of the mental and behavioral transformations that the medieval world underwent and the new relationships that were brought about between men, women and society in the twelfth century. As in technology, science, and scholasticism, Literature was also reborn with a new theme.3
The Value of a Liberal Arts and Sciences Education
Liberal Arts and Sciences education once started in the ancient Greek as the well-known artes liberales. There were seven of them, separated in the trivium and the quadrivium. The trivium contained the core liberal arts, namely grammar, logic and rhetoric. When the Church defined the education, they extended the trivium with the quadrivium subjects arithmetic, geometry, music and astronomy. The Greek believed that every young man, if they could afford it, should be educated in the seven liberal arts in order to take an active part in civic life. The goal of these studies was to make a well-informed, virtuous and eloquent person. Nowadays, the artes liberales is still a renowned manner of education, but the methods have slightly changed. For instance, it is now called Liberal Arts and Sciences and it is divided in three academic cultures which together include all academic fields. These cultures are the humanities, the social sciences and the natural sciences. There are many colleges all over the world which offer a Liberal Arts and Sciences degree.
The Middle Ages From 1066 To 1485
The Middle Ages encompass one of the most turbulent periods in English History. Starting with the Battle of Hastings and the Norman Conquest - when William the Conqueror effectively took all of the lands from the Saxon English and gave them to French nobles. The English Middle Ages then saw the building of the great English castles, including the Tower of London, which helped the Normans to retain their hold on England. The start of the Crusades and the knights of the Middle Ages, including the founding of the Knights Templar. The Domesday Book and the Magna Carta. The Kings and Queens of the Middle Ages including Richard the Lionheart and great Plantagenet Kings from Henry II (1154-1189) to Edward III (1327-1377). The Hundred Years War between England and France. The Medieval Kings and Queens of the Royal Houses of Lancaster and York and the Wars of the Roses. The Middle Ages Feudal System and the terrible Black Death which really did plague the period of the Middle Ages.The Middle Ages 1066-1485
Renaisance Education: Values and Purposes
People were taught to understand and judge the writings of others. Courtiers, aristocrats and nobles were able to write poetry and text. By being well educated, having good penmanship, knowing how to ride, play, dance, sing, and dress well, men of high status gained respect and reputation. These skills also helped attain preference and support among princes. Nevertheless, the school system did not teach youth how to behave in daily life situations. They spent too much time on Grammar, Rhetoric, and Logic. Those studies that were realistic, enlightened men's minds, and prepared them for life, were reserved for the Universities. Therefore, students had a slight understanding of the meaning and the true use of knowledge. They were only able to write Latin, which no one of judgement would want to read, and when they went to universities, they wasted their friends' money and their own time. Afterwards, they would return home again, as unsophisticated and uneducated as they were before.
Compare And Contrast Aristotle And Plato
Early thought processes concerning education laid the groundwork for the modern philosophy of education, including university structures and frameworks. What our ancients have advocated is said to be the cause of every century’s success in continually gaining knowledge. But Plato and Aristotle had very different opinions when it came to the education branch of life.
Comparison And Contrast Essay: High School Vs. University
Education plays a very important role in a person’s life. Basic education is attained through primary school and high school. Education may be further perused after graduating from high school by attending university. This decision can make a person’s future brighter because, in most cases it is really hard to get a well-paid job and live a stable life without having a bachelor’s degree. However, people who want to peruse higher education must know that although there are similarities, there are also some differences between high school and university in terms of assignments, teachers, and responsibilities.
The Rise of Universities in Medieval Europe
Starkey, M. (2009) What is a University? Explaining the Rise of Universities in Medieval Europe, an Education Studies essay, 9th March, School of Education, University of Northampton, online at:
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Education in the middle Ages was directly linked to the church. Medieval scholars designed their own brand of philosophy, interpreting the teachings of Aristotle to agree with their religious beliefs. Their combination of philosophy and theology is known as scholasticism. Education of the Middle Ages Education, as we know it today, did not exist in the middle Ages. Illiteracy was dominant among the population. Scribes were the exception to the rule. Churches were the main source of knowledge and schooling. The medieval Christian curriculum focus was on study. The medieval scholars used classical learning for Christian purposes. Judaism rejected the world's standards of the pagan culture and education. The church went from mostly Hebrew to mostly Gentile. Christianity embraced the worldviews with open arms. . Two traditions of classical literature and philosophy separated the classical . world, but were brought together for the first time in fruitful union by the church and rearranged into an educational method that would be the standard of learning for the next one thousand years. The joining of the literary and scientific worldviews in Christ was the unique contribution of Medieval Christianity. The science of grammar and rhetoric were brought into conjunction with the science of dialectic (logic). They were arranged progressively, so that the student could use them to achieve his true goal, which in many cases was the science of theology. This system, known as the Trivium, was the foundation of the seven liberal arts programs that became universal throughout the middle Ages. This methodology was kept alive in the West. It used textbooks and examples from the ancient world [Greek and Roman] and never saw a need for writing new ones. That was not because it accepted paganism, but because it believed that in many cases the basic curricula of certain structures had been worked out in the ancient world and did not need to be written again.
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Education of the Middle Ages
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The Middle Ages covered a span of approx. 1000 years and have been described as a long period of cultural decline and stagnation. The Middle Ages were marked by the diversification and growth of economy and society and by the subsequent social tension and political and religious conflict. The early era of the middle ages is known as the Dark Ages and covered a time period form 410 A.D. through 1066 A.D. The name the Dark Ages referred to the period of time in Europe after the fall of the Roman Empire The art of the dark ages were mainly created for the eastern Orthodox Church and given the name Byzantine Art. Byzantine Art depicts the differences in the development of the Catholic religion in the west and the Byzantine Empire. Byzantine art was restricted to religious art created by monasteries, these works were one dimensional with no shadows, and muted somber tones. There were no portrait paintings and figures that were painted were done only as front facing with long, somber faces with no attempt at realism. The mental condition of the Middle Ages was one of ignorant prostration before the idols of the Church and the mind of man was ignorant of its own treasures and its own capacities. (Guisepi, n.d.). There were few schools established and monasteries were…
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people of the royal level believed that education was for the purpose of social entertainment rather than for scholarly purposes. To Baldassare Castiglione education was “pleasant entertainment with the ladies”(doc 2) or to have for social events . Castiglione's beliefs led to some people, like Michael de Montaigne, to believe that the goals of the educational system were failing. Montaigne believed the aim was to make students “not good and wise, but learned; and it has succeeded” (doc 5) because of its large focus on Greek and Latin rather than focusing on…
Life at a Medieval University
Life at a medieval university for clerics was in many regards similar to our present day college experience. When college was in session, life was basically split into two categories; life in the books, and life outside the books if you will. Scholars needed to focus their attention to the tasks at hand during learning hours. As we know today, the more time you spend studying, the better grades you’ll achieve. On the other hand, scholars needed a release from the daily grind of constant academic involvement. This may have included some popular pastimes such as drinking, gambling, and wreaking havoc downtown (nothing a modern student would do). The scholars experienced many of the problems that modern day collegians deal with as well. Some of these issues included finding the college that fits you best, shortages of funds, arguments with local residents, feuds with fellow clerics, and finding the path that would be fulfilling to them in their lives. There were only a few major differences being a life centered on religion and discussions based on theology, the fact that only males were accepted to study and the clothing that scholars wore. All in all, being at a university was for the betterment of the individual.…
Social Classes During The Middle Ages
During the late Middle Ages when the bubonic plague was rampant throughout Europe, there came a time when the common townsfolk found themselves with heavier pockets, due to lack of workers and increased prices on daily goods and services. When the upper class saw their culture being infiltrated by lowly common folk who could suddenly afford lavish goods like themselves, what are known as sumptuary laws came into effect. These laws alongside the feudal system discriminated against the lower class as well as minorities across Europe, preventing them from acquiring the lifestyle of the elite by prohibiting them from eating and dressing in the same manner as the upper class. Knowing this, one might say the upper class had monopolized the way they…
The Medieval Mind and the Dark Ages: Notes
* Most or all learning and advancements were lost. Most everyone was illiterate. Nothing was accomplished in this time. There were famines and plagues.…
- Middle Ages
- Middle school
T he Middle Ages or Medieval times is a period in the history of mankind that was between the 5th and the 15th century. It is the time when wars were intertwined with efforts to build strong communities and education differed greatly from the modern one.
At the same time, that period has created the educational basis and some of the principles that were characteristic of education in those distant years are still used by us nowadays . Let’s see how education during medieval period looked like and how it has influenced the modern educational process. Here are several interesting facts.
- The education was absolutely religious In comparison with the time of Roman Empire education during the first centuries of the medieval time was in a decay as fighting skills were considered more important. However, the impact of other cultures still reminded of the importance of knowledge and the educational system has been taken under control by the Church. Schools established by pagans were closed and the responsibility for teaching appeared to be in the hands of the representatives of religion.
- Only wealthy people could afford to study The religious representatives taught predominantly people of upper-class society. That happened mainly because it was costly as the fees were rather high, books were very difficult to obtain, extremely expensive and teaching serfs came out of the rules of feudalism as the task of both serfs and peasants was to serve the representatives of the upper class. They had to put much effort to earn their living so kids were taught to work since their childhood.
- Only Upper-class women could study but according to the limited course It goes without saying that all schools and universities founded in the Middle Ages were created for boys. Only wealthy males could attend schools, but upper-class women were also not left uneducated. They could not visit educational institutions but were taught at home . These were preferable literate courses like writing and reading as well as rules how to keep household successfully. Women were not allowed to learn other disciplines as their main life purpose was to serve their husbands and organize the household well.
- Song schools, where boys were taught to sing religious motives and sometimes they learned reading and writing;
- Monastic schools meant for boys who wished to connect their lives with religion. Sometimes these schools opened doors to boys whose families were very poor, but they had to serve in the cathedral for the opportunity to study;
- Grammar schools that were established on the territory of a church or cathedral and taught boys basic subjects.
- Disciplines learned at schools As it became obvious from the previous paragraph only in grammar schools boys were learning different subjects. The most important subjects were Latin language and grammar , rhetoric , logic and the basics of math and science . They learned astrology and philosophy as well. All the lessons were prepared on the basis of Roman and Germanic sources as well as the absence of proofs made education focused on superstitions and beliefs. There were practical lessons with hunters, trappers and others too.
- Boys were sitting on the floor during lessons;
- They were writing with a bone or ivory stylus on wooden blocks covered with wax;
- When a boy reached 14-15 years he was announced to be a scholar and continue studying at the higher educational establishment managed by bishops;
- Lessons lasted from the early morning until sunset;
- Students were punished for mistakes with a birch;
- They had to learn all the material by heart etc.
- Oxford and Cambridge universities were founded The Middle Ages is a time when two renowned all over the world universities were founded. Both Oxford and Cambridge originate from the 12th century . These institutions were the major learning centers where boys could come for advanced studying. The system of higher medieval education was similar to modern one and that is the time it originates from. University students could receive a Bachelor of Arts degree if they finish a course called quadrivium . That included the preliminary knowledge of geometry, arithmetics, astronomy, geography, music and natural sciences. To continue education and receive a Master of Arts degree a student had to choose advanced learning of one of the following subjects: theology, philosophy or medicine. The possession of this degree allowed teaching at the medieval universities.
- Education in the medieval Asia was similar to European Saying ‘similar to European’ it is meant that with the spread of Islam schooling in Asia was also held in mosques or later schools that were a part of mosques. In the Middle East pupils started learning at schools in 622 in Medina . They used to learn reading, religion, writing and universe exploring. In India the first learning centers appeared in the 5th century and they taught the 3 Vedas and 18 accomplishments. During this age many famous Asian educational establishments were founded as well: they are the Academy of Gundishapur, The University of al-Qarawiyyin, the House of Wisdom and many others.
Education in medieval period has made a great leap forward from simple church schools to majestic universities opened during these years. Despite the fact that most of the subjects were taught only mediocre universities have become powerful scientific and research centers that have laid grounds for the further development of science.
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The Culture of Europe During the Middle Ages Essay
Introduction, works cited.
Middle age in the European history was the period ranging from AD 1000-1299. It covered the 11 th , 12th and 13 th centuries. Middle age was characterized by a rapidly increasing population that saw the economy growing at a faster rate. However, this trend diminished with the eruption of wars in Europe and a series of calamities for example, the Black Death. Political organization and religious groupings were less organized during this period. This period saw the spread of Christianity throughout Europe but illiteracy derailed the efforts by majority of people to practice it. However, religion still remained the backbone of every activity as can be seen below.
Agriculture during the middle age was practiced with the use of less technology. Tools employed included Oxen and sometime due to their shortage farming could be done by use of hand hoe. Farming was practiced using the Feudal system where land was owned by Lords and tenants would rent them. Therefore, farming was done by tenants yet they did not own any piece of land. These farms were farmed according to communal system and they largely practiced rotation system (Loudon, 4-19). Land was left to rest for at least two years to regain fertility. This was because there were no other fertilization methods. Livestock’s which would have otherwise provided manure were reared in small numbers hence could not provide enough manure for very large chunks of land. Fertilization also took the form of clearing forests and burning them to provide fertility to the soil. Legumes which normally provided nitrogen for the soil were rarely grown further deteriorating the soil structure. Soil erosion was also a common thing during this period due to poor farming methods such as the shallow plowing of grain. Excess soil moisture was removed through surface draining because tile drain method was not employed during the feudal times. During this period, variation of crops was a rare thing and people specialized in cultivation of particular crops. Vast portions of land were left uncultivated sometimes due to their infertility and sometimes due to inadequate workers to work on them (Allison, 17). Towards the end of Middle age, modern agriculture slowly gained popularity and the Feudal system was replaced.
During the Middle age, diseases were associated with divinity. There were very few methods of curing a patient and people relied on divine intervention most of the time. The fall of modern Roman Empire further worsen the hygiene conditions during this period. People had no access to public medical facilities, clean water and regular bathing. Medicine was dominated by religious myths and a person who fell sick was considered to have received punishment from God. Therefore, the only way an individual could be cured from any sickness was through asking for forgiveness from God. Hospitals during this period were religious establishment and the doctors were the priests. However, Universities trained people on medicine especially men and any other traditional cure to illness was considered witchcraft. Surgery was practiced using Opium as anesthetic especially amputations and setting up of broken leg. Wine was used in the cleaning of wounds. However, the biggest blow to this era’s medicine was the break of the contagious plague that led to the Black Death. Although they considered this as a punishment from God, methods to improve on their medicinal practice went underway.
Patients are given medicinal care and treatment from nuns and monks in a hospital. It should be noted that church structures served as hospital for the sick.
In the middle age, illiteracy was dominant among the population at the time except for the scribes who helped in translating the Bible. Education came about as a result of influence from the church. Education, combined theology with philosophy especially from Aristotle to form curriculum studies in schools. Education was provided to enhance priesthood in the society. A part from theology which was taught, other subjects included arts and science which were being offered especially to the male student. However, most women were exempted from education and were only taught basic art skills that were essential in their lives. Especially, the poor women were excluded from the convent where education was being offered..
The diagram above shows a church in Germany that helped in the creation of school curriculum and provided foundation to the study of theology.
In conclusion, it can be asserted that the middle age was characterized by many religious believes. They were considered very superstitious people and were very reluctant to innovation. This period saw priests and other religious scholars as the source of consultation in cases of out break of diseases and religious buildings serving as hospitals. Generally, People in this era lived as a community especially when it came to land issues. Due to the practice of Feudalism, most poor people lived together as one in a given location provided by their master. The rich were few during this period and most of them were the land owners.
Allison, Franklin E. Soil Organic Matter and Its Role in Crop Production . Elsevier, 1973 PP 17-25.
History of medicine. Web.
Holland, Bart K. Prospecting for Drugs in Ancient and Medieval European Texts: A Scientific Approach. CRC Press, 1996 pp 1-15.
Loudon, John C. An Encyclopædia of Agriculture: Comprising the Theory and Practice of the Valuation, Transfer, Laying Out, Improvement, and Management of Landed Property; and the Cultivation and Economy of the Animal and Vegetable Productions of Agriculture.
Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green, 1831. Original from the University of California. 2007
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