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In-Text Citations: The Basics

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Note:  This page reflects the latest version of the APA Publication Manual (i.e., APA 7), which released in October 2019. The equivalent resource for the older APA 6 style  can be found here .

Reference citations in text are covered on pages 261-268 of the Publication Manual. What follows are some general guidelines for referring to the works of others in your essay.

Note:  On pages 117-118, the Publication Manual suggests that authors of research papers should use the past tense or present perfect tense for signal phrases that occur in the literature review and procedure descriptions (for example, Jones (1998)  found  or Jones (1998)  has found ...). Contexts other than traditionally-structured research writing may permit the simple present tense (for example, Jones (1998)  finds ).

APA Citation Basics

When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, like, for example, (Jones, 1998). One complete reference for each source should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.

If you are referring to an idea from another work but  NOT  directly quoting the material, or making reference to an entire book, article or other work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication and not the page number in your in-text reference.

On the other hand, if you are directly quoting or borrowing from another work, you should include the page number at the end of the parenthetical citation. Use the abbreviation “p.” (for one page) or “pp.” (for multiple pages) before listing the page number(s). Use an en dash for page ranges. For example, you might write (Jones, 1998, p. 199) or (Jones, 1998, pp. 199–201). This information is reiterated below.

Regardless of how they are referenced, all sources that are cited in the text must appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.

In-text citation capitalization, quotes, and italics/underlining

  • Always capitalize proper nouns, including author names and initials: D. Jones.
  • If you refer to the title of a source within your paper, capitalize all words that are four letters long or greater within the title of a source:  Permanence and Change . Exceptions apply to short words that are verbs, nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and adverbs:  Writing New Media ,  There Is Nothing Left to Lose .

( Note:  in your References list, only the first word of a title will be capitalized:  Writing new media .)

  • When capitalizing titles, capitalize both words in a hyphenated compound word:  Natural-Born Cyborgs .
  • Capitalize the first word after a dash or colon: "Defining Film Rhetoric: The Case of Hitchcock's  Vertigo ."
  • If the title of the work is italicized in your reference list, italicize it and use title case capitalization in the text:  The Closing of the American Mind ;  The Wizard of Oz ;  Friends .
  • If the title of the work is not italicized in your reference list, use double quotation marks and title case capitalization (even though the reference list uses sentence case): "Multimedia Narration: Constructing Possible Worlds;" "The One Where Chandler Can't Cry."

Short quotations

If you are directly quoting from a work, you will need to include the author, year of publication, and page number for the reference (preceded by "p." for a single page and “pp.” for a span of multiple pages, with the page numbers separated by an en dash).

You can introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author's last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses.

If you do not include the author’s name in the text of the sentence, place the author's last name, the year of publication, and the page number in parentheses after the quotation.

Long quotations

Place direct quotations that are 40 words or longer in a free-standing block of typewritten lines and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, indented 1/2 inch from the left margin, i.e., in the same place you would begin a new paragraph. Type the entire quotation on the new margin, and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraph within the quotation 1/2 inch from the new margin. Maintain double-spacing throughout, but do not add an extra blank line before or after it. The parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark.

Because block quotation formatting is difficult for us to replicate in the OWL's content management system, we have simply provided a screenshot of a generic example below.

This image shows how to format a long quotation in an APA seventh edition paper.

Formatting example for block quotations in APA 7 style.

Quotations from sources without pages

Direct quotations from sources that do not contain pages should not reference a page number. Instead, you may reference another logical identifying element: a paragraph, a chapter number, a section number, a table number, or something else. Older works (like religious texts) can also incorporate special location identifiers like verse numbers. In short: pick a substitute for page numbers that makes sense for your source.

Summary or paraphrase

If you are paraphrasing an idea from another work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication in your in-text reference and may omit the page numbers. APA guidelines, however, do encourage including a page range for a summary or paraphrase when it will help the reader find the information in a longer work. 

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direct quote citation apa sample

APA 7th Direct Quotes

APA Direct Quote

If a source has multiple authors, follow these guidelines.

Two  authors in a parenthetical citation:  Use an ampersand (&) between the two last names. ​ 

Two authors in the narrative:   Use  and  between the two last names. ​ 

Three or more authors:  Only cite the first author, followed by  et al.

If directly quoting, include the author, year of publication, and page number for the reference. Introduce the quote with a phrase like  according to  or state the author's last name.

  • According to Smith (2017), "First-year college students struggle with the lack of sleep, good eating habits, and APA style" (p. 23).
  • According to Jones and Brown (2017), "Citing in correct APA style can be challenging" (p. 25).
  • Smith (2017) discovered "first-year college students struggle with lack of sleep, good eating habits, and APA style" (p. 23); what does that mean for college health officers, librarians, and teachers?

If you do not name the author in the sentence, list it with the date and page numbers after the quotation.

  • She said, "First-year college students struggle with lack of sleep, good eating habits, and APA style" (Roberts, 2017, p. 199), and listed several solutions.

No page numbers . If the work does not have a page number, then provide an "address" to find the quoted text using one of the following methods:

  • Supply a heading or section name (this can be abbreviated).                                                                    "Librarians are the keepers of information" (Johnson & Minchew, 2022, Reference Section)
  • Supply a paragraph number (for unnumbered paragraphs count them accordingly).                                  "Reference is not a mute topic" (Johnson & Minchew, 2022, para. 1).
  • Supply a heading or section name and a paragraph number.                                                                      "Research is a complex undertaking. Proper technique wields the best possible results" (Johnson & Minchew, 2022, Research section, para. 3).

Audiovisual work . When providing a quote directly from an audiovisual work ( audioBooks, films, podcast, TV programs, YouTube video ), place a time stamp for the beginning of the quote in lieu of a page number.

     "Books open the path to understanding and expanding our minds" (Johnson, 2022, 7:11). 

View APA Style guidance for Quotations . 

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APA 7th referencing style

  • About APA 7th
  • Printing this guide
  • In-text references

What is a direct quotation?

Format of a direct quotation in-text reference, placement of a direct quotation in-text reference, quoting audiovisual works, works without a page number.

  • Reference list
  • Author information
  • Additional referencing information
  • Using headings
  • Book chapter
  • Brochure and pamphlets
  • ChatGPT and other generative AI tools
  • Conferences
  • Dictionary or encyclopaedia
  • Government legislation
  • Journal article
  • Lecture notes and slides
  • Legal sources
  • Newspaper or magazine article
  • Other web sources
  • Patents and standards
  • Personal communication
  • Press (media) release
  • Secondary source (indirect citation)
  • Social media
  • Software and mobile apps
  • Specialised health information
  • Television program
  • Works in non-English languages
  • Works in non-English scripts, such as Arabic or Chinese

A direct quotation reproduces word-for-word material taken directly from another author’s work, or from your own previously published work.

If the quotation is fewer than 40 words , incorporate it into your paragraph and enclose it in double quotation marks. 

David Copperfield starts with "Whether I shall turn out to be the hero of my own life, or whether that station will be held by anybody else, these pages must show" (Dickens, 1869, p. 1).

If the quotation comprises 40 or more words , include it in an indented, freestanding block of text, without quotation marks. Make it double spaced .

Whether I shall turn out to be the hero of my own life, or whether that station will be held by anybody else, these pages must show. To beginmy life with the beginning of my life, I record that I was born (as I have been informed and believe) on a Friday, at twelve o’clock at night. It was remarked that the clock began to strike, and I began to cry, simultaneously. (Dickens, 1896, p. 1)

  • Include the author, year, and specific page number for that quotation.
  • For material without page numbers, give the paragraph number or a time stamp.
  • Include a complete reference in the reference list.

(Smith, 2003, p. 105)

(Brown, 1999, pp. 49-50)

Smith (2003) has argued that "......" (p. 105)

As Brown (1999) found "......" (pp. 49-50) 

(Anderson, 2019, 2:17)

Anderson (2019) noted that "...." (2:17)

Direct quotes that are less than 40 words

Parenthetical reference.

  • Can be added either directly after the quote or at the end of the sentence.
  • Ensure it is the same sentence as the quote.

Mindfulness has a range of meanings as it "has become a trend word conveying a diversity of understandings dependent on context" (Crane, 2017, p. 586).

Mindfulness has a range of meanings as it "has become a trend word conveying a diversity of understandings dependent on context" (Crane, 2017, p. 586) and can encompass...

Narrative reference

  • Add the author in the sentence, followed by the year in brackets. Include the page number in brackets after the quote.

As Crane (2017) said, "Mindfulness has become a trend word conveying a diversity of understandings dependent on context" (p. 586).

As Crane (2017) said, "Mindfulness has become a trend word conveying a diversity of understandings dependent on context" (p. 586) and can encompass....

Quotes with more than 40 words (block quotes)

  • Include at the end of the quote.

Whether I shall turn out to be the hero of my own life, or whether that station will be held by anybody else, these pages must show. To begin my life with the beginning of my life, I record that I was born (as I have been informed and believe) on a Friday, at twelve o’clock at night. It was remarked that the clock began to strike, and I began to cry, simultaneously. (Dickens, 1896, p. 1)

  • Include the author last name in the sentence, followed by the year in brackets before the block quote.
  • Add the page number in brackets at the end of the block quote.

As Dickens (1896) famously began "David Copperfield":

Whether I shall turn out to be the hero of my own life, or whether that station will be held by anybody else, these pages must show. To begin my life with the beginning of my life, I record that I was born (as I have been informed and believe) on a Friday, at twelve o’clock at night. It was remarked that the clock began to strike, and I began to cry, simultaneously. (p. 1)

  • Add a time stamp in place of a page number when quoting from audiovisual works such as videos, songs, TV shows.

(Yates, 2019, 1:14)

(Henderson, 2017, 2:30:14)

For works without a page number, you can add:-

  • paragraph number (manually count if not listed) eg. (Kennedy, 2019, para.8)
  • heading or section name eg. (Harris, 2018, Behaviour Therapy section)
  • act, scene and line(s) for plays eg. (Wilde, 1895/1997, 1.1.6-8) (means Act 1.Scene 1.Line(s) 6-8)
  • canonically numbered sections for religious or classical works eg. (Genesis 15:6) (include book, chapter, verse, line or canto in place of page number)
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  • Last Updated: Jan 3, 2024 3:09 PM
  • URL: https://guides.library.uq.edu.au/referencing/apa7

Shapiro Library

APA Style: Basics

This is a top resource--highly recommended!

Citations for Direct Quotations

A direct quotation is a verbatim reproduction from another work. The APA recommends paraphrasing when possible. The format of the quotation and the in-text citation depends on the length of the quotation. The in-text citation will include the author, year, and page number(s). The page number format is different for single pages, a page range, and non-consecutive (discontinuous) pages. The APA formats direct quotations into short quotations (fewer than 40 words), and block quotations (40 words or more). 

Page Numbers

No Page Numbers? Check out the APA Style's section on Direct Quotation of Material Without Page Numbers This link opens in a new window . You can use section names, paragraph numbers, time stamps (for audiovisual works), and more. 

Short Quotations

Short quotations contain fewer than 40 words. To incorporate this type of quotation into your work enclose the words in quotation marks. Do not add an ellipsis unless one is used in source. Add a full in-text citation in the same sentence.

Parenthetical Citation

General Format

A parenthetical citation can be either immediately following the quotation or at the end of the sentence.

Text "quote" (Author, Year, Page).

Text "quote" (Author, Year, Page) more text.

For Example

Mental health care for veterans and active duty military needs to be greatly improved. One tool that is used is the Combat Exposure Scale (CES) this is a "seven-item self-report measure that assesses wartime stressors experienced by combatants" (Lawhorne-Scott et al., 2012, p. 36).

Narrative Citation

A narrative citation typically includes the author and year before the quotations and the page number(s) after the quotation.

Author (Year) text "quote" (Page).

However if the quote begins the sentence, the author will follow in a narrative form with the year and date in parentheses afterwards.

"Quote" text Author (Year, Page) more text.

Chen et al. (2019) noted that "an increased patient–nurse ratio would induce nurses’ intention to leave their job" (p. 12).

"Workforce staffing and scheduling for clinical units in healthcare system is a formidable challenge" wrote Sedeh (2018, p. 1) in their review of nurse staffing in emergency room departments.

Block Quotations

Block quotations contain 40 words or more. To incorporate this type of quotation into your work you will need to begin the quotation on a new line, indent the left margin for the entire quotation, and double-space the quotation. Add a full in-text citation either in the narrative while including the page numbers at the end after the quotation's final punctuation, or a parenthetical citation after the last punctuation.

A parenthetical citation is placed after the quote's final punctuation.

The symptoms of anxiety can be debilitating:

A narrative citation typically includes the author and year before the block quotation and the page number(s) immediately after the quotation's last punctuation.

Chen et al. (2019) detail how hospitals are in the business of saving lives and those in charge have a lot to take into account when planning their nurse-patient ratios:

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APA Style Guide 7th Edition

  • Direct Quote
  • About This Guide
  • Block Quote
  • Indirect Quote
  • Summary/Paraphrase
  • Tables/Graphs/Images
  • Personal Communications
  • Book/E-book
  • Journal Article
  • Website/Webpage
  • Social Media
  • Conference Papers/Presentations
  • Thesis and Dissertations
  • Video/Film/TV
  • Music/Audio
  • Visual Works
  • Student Paper Guidelines
  • Professional Paper Guidelines
  • Creating Original Tables, Graphs, and Images
  • Additional Help

General Guidelines: Direct Quote

  • Quoted material should be reproduced word-for-word.
  • Always include the author's last name, year of publication, and page number(s).
  • Use 'p.' for a single page number ( Example: p. 15) and 'pp.' for multiple page numbers ( Example: pp. 125-126).
  • If citing a source without page numbers, cite the paragraph number ( Example: para. 4) or other identifying information ( Example:  Slide 7, Table 2, Results section).  
  • You can cite your information as part of the sentence (called a narrative citation) or at the end in parentheses (known as a parenthetical citation).
  • If you have two or more authors, use the word 'and' for narrative citations and '&' for parenthetical citations 
  • If you have three or more authors, use 'et al.' after the first authors last name to indicated there are additional authors. 
  • If you are quoting sources with embedded citations, include them in the quote but you do not need to cite the embedded citations in your reference page (only the source your are quoting).  
  • If you are quoting material with quotations marks, use double quotation marks to indicate the quote and change the quotations marks in the quote to a single quotation mark.  

Narrative Direct Quotation With Page Numbers 

Author (Year) "Quote" (p. #).

Single Author:  Simmons (2019) points out, "Even with airtight routines and procedures in place, you will have students who engage in inappropriate behaviors" (p. 46). 

Two Authors:  Orben and Przybylski (2019) noted that “until they are displaced by a new technological innovation, digital screens will remain a fixture of human experience” (p. 694).

Three or more Authors: Larson et al. (2018) stated, "another potential alternative might involve a creative merger of electronic media and outdoor time to promote nature connection" (p. 982). 

Narrative Direct Quotation With an Embedded Source:  Larson et al. (2018) points out, "However, though they did not assess broader outdoor time, Kellert et al. (2017) found no discernible differences among boys’ and girls’ nature-based recreation" (p. 968). 

Note: Larson et al. would be cited in your reference page but not Kellert et al. as that is the embedded source. 

 Parenthetical Direct  Quotation With Page Numbers 

When citing multiple authors after a quotation, the ampersand symbol '&' is used instead of the word 'and'.

"Quote" (Author, Year, p. #)

Single Author:  "Even with airtight routines and procedures in place, you will have students who engage in inappropriate behaviors" (Simmons, 2019, p. 46). 

Two Authors:   “Until they are displaced by a new technological innovation, digital screens will remain a fixture of human experience” (Orben  &  Przybylski,  2019, p. 694).

Three or more Authors:   "Another potential alternative might involve a creative merger of electronic media and outdoor time to promote nature connection" ( Larson et al., 2018,  p. 982). 

Parenthetical Direct Quotation With an Embedded Source:  "However, though they did not assess broader outdoor time, Kellert et al. (2017) found no discernible differences among boys’ and girls’ nature-based recreation" (Larson et al., 2018, p. 968). 

Note: Larson et al. would be cited in your reference page but not Kellert et al.  as that is the embedded source. 

Narrative Direct Quotation Without Page Numbers

Author (Year) "Quote" (Identifying information such as paragraph number, slide number, or section).

Single Author : Cubellis (2018) stated, "Research has not been able to demonstrate the benefit of homework on student performance" (Slide 21).

Two Authors : Rabadi and Ray (2017) indicated that "There was broad consensus among educators that modeling appropriate classroom behavior sets the tone for children" (para. 13). 

Three or more Authors: Nowacek et al. (2019) highlighted, " Turning our attention to more immediate pedagogical implications, we learn from our research that writers engage in transfer talk more often than some research would lead us to expect, but not always in the ways we had anticipated" (Implications section). 

Narrative Direct Quotation With an Embedded Source:   Rabadi and Ray (2017) frame the problem as: "Over a decade ago, David Smit declared that 'overwhelmingly the evidence suggests that learners do not necessarily transfer the kinds of knowledge and skills they have learned previously to new tasks' (119)" (Introduction section).

Note: Rabadi and Ray. would be cited in your reference page but not David Smit as that is the embeded source. 

Parenthetical Direct Quotation Without Page Numbers

Single Author :  "Research has not been able to demonstrate the benefit of homework on student performance" (Cubellis,  2018,  Slide 21).

Two Authors : "There was broad consensus among educators that modeling appropriate classroom behavior sets the tone for children" (Rabadi  & Ray, 2017,  para. 13). 

Three or more Authors:  " Turning our attention to more immediate pedagogical implications, we learn from our research that writers engage in transfer talk more often than some research would lead us to expect, but not always in the ways we had anticipated" (Nowacek  et al., 2019,  Implications section). 

Parenthetical Direct Quotation With an Embedded Source:   "Over a decade ago, David Smit declared that 'overwhelmingly the evidence suggests that learners do not necessarily transfer the kinds of knowledge and skills they have learned previously to new tasks' (119)" (Rabadi & Ray, 2017, Introduction section).

Note: Rabadi and Ray. would be cited in your reference page but not David Smit as that is the embedded source. 

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  • Last Updated: Jul 16, 2021 2:43 PM
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APA Style 7th Edition: Citing Your Sources

  • Basics of APA Formatting

Purpose and Overview of In-text Citations

Citations for direct quotes, one work, one author, two or more authors, group authors, etcetera, multiple works by the same author(s) in the same year, citing indirect sources.

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  • Academic Integrity and Plagiarism

Additional Resources

  • Reference Page
  • Annotated Sample Student Paper Here's a sample paper provided by APA. For every style rule, there is a comment highlighted in the paper that tells you where to find the discussion of the rule in the APA Style Manual.

APA follows an author and date of publication model for citing sources in your research paper and are presented as either narrative or parenthetical citations.  The formatting does not vary due to format type, however it may deviate from the norm due to factors such as: number of authors, organization instead of individual author, lack of author, or lack of date.  By providing the standard author and date within your paper, the reader will be able to link the information presented easily to the full citation provided in the reference list.

View examples and explanations on this page or visit the In Text Quick View for more examples.

APA encourages paraphrasing over using direct quotes.  Use direct quotes when:

  • Reproducing an exact definition
  • Author has said something memorably or succinctly
  • When you want to respond to exact wording

When creating a citation for a direct quote, provide author, year and page number for both narrative and parenthetical citations.

Ex.  University of Southern California (2020) "direct quote from author" (p. 4)  OR  "direct quote from author" (University of Southern California, 2020, p. 4).

How to cite specific parts of a source:

Author named in text:

Social historian Richard Sennett (1980) names the tendency to come to terms with difficult experiences a "purification process" whereby "threatening or painful dissonances are warded off to preserve intact a clear and articulated image of oneself and one's place in the world" (p. 11).

Author named in parentheses:

The tendency to come to terms with difficult experiences is referred to as a "purification process" whereby "threatening or painful dissonances are warded off to preserve intact a clear and articulated image of oneself and one's place in the world" (Sennett, 1980, p. 11).

These examples © Duke University Libraries http://library.duke.edu/research/citing/within/apa.html

More than one way to cite:

Flynn (1999) stated in her treatise In a recent treatise on services (Flynn, 1999) In a 1999 treatise, Flynn stated

Subsequent references to same study in same paragraph:

In her treatise on services, Flynn (1999) stated her evaluative methods…Flynn also described

One work, multiple authors

When a work has two authors, always cite both authors' names in your text:

        Significant findings in a study of Los Angeles (McCroskey & O'Keefe, 2000)

When a citation has 3 or more authors, include the last name of the first author, followed by et al. (not italicized), and the year.

        (Nishimoto et al., 1998)

For narrative citations, use the word "and" to separate authors, for parenthetical citations, use an ampersand:

         McCroskey and O'Keefe (2000) studied Los Angeles...          (McCroskey & O'Keefe, 2000)

Groups as authors

First narrative citation: National Association of Social Workers (NASW, 1987)

Subsequent narrative citation: NASW (1987)

First text citation: (National Association of Social Workers [NASW], 1987)

Subsequent text citation: (NASW, 1987)

Works with no authors

Cite the work in your text using the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title). Put double quotation marks around the title of an article or chapter, and italicize the title of a periodical, book, brochure or report:

The policy stated in the article (“Services for Disabled Children,” 1992)

The policy stated in the book Access to Services for Children (1995)

Specific parts of a source

Indicate the page, chapter, figure, table, or equation at the appropriate point in your text. Give page numbers for quotations, and use the abbreviations for the words page and chapter:

(Aranda & Knight, 1997, p. 344)

(Ell & Castaneda, 1998, chap. 5)

Personal communications

This format applies to emails, messages from nonarchived discussion groups, electronic bulletin boards, personal interviews, telephone conversations, etc. Do not list personal communications in your reference list as they are not recoverable by your reader. In your text, provide initials and surname of communicator and as exact a date as possible.

(M. Flynn, personal communication, September 20, 1999)

Sometimes you'll have multiple works by the same author in the same year. For instance, you may reference a number of tax documents from the same year, which would all be cited with (Internal Revenue Service, 2012).  So how do you differentiate?

In those instances, differentiate sources with a letter after the year. From the example above, the 990 form might be (Internal Revenue Service, 2012a) and the 1040 form would be (Internal Revenue Service, 2012b).  Just make sure the letters stay consistent in your reference list!

Sometimes, you will use a source that you didn't yourself read.  In those cases, the original source came from a secondary source you did read.  APA states that you should use secondary sources sparingly and may occur when "the original work is out of print, unavailable, or available only in a language that you do not understand."

When using secondary sources, indicate it by included "as cited in" as part of your in-text citation

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APA Direct Quotes – Understanding & Usage

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When creating your research paper , it’s crucial to avoid plagiarism , which is identifiable when directly replicating someone’s words or core concepts. With the APA style , it’s commonplace to utilize direct quotations; these are exact phrases from the source text. Hence, it’s advised that students employ careful strategies when incorporating these quotations into their work. Additionally, it’s important to remember that understanding and appropriately using the APA citation style can greatly minimize the risk of plagiarism.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

  • 1 APA Direct Quotes – In a Nutshell
  • 2 Definition: APA direct quotes
  • 3 Citing APA direct quotes
  • 4 APA direct quotes without page number
  • 5 APA direct quotes: More than 40 words
  • 6 Altering APA Direct Quotes

APA Direct Quotes – In a Nutshell

  • An exact copy of the text from another author’s work or your own previously published work is called a direct quotation if well represented; otherwise, it is plagiarism.
  • Include the APA direct quotes in your paragraph, and enclose it in double quotation marks if it is less than 40 words.
  • If there are no page numbers, indicate the paragraph number or the time. In the reference list, provide a comprehensive reference of the APA direct quotes.

Definition: APA direct quotes

Direct quotations are taken verbatim from the source. APA direct quotes are frequently used in the middle of a paragraph.

If you don’t use double quotation marks at the start and conclusion of a quote, utilize the exact words from the source material, and cite your sources correctly, your work can be mistaken for plagiarism.

When citing APA direct quotes, you must always include:

APA-Direct-Quotes-definition

Citing APA direct quotes

You must provide an in-text citation when you make references to sum up APA direct quotes or to paraphrase another source.

There must be a reference list record for each in-text citation used in your essay.

The author’s last name and the year of publication are used in APA in-text citations, as used in:

  • (Field, 2005).
  • Include the page number when using direct quotations: (Field, 2005, p. 14).
  • Use a paragraph number for sources like websites and e-books that lack page numbers: (Field, 2005, para. 1).

Parenthetical and narrative in-text citations are both acceptable in this style of presenting APA direct quotes.

APA-Direct-Quotes-Narrative-and-Parenthetical-1

APA direct quotes without page number

In order to properly credit a source, you must include the passage’s precise location in your APA in-text citation whenever you use APA direct quotes or paraphrase a specific passage. If the material is lengthy and there are no page numbers (as when citing a website), you can use

  • paragraph numbers
  • section headings
  • a combination of both
  • (Caulfield, 2019, Linking section, para. 1).

If necessary, section headers can be condensed . Since they are inaccurate, Kindle location numbers shouldn’t be used in e-book citations.

A timestamp is a string of characters or encoded data that indicates the time and date of an event occurrence. It typically includes the date and time, but can also be accurate to a small fraction of a second. When referencing a video or audio source and need to highlight a particular section, include a timestamp in your APA in-text reference. Specify only the timestamp from the beginning of the passage you are quoting.

  • (TED, 2020, 1:59).

APA direct quotes: More than 40 words

APA direct quotes of 40 words or more should be placed in a block of freestanding typed lines without quotation marks. Place the quotation at the beginning of a new line, 1/2 inch from the left margin, just as you would a new paragraph.

In order to properly format block APA direct quotes, the following is required:

APA-Direct-Quotes-Block-quotes-1

Note: block APA direct quotes should be used sparingly. Block quotations tend to take over the paper’s voice, often overshadowing the author’s voice with that source’s voice. Instead, if at all possible, try to quote smaller portions of the piece of text and incorporate these into your voice. This practice will allow you to establish your voice as the author and show how you engage with the information, not just report it.

Multiple paragraphs in block quotes

APA-Direct-Quotes-more-Blocks

Altering APA Direct Quotes

Use square brackets rather than parentheses for anything like a comment or explanation you’ve added to a quotation. Use italics to draw attention to a particular word or words within a quotation. Put “emphasis added” in square brackets below the italicized text, like in this example: [emphasis added].

Shortening APA direct quotes

By deleting words, phrases, or sentences and replacing them with an ellipsis, you can condense a text if some of its sentences are pointless or unnecessary. Before and after the ellipsis, leave a space and ensure that omitting the terms doesn’t alter the intended meaning.

Adding words/phrases to APA direct quotes

Square brackets—[]—denote changes made to direct quotations when new words are added or removed. The words enclosed in the brackets, usually used in pairs, help integrate the quote into the writer’s phrase, clarify the meaning, or give a brief explanation.

Correcting APA Direct Quotes

Using brackets, you can modify or add words to APA direct quotes. Changes can be made to fix tense or add crucial details. Pronoun consistency inside a quote can also be achieved by using brackets. However, brackets shouldn’t be utilized to alter the quote’s meaning.

Ireland

Can there be direct quotes in APA?

A complete citation with the page number must always be included for APA direct quotes in the same sentence (or other location information, e.g., paragraph number). Include a parenthetical citation either directly after the quotation or at the end of the sentence.

How do you list a direct quote in APA?

Before the list, use a signal phrase to introduce the source in your text. The list should be single-spaced; you can put any word changes or additions in brackets. Put a citation after the final item in the list and if the list ends with a period, put your citation after that. This is a crucial approach when attempting to pull off APA direct quotes.

How do you cite a quote in APA 7th edition?

Place parenthesis containing the APA direct quotes’ author, publication year, and page number(s) after the passage. Put a “p.” before the page number if the quotations are one page long.

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Home / Guides / Citation Guides / APA Format / APA In-text Citations

APA In-Text Citations

Welcome to our guide on in-text citations! If you’re looking to learn the ins and outs of APA style in-text citations and how to do in-text citations APA, we’ve got you covered in this thorough guide.

The information below follows the 7th edition of the  Publication manual of the American Psychological Association .

Here’s a run through of everything this page includes:

  • APA Style overview
  • In-text citations and why we use them
  • Two types of APA in-text citations
  • Corresponding entry in reference list
  • In-text citations for direct quotes

Paraphrasing in APA

  • In-text citations for sources with one author
  • In-text citations for sources with multiple authors
  • In-text citations for sources with no author or date
  • Additional in-text citation examples

If you’re simply looking for a quick guide, check out our APA parenthetical citation guide, which serves as a lite-version of this page.

Let’s get started!

What is APA?

This is a term that you might hear your teacher, professor, or librarian throw around a lot. This abbreviation stands for

P sychological

A ssociation

This association is kind of a big deal. They do a lot of things related to psychology, but they’re also famous for creating one of the most popular citation styles, APA format . There are other big names on campus, such as MLA format , and Chicago, but this particular style is commonly used by individuals who are writing a science-related paper.

Even if your paper doesn’t necessarily fall into a “science” category, many educators ask their students to cite in this style since it’s so commonly used.

If you’re trying to find information about other commonly used styles, there are more styles on EasyBib.com.

What is an APA In-text Citation?

In plain and simple terms, APA in-text citations are found in the text of a project. Get it? In text. The purpose of an in-text citation in APA is to show the reader, while they’re reading your work, that a piece of information in your project was found elsewhere. They’re placed IN the wording or body of a project, not on the last page; the last page has full references. To learn more about those types of references, check out APA citation .

We’ve all heard about the word plagiarism , and you already know what it means. Simply put, including APA in-text citations are one way to prevent plagiarism.

Here’s what’s included in an APA 7th edition in-text citation:

  • Last name(s) of the author(s) or Group name
  • Year the source was published
  • Page number (if available)

Depending on the number of authors and the source type, some in-text citations look different than others. Read on to learn how to structure an in-text citation for APA. In fact, if you’re looking for an easy route, EasyBib.com has an in-text citation APA generator, which does the work for you. Use our automatic generator to create your full references, and you’ll see an option on the final screen to format your APA in-text citations. An APA in-text citation generator and full reference generator all in one. What could beat that?

Why do we use in-text citations?

When you do a research project, you’re probably going to include facts from websites, databases, books, and other sources. When you add those facts into your project, you must show where those facts came from. It’s the responsible thing to do. It prevents plagiarism. You always give credit to the original author. It’s kind of like thanking them for their contribution to your paper.

Here’s the neat thing about in-text citations. Since they’re IN your project, readers get a quick idea as to where the information you included came from. In-text citations APA are not long and lengthy, like the full references on the APA reference page  or APA bibliography . In-text citations are cute, little, and give us the perfect amount of information we need to understand where a fact came from. If you want to get the full information about the source, then you can flip to the back page of the paper, where the full reference is listed. The in-text citation APA style provides us with a tidbit of information. Just enough to glance at it and keep on going with reading the paper.

To recap, in-text citations are great because:

  • They credit the original author of a work or information
  • They let readers quickly see where the information is coming from
  • Including helps make you an ethical writer

If you’re looking to learn more about footnotes in Chicago format , MLA in-text & parenthetical citations , or want to learn how to cite websites in MLA , EasyBib.com has the information you need to be a citing superstar.

Types of APA In-text Citations

Just like there are two days in the weekend, two types of peanut butter (creamy and nutty), and two types of foods we crave (salty and sweet), there are (you guessed it) two types of in-text citations.

The in-text citation APA option you include in your paper depends on how you craft your sentences.

Narrative In-Text APA Citations:

In-text citation APA format, in narrative form, is one that shows the author’s name in the sentence itself.

Narrative In-text APA Citation Example:

Tyson, Strauss, and Gott (2016) encourage the use of simplified terms when it comes to discussing and defining the universe. For example, a small white star is simply called a white dwarf. Keep it short and sweet because the universe is confusing enough (p. 22).

Parenthetical Citations:

This is a type of APA in-text citation where the author’s name(s) are in parentheses, usually at the end of the fact or quote.

Parenthetical Citation Example

Use simplified terms when discussing and defining the universe. For example, a small white star is simply called a white dwarf. Keep it short and sweet because the universe is confusing enough (Tyson, Strauss, & Gott, 2016, p. 22).

As you can see, the type of APA in-text citation you include, whether it’s a narrative one or one in parentheses, depends on how you decide to structure your sentences. It doesn’t matter if you use all narrative, all parentheses, or a mix of both.

What is important is that you’re a responsible researcher and you properly cite your sources!

Remember, most facts, quotes, stats, and copied and pasted information NEED an APA in-text citation next to it.

What’s the only type of information you don’t need to create an in-text citation APA for? Anything that’s common knowledge. For example, paper is made from trees. You and most people already knew that. That’s an example of common knowledge. It’s a piece of information that everyone already knows.

Now, before you simply include the author’s name(s), the date, and the page number in your project and think you’ve covered all your bases, you’re not quite done yet. In-text citations APA are only part of the puzzle.

The other piece of the puzzle is found on the last page of the project: the reference page. That’s where all of the full references are found in their entirety. In-text citations only include the author’s name, year published, and the page number.

The reference page, on the other hand, includes the title of each source, the publishers, the website addresses, and other information. Continue reading to learn why in-text citations and references on the reference page are the perfect match.

Before we continue, MLA works cited pages are very similar to the ones in this style. EasyBib.com has resources for many styles, to help you learn the ins and outs of referencing your work. We even have full pages on grammar topics too, to keep your paper in tip-top shape. Brush up on your noun , conjunction , and interjection skills with our easy-to-follow, comprehensive guides.

Corresponding entry in APA reference list

Would you ever put on one shoe and walk around without the other? Of course not. The same goes with in-text citations and full references. You must include both in your paper. Where there’s one there has to be the other.

Each and every in-text citation APA must have a matching full reference on the reference page (American Psychological Association, p. 262 ).

If you’re wondering why, it’s to allow the reader to get that sneak peek about the source while reading your paper (the APA in-text citation), and then learn all about it on the final page (the reference page). If the reader wants to get their hands on a copy of the sources you used, all of the information they need can be found on the reference page.

Remember those APA style in-text citation examples found above? Let’s take a peek at them again.

Here’s the one with the authors’ names in parentheses: Use simplified terms when discussing and defining the universe. For example, a small white star is simply called a white dwarf. Keep it short and sweet because the universe is confusing enough (deGrasse, Strauss, & Gott, 2016, p. 22).

Here’s the full reference, which would be found on the final page of the project:

Tyson, N. D., Strauss, M. A., and Gott, J. R. (2016). Welcome to the universe: An astrophysical tour. Princeton University Press.

Notice that in the above in-text citation APA example, the full title of the book, the place the book was published, and the publisher are displayed. If the reader wants to locate the book themselves, all of the information they need is found in the full reference.

One other important thing we’d like to point out is that the same information from the in-text citation APA (Tyson, Strauss, & Gott) matches the first part of the full reference. This is done to allow the reader to easily find the full reference on the final page.

Remember, always include both in-text citations AND full references in your projects.

In the body of projects, in-text citations APA serve an important purpose. They give the reader a snippet of understanding as to the origin of  information. It’s just enough information to allow the reader to continue reading the paper in a natural and fluid manner, without having to trip over long, clunky references. If the reader wants to get a detailed understanding of a source, they can flip to the back page, the reference page, to scope out all of the nitty gritty details.

In the next two sections of this page, we’re going to switch gears and share how to properly format direct quotes and paraphrases.

If you’re looking for specific source types, check out APA citation website and APA book citation . These two resources will explain how to format those specific types of references. If you’re stuck and not sure how to start, check out Chapter 10 of the  Publication manual for some sample citations.

Direct Quotes in APA

As Drake states in his lyrics, “We don’t like to do too much explaining,” so we’re going to keep this one short and to the point.

“Direct quotes” are a fancy term used for any text that has been copied and pasted into your paper. That Drake quote above is a direct quote.

Direct quotes are any words or sentences copied and pasted into your project, but they don’t necessarily have to be a person’s quote. Anytime you copy and paste text into your assignment, you must include an APA in-text citation next to it. This shows the reader that:

  • The information came from another source
  • You’re being a responsible researcher and clearly documenting the outside source.

Here are some guidelines to keep in mind when it comes to direct quotes:

  • Direct quotes are a solid way to show evidence and prove your point, but use them sparingly. Your paper shouldn’t be riddled with copied and pasted text.
  • Put quotation marks around the copied and pasted information. (The exception are APA block quotes , which are direct quotes longer than 40 words and are formatted differently.)
  • Always include the page number for direct quotes, if one is available. When formatting APA page numbers for an in-text citation, include p. before the number. Use pp. for a page range.

To create a narrative APA in-text citation, include the author’s last name in the sentence like this:

  • As Drake (2013) once said “We don’t like to do too much explaining.”
  • In the above APA in-text citation example, the Drake quote was taken from the song, “Started From the Bottom,” in 2013. The title of the source would be included in the reference page.

Or, you include the author’s name in parentheses:

  • “We don’t like to do too much explaining” (Drake, 2013).

If you are looking for more examples, go to page 272 of the American Psychological Association’s official Publication manual .

We said above that your entire paper shouldn’t have direct quotes everywhere. So, another way to include information from a source is by adding a paraphrase . Simply put, a paraphrase is restated information, but formed using your own words and writing style

APA paraphrases still need an in-text citation since the information was obtained elsewhere. Check out this quote from the song, “For Time,” by Drake:

“I like it when money makes a difference, but don’t make you different.”

To include it in your paper, without using the exact quote, make a paraphrase. Here’s one that would work:

Money has the ability to benefit things in your life, but it’s truly great when it doesn’t cause the person to act differently or change who they are (Drake, 2013).

The above APA in-text citation example is one with Drake’s name in parentheses. If you’d like to include the author’s name narratively, here’s an option:

In Drake’s (2013) lyrics, he shares that money has the ability to benefit things in your life. It’s truly great when it doesn’t cause the person to act differently or change who they are.

It is recommended to include page numbers for paraphrased material, but isn’t required.

Here’s more on paraphrases and direct quotes.

Organizing APA In-text Citations

Ready to learn how to structure your in-text citations? The next section dives deep into developing them and answers “How to do in-text citations APA.” Keep in mind that how each one is formed depends on the number of authors and other factors. All the examples below follow rules laid out in Chapter 8 of the Publication manual.

Even though the structure varies, most in-text citations APA are placed in this manner for narrative in-text citations:

Author’s Last Name (Year) “Quote or Paraphrase” (p. number).

For ones in parentheses, most are placed in this manner:

“Quote” or Paraphrase (Author’s Last Name, Year, p. number).

Notice that whether you choose to include a narrative in-text citation APA or one in parentheses, the author names and the year published are always together. They’re pretty much holding hands. Cute, huh?

Read on to learn the ins and outs of structuring various in-text citations.

Don’t forget, EasyBib.com has an in-text citation APA generator. Wondering what it’s all about? Here’s a quick explanation: We work for you so citing is easy for you. Yep, you read that correctly.

Our tools structure your in-text citations the way they’re supposed to be structured. Use our automatic generator to create your full references, and on the final screen you’ll see the option to create your in-text citations. An APA in-text citation generator that’s easy as pie!

Something else we do for you? We have a plagiarism checker that scans your paper for any instances of accidental copying. We also have tons of grammar pages to keep your page in check. Check out our adverb , preposition , and verb pages.

APA In-Text Citations for Sources with One Author

If your source has one author.

If your source has one author, lucky you! Your in-text citation is pretty simple to structure.

Narrative In-text APA Citation:

Author’s Last Name (Year published) are found in the sentence with a “direct quote” or paraphrase (p. number).

Parenthetical APA Citation:

“Direct quote” or Paraphrase (Author’s Last Name, Year published, p. number).

Citing multiple sources by the same author in the same year

You may have a bunch of case studies, articles, or books that you’re referencing, all by the same author. Let’s say you’re analyzing two works by Sigmund Freud, Jokes and Their Relation to the Unconscious and also Fragment of an Analysis of a Case of Hysteria , both of which were published in 1905. Placing (Freud, 1905) in the text would be confusing for the reader. How would the reader determine which source you’re referencing?

If this is the situation you’re in, there’s a pretty simple fix.

Place a lowercase a next to the year in the first source (Freud, 1905a). Place a lowercase b next to the second source (Freud, 1905b). Include those same lowercase letters in the full references on the reference page, like so:

Freud, S. (1905a). Fragment of an analysis of a case of hysteria . https://staferla.free.fr/Freud/Freud%20complete%20Works.pdf

Freud, S. (1905b). Jokes and their relation to the unconscious . https://staferla.free.fr/Freud/Freud%20complete%20Works.pdf

But there’s a catch. When you do this et al. can’t stand for only one author. After all it literally means “and others.” If you have two sources that are identical except for the last author, then you have to write out all the names every time. For example:

Gunderman, Slack, Rausch, and Smith (2017)

Gunderman, Slack, Rausch, and Johnston (2017)

These references are completely the same except for the very last name so you’d have to write all 4 names every time.

If your source has multiple works by the same author

What if you had 2 sources with the same author(s) and same publication year? Lucky for us the solution here is a lot simpler. Just a letter to the publication year!

Gunderman, Slack, and Rausch (2017)

Gunderman, Slack, and Rausch (2017a)

Gunderman, Slack, and Rausch (2017b)

Just remember to also follow this format in your works cited page even if there is an exact publication date available. See page 267 of your Publication Manual (American Psychological Association, 2020) for a further breakdown.

Need to create an APA in-text citation for a source without an author? How about an APA in-text citation for multiple authors? Continue reading to see the other ways to structure an APA style in-text citation.

APA In-Text Citations for Sources with Multiple Authors

Apa in-text citation for sources with two authors.

If your source has two authors, place them in the order they appear on the source. Do not place them in alphabetical order.

Use the word “and” in between the authors’ names.

1st Author’s Last Name and 2nd Author’s Last Name (Year published) are found somewhere in the sentence with a “direct quote” or paraphrase (p. number).

If you choose to include both authors’ names in parentheses, use an ampersand in between their names.

“Here is the direct quote” or Here is the paraphrase (1st Author’s Last Name & 2nd Author’s Last name, Year, p. number).

APA in-text citation for sources three or more authors

Only include the first author’s last name and then add ‘et al.’ Et al. is a fancy way of saying “and others” in Latin.

1st Author’s Last Name et al. (Year published) are found somewhere in the sentence with a “direct quote” or paraphrase (p. number).

“Here is the direct quote” or Paraphrase (1st Author’s Last Name et al., Year published, p. number).

If you have author of multiple works (with multiple authors)

Now here is where things can get a tad bit tricky. Sometimes authors with multiple works can cause some confusion in your citations. Generally when that happens you can tell the difference by the publication year, but when you can’t, that’s when you have to list as many authors as necessary to clear up the confusion.

Say you had the two sources below:

Gunderman, Slack, Rausch, and Maule (2017)

Gunderman, Byrnes, Oxner, Wigginton, and Draeger (2017)

Normally, they’d be written as:

Gunderman et al. (2017)

If you reduced both sources to Gunderman et al. (2017) you wouldn’t be able to tell which source you’re talking about. Instead cite it this way:

Gunderman, Slack, Rausch et al. (2017)

Gunderman, Byrnes, Oxner et al. (2017)

If you’re looking for more information on structuring journal articles, check out our APA journal page.

If you’re looking for a simple solution to referencing multiple authors, EasyBib.com creates in-text citations APA for you! Whether you need to create a reference for one or two authors, or an APA in-text citation for multiple authors, we’ve got you covered!

APA In-text citation no author or date

It’s common to come across sources without any authors. Movies, brochures, website pages often do not have a visible author’s name.

Citing a source with no author

If you find that the source you’re attempting to reference does not have an author, use the first few words from the reference list entry in the APA in-text citation with no author. Most often, it’s the title of the source.

Place the source name in quotation marks if the source is a:

  • website page

Simply italicize the source name if the source is a:

  • Or the full reference starts with italicized information

Remember, you do not have to use the entire title in your in-text citation APA no author. You can use only the first few words from the reference list.

“First few words of the webpage, article, or chapter Title” (Year) along with the “direct quote” or paraphrase (p. number). OR First few words of book, newspaper, report, or brochure (Year) along with the “direct quote” or paraphrase (p. number).

“Here is the direct quote” or paraphrase (“Web page, Article, or Chapter Title,” Year, p. number). OR “Here is the direct quote” or paraphrase ( Book, Newspaper, Report, or Brochure Title , Year, p. number).

Citing source with no date

No date? No problem! An APA in-text citation no date situation is easier to solve than you think. Only include the author’s name and the page number.

APA in-text citation no date example:

(Foster, p. 35).

Additional APA In-Text Citation Examples

Source by a group, organization, company, or government agency.

There are two types of groups: Ones that are abbreviated often and ones that are not abbreviated.

For example, think about these two citation style types: APA and Chicago. One is abbreviated (for the American Psychological Association) and the other is usually written as is (Chicago style).

Abbreviated groups

If the company is often abbreviated, in the first mention in text, display the full name and the abbreviation. In the second and any other subsequent mentions, only use the abbreviation.

1st mention:

Full Company’s Name (Abbreviation, Year) with the “direct quote” or paraphrase (p. number).

2nd mention:

Company Abbrev. (Year) “direct quote” or paraphrase (p. number).

“Direct quote” or paraphrase (Full Company’s Name [Abbreviation], Year, p. number).

“Direct quote” or paraphrase (Abbreviation, Year, p. number).

Non-abbreviated groups

Always include the full group, company, or organization’s name in each and every mention in text.

Full Name of Group (Year) with the “direct quote” or paraphrase (p. number).

“Direct quote” or paraphrase (Full Name of Group, Year, p. number).

Citing sources with different authors with the same last name

We’re not quite sure how the author of The Baby-Sitters Club (Ann M. Martin) could be used in a paper that’s also referencing the author of Game of Thrones (George R. R. Martin), but hey, it could happen! It’s a Martin party! It’s important to show the reader the difference between the two individuals to prevent any confusion. To differentiate between the two authors in the text, include their first initials.

Example of in-text citation APA:

“Here’s a quote” (A. Martin, Year, p. 6). G. Martin (Year) also states “this direct quote” (p. 45).

As always, keep the author names and the dates directly next to each other. They love being together and it’s a best practice.

Citing multiple sources in the same in-text citation

List sources alphabetically and separate with a semicolon.

Be sure to list authors alphabetically.

Johnson (2019), Smith and Adams (2015), and Washington (2017), examined…

“Direct quote” or Paraphrase (Author 1 Last Name, Year published, p. number if needed; Author 2 Last Name, Year published, p. number if needed)

Parenthetical Citation Examples:

(Johnson et al., 2019; Smith & Adams, 2015; Washington, 2017)

(Honda, 2006, p. 107; Sato, 1980)

If you want to emphasize a source because it is particularly important or relevant, add “see also” before the source’s citation. Think of “see also” as synonymous with “for more information see…”

(Johnson et al., 2019; see also Smith & Adams, 2015; Washington, 2017).

Citing a source within a source

Did you stumble upon the perfect quote that’s quoted in another source? It happens all of the time and it can be a little tricky to figure out how to quote a quote.

The American Psychological Association recommends locating the original quote, if possible. Instead of relying on secondary sources, take the time to locate the original source to make sure the quote is accurate. Finding and reading through the original source also provides you with further information on your research topic!

If finding the original source isn’t possible, due to out of print titles, web pages taken down, or other factors, then it’s okay to quote the secondary source. In your writing, use the phrase “as cited in Secondary Author’s Last name, Year.”

On the reference page, include the reference for the secondary source.

As cited in Shapiro’s (2019) article, Carranza stated, “Districts 3 and 15 are showing how we can have the important conversations and take bold action on this issue.”

Carranza stated, “Districts 3 and 15 are showing how we can have the important conversations and take bold action on this issue” (as cited in Shapiro, 2019).

On the reference page, Shapiro’s article would be referenced in its entirety.

Citing audiovisual material

APA in-text citations for YouTube videos , songs, podcasts, television shows, and other audiovisual materials look a bit different than other types of sources. They include an extra piece of information: a time stamp.

Bill Nye (2017) shares that the sun is over four-hundred septillion watts (13:15).

The sun is over four-hundred septillion watts (Bill Nye, 2017, 13:15).

If you’re still scratching your head, and feeling the urge to type “how to do in-text citations APA” into Google, click here for a website that we dig.

If you’re looking for a quick fix to developing your references, EasyBib.com has you covered! Our tools can help you create an APA in-text citation multiple authors, one author, no authors, plus more!

Overview of APA Parenthetical Citations for Websites

Here’s a quick overview of how to create an in-text citation for websites. Notice that since these are for online sources, the in-text citation has no page number.

Once again, if grammar isn’t your thing, and you’re looking for help related to specific parts of speech, check out our adjective , pronoun , and determiner pages, among many, many others!

Follow our EasyBib Twitter feed to find more citing tips, fun grammar facts, and the latest product updates.

direct quote citation apa sample

American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.) https:doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000

Published May 21, 2019. Updated October 25, 2020.

Written and edited by Michele Kirschenbaum and Elise Barbeau . Michele Kirschenbaum is a school library media specialist and one of the in-house EasyBib librarians. Elise Barbeau is the Citation Specialist at Chegg. She has worked in digital marketing, libraries, and publishing.

APA Formatting Guide

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An in-text citation is a shortened version of the source being referred to in the paper. As the name implies, it appears in the text of the paper. A reference list entry, on the other hand, details the complete information of the source being cited and is listed at the end of the paper after the main text. An example of an in-text citation and the corresponding reference list entry for a journal article with one author is listed below for your understanding:

In-text citation template and example:

Only the author name and the publication year are used in in-text citations to direct the reader to the corresponding reference list entry.

Author Surname (Publication Year)

Elden (2003)

Parenthetical

(Author Surname, Publication Year)

(Elden, 2003)

Reference list entry template and example:

Complete information of the reference is used to guide the reader to locate the source for further reference. In the below template, “F” and “M” are first and middle initials, respectively. #–# denotes the page range.

Surname, F. M. (Publication Year). Title of the article: Subtitle. Journal Title, Volume (Issue), #–#. DOI

Elden, S. (2003). Plague, panopticon, police. Surveillance & Society, 1 (3), 240–253. https://doi:10.24908/ss.v1i3.3339

When you use APA style, all sources need to have in-text citations. In-text citations direct a reader to the reference entry to get more information on the source being cited in the text. If an in-text citation is not provided, your reader doesn’t know whether there is a source available in the reference list for the idea or topic being discussed in the text. Even if all the basic elements to cite a source are not available, try to provide an in-text citation with the information you do have. For example, if a source does not have an author, use a shortened version of the title in place of the author in your in-text citation. An example is given below for a parenthetical citation.

Author name available:

(Author Surname, Publication Year, p.# for direct quote)

Author name not available:

(“Title of the Work,” Publication Year, p.# for direct quote)

Therefore, in-text citations are essential to guide a reader to locate the corresponding sources in the reference list for the topics discussed in the text.

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  • In-text Citation: Direct Quote

APA 7th Edition: In-text Citation: Direct Quote

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Direct Quote

Direct Quotation  refers to copying word for word from another source and incorporating the passage, unaltered, into your own work. Show the reader that these are not your own words by putting the copied text within quotation marks " " and adding a citation. Direct Quotes should be used sparingly in your paper and should be saved for especially impactful statements or when you will be responding to someone's exact words. 

Direct quotes do not have to be an entire sentence; they can be a partial sentence or just a few words unique to your author or field of research. 

For APA 7th ed format, add the in-text citation either after the direct quote, wherever it appears in the sentence, or at the end of the sentence (APA 7th ed Handbook 8.26): 

“Even smart, educated, emotionally stable adults believe superstitions that they recognize are not rational,” (Risen, 2016, p. 202) as exemplified by the existence of people who knock on wood for good luck.

“Even smart, educated, emotionally stable adults believe superstitions that they recognize are not rational,” as exemplified by the existence of people who knock on wood for good luck (Risen, 2016, p. 202).

To improve the readability of your paper, minor changes to Direct Quotations are permitted. See  Changes to Quotations  (APA Style) about allowable changes to Direct Quotes  https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/citations/quotations/changes

Direct Quote: Parenthetical and Narrative Citation : Basic Format

Basic Format:    (Author Last Name, Year, p. page#)   Example: (Bradshaw, 2013, p. 8)  * use pp. for a page range: e.g. pp. 8-9.

Parenthetical Citation

When studying feline behavior, it is more beneficial to study the animal's wild ancestors than to observe the cat in its present day domestic environment because their "species-specific behavior patterns" (Bradshaw, 2013, p. 8)  are largely inherited from wild cats. 

Narrative Citation

Bradshaw (2013) suggests that when studying feline behavior, it is more beneficial to study the animal's wild ancestors than to observe the cat in its present day domestic environment because their "species-specific behavior patterns" (p. 8) are largely inherited from wild cats. 

Direct Quote: Citation for sources with no page numbers

Basic Format:   (Author Last Name, Year, para. paragraph#)   Example:   (Chamberlin, 2014, para. 1)

*see also  Direct Quotes with No Page Numbers  (APA Style):  https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/citations/quotations/no-page-numbers

When incorporating quotations from sources with no page numbers (e.g. a web source), provide the paragraph number the quote appears in. Use  para.  (e.g. para. 1) for a single paragraph or  paras.  (paras. 2-3) for a paragraph range.

Parenthetical Citation:

People planning for retirement need more than just money—they also “need to stockpile their emotional reserves” to ensure adequate support from family and friends (Chamberlin, 2014, para. 1).

Narrative Citation:

Chamberlin (2014) notes that people planning for retirement need more than just money—they also “need to stockpile their emotional reserves” to ensure adequate support from family and friends (para. 1).

If the work is divided into sections with headers, include the section name (abbreviate long section names) and use the paragraph number from the beginning of that section: 

Music and language are intertwined in the brain such that “people who are better at rhythmic memory skills tend to excel at language skills as well” (DeAngelis, 2018, Musical Forays section, para. 4).

Use a timestamp when quoting from audio and video sources: 

People make "sweeping inferences and judgements from body language" (Cuddy, 2021, 2:12).

The APA notes that pages, paragraphs, time stamps, slide numbers, tables, parts, chapters, figures, lines etc. are all acceptable parts of works to cite for direct quotes (8.13). E.g. Slide 34; Table 1; Chapter 4.

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APA Reference Guide: Direct quotes, paraphrasing and in-text citation

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Direct Quotes, Paraphrasing and In-Text Citation

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Reference List Example

Click here to go to the Reference List page and see an example of a reference list.

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direct quote citation apa sample

What is a direct quote?

To directly   quote  is to write down exactly what someone has said or written, and credit the speaker of the words. A direct quote is identified by using quotation marks, as per the example below from Sir David Attenborough: “But, according to the environmental economists, we must now curb our passion for growth, distribute resources more evenly.”  

What is a paraphrase (or indirect quote)?

A paraphrase is using someone else's quote in your own words. Also known as an indirect quote, it documents what a person has said without using the exact words of the speaker. Quotation marks are not used when paraphrasing. An example of a paraphrase of the direct quote in the previous example from Sir David Attenborough may be: It is important to rethink our propensity for growth and consider distributing resources in a more equitable fashion for the sake of the planet.

In-Text Citation

What is an In-Text Citation? Regardless of whether you are directly quoting someone or paraphrasing their words, an  in-text citation is always required. An in-text citation is acknowledging the person you are quoting within the body of your assignment, and is placed directly after the quote or paraphrase, followed by a full stop.

Examples of in-text

How to Add an In-Text Citation in your Assignment

There are different ways to include an in-text citation, depending on whether you are using a direct quote, or paraphrasing:

direct quote citation apa sample

Quotes 40+ words

Quotations of 40 or more words Quotes of 40 or more words are set as a block quotation, and indented (shifted) about 1 cm from the left margin. Quotation marks are not used (even if it is a direct quote). The in-text citation is added at the end of the quote, after the full stop. There is no full stop following the in-text citation. Example of quote of 40 or more words in a block: Block quote. (author, year, page number)

Many countries are looking at new ways to measure economic progress to include the effect on the environment.            In 2019, New Zealand made the bold step of formally dropping GDP as its primary measure of economic                        success. It didn't adopt any of the existing alternatives, but instead created its own index based upon its                         most pressing national concerns. All three Ps - profit, people and planet - were represented.                                               (Attenborough, 2020, p. 134)

Citing a Quote Within a Quote

A quote within a quote - secondary source, if an author quotes someone else, and you want to use this quote for your assignment, you are using a secondary source . for example, if david attenborough (original source) quotes jane goodall (secondary source)  in his book, and you want to use jane goodall's quote in your assignment, this is using a secondary source.  example of a secondary source in-text citation:, author of secondary source (year of secondary source, [as cited in] author of original source, year of original source, page of original source), according to jane goodall (2002, as cited in attenborough, 2020, p. 260), the number of gorillas in the wild have fallen dramatically.,   whenever possible, try and find the original source to reference   the reference list will include the source you actually used (for this example, the reference list would include david attenborough's book), omitting content from a quote, omitting a word from an original quote, if a word(s) is removed from a quote, a parenthetical ellipsis (...)  is added in its place.  example:, "we are polluting the earth with far too many fertilisers, distrupting...phosphorus cycles" (attenborough, 2020, p. 111)..

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How to Cite in APA Format (7th edition) | Guide & Generator

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This citation guide outlines the most important citation guidelines from the 7th edition APA Publication Manual (2020). Scribbr also offers free guides for the older APA 6th edition , MLA Style , and Chicago Style .

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Table of contents

Apa in-text citations, apa references, formatting the apa reference page, free lecture slides, frequently asked questions.

In-text citations are brief references in the running text that direct readers to the reference entry at the end of the paper. You include them every time you quote or paraphrase someone else’s ideas or words to avoid plagiarism .

An APA in-text citation consists of the author’s last name and the year of publication (also known as the author-date system). If you’re citing a specific part of a source, you should also include a locator such as a page number or timestamp. For example: (Smith, 2020, p. 170) .

Parenthetical vs. narrative citation

The in-text citation can take two forms: parenthetical and narrative. Both types are generated automatically when citing a source with Scribbr’s APA Citation Generator.

  • Parenthetical citation: According to new research … (Smith, 2020) .
  • Narrative citation: Smith (2020) notes that …

Multiple authors and corporate authors

The in-text citation changes slightly when a source has multiple authors or an organization as an author. Pay attention to punctuation and the use of the ampersand (&) symbol.

Missing information

When the author, publication date or locator is unknown, take the steps outlined below.

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direct quote citation apa sample

APA references generally include information about the author , publication date , title , and source . Depending on the type of source, you may have to include extra information that helps your reader locate the source.

Reference examples

Citing a source starts with choosing the correct reference format. Use Scribbr’s Citation Example Generator to learn more about the format for the most common source types. Pay close attention to punctuation, capitalization, and italicization.

Generate APA citations for free

It is not uncommon for certain information to be unknown or missing, especially with sources found online. In these cases, the reference is slightly adjusted.

APA Reference Page (7th edition)

On the first line of the page, write the section label “References” (in bold and centered). On the second line, start listing your references in alphabetical order .

Apply these formatting guidelines to the APA reference page:

  • Double spacing (within and between references)
  • Hanging indent of ½ inch
  • Legible font (e.g. Times New Roman 12 or Arial 11)
  • Page number in the top right header

Which sources to include

On the reference page, you only include sources that you have cited in the text (with an in-text citation ). You should not include references to personal communications that your reader can’t access (e.g. emails, phone conversations or private online material).

Are you a teacher or professor looking to introduce your students to APA Style? Download our free introductory lecture slides, available for Google Slides and Microsoft PowerPoint.

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When no individual author name is listed, but the source can clearly be attributed to a specific organization—e.g., a press release by a charity, a report by an agency, or a page from a company’s website—use the organization’s name as the author in the reference entry and APA in-text citations .

When no author at all can be determined—e.g. a collaboratively edited wiki or an online article published anonymously—use the title in place of the author. In the in-text citation, put the title in quotation marks if it appears in plain text in the reference list, and in italics if it appears in italics in the reference list. Shorten it if necessary.

When you quote or paraphrase a specific passage from a source, you need to indicate the location of the passage in your APA in-text citation . If there are no page numbers (e.g. when citing a website ) but the text is long, you can instead use section headings, paragraph numbers, or a combination of the two:

(Caulfield, 2019, Linking section, para. 1).

Section headings can be shortened if necessary. Kindle location numbers should not be used in ebook citations , as they are unreliable.

If you are referring to the source as a whole, it’s not necessary to include a page number or other marker.

The abbreviation “ et al. ” (meaning “and others”) is used to shorten APA in-text citations with three or more authors . Here’s how it works:

Only include the first author’s last name, followed by “et al.”, a comma and the year of publication, for example (Taylor et al., 2018).

APA Style usually does not require an access date. You never need to include one when citing journal articles , e-books , or other stable online sources.

However, if you are citing a website or online article that’s designed to change over time, it’s a good idea to include an access date. In this case, write it in the following format at the end of the reference: Retrieved October 19, 2020, from https://www.uva.nl/en/about-the-uva/about-the-university/about-the-university.html

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Good to know

The punctuation at the end of the sentence goes after and outside the parenthesis.

I am paraphrasing (Smith, 2019). 

If you are using a direct quote, there is no comma between the end of the quotation and the in-text citation. 

"this is a quote" (Smith, 2019, p. 263). 

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APA direct quote

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A direct quote in APA style involves transcribing a piece of text word-for-word from a source. It requires appropriate in-text citation.

When using a direct quote in your paper, you need to include the author's last name, the year of publication, and the page number(s) from where the quote was taken, all within parentheses. This is typically placed at the end of the sentence where the quote is used. For example:

Researchers state that "direct quotes must always provide the page number" ( Brown , 2023 , p.86 ).

But as always, there are different varioations. So today we will talk about making an APA direct quote in every specific instance. After all, the key element of a formal style is citing your sources properly. This includes taking some piece of text from your source. That's how you could strengthen your own argument and add a proper reference after it. Stay with us and you will learn everything you should know about direct quotation!

APA Format Direct Quote: Basics

Direct quote in APA style contains an exact copy of some other author’s text. You should use direct quotations when it is necessary to display the previous researcher’s exact wording. This citation method will help you describe some situation, trend or phenomenon you are discussing. It sounds like good way of supporting your point or providing valid counterarguments.  Direct quotation should not be too long: from one phrase to one sentence or two. It should be no more than 40 words. It should be included into your paragraph, where it fits your own narrative best. However you must make it clearly distinguishable from your own text. Read on and we’ll tell you how it is done.

How to Cite a Direct Quote: APA

Now let us explore general rules of citing direct quotes ( APA format style ). Such a quotation must be enclosed into double quotation marks. A reference to an original source must be provided for it. This includes its author’s last name, year it was published and number of page this quotation can be found on. There are two types of referring to this source:

  • Parenthetical citation Provide reference information after quotation itself, putting it into parentheses just like in this sample:

Example of APA direct quote parenthetical citation

  • Narrative citation Reference information is included into your own sentence. Explain what an author has said in their work. The author’s name should not be put into parentheses. Do it only for publication year which goes right after an author’s name. The page number should also be enclosed into parentheses. Place it after your direct quotation as shown in this example:

Example of APA direct quote narrative citation

APA Direct Quote Example

Here are several APA direct quote examples so you could better understand these rules:

  • Quoting your source by a single author:

Example of APA direct quote with single authors

  • Quoting your source by two authors. Use ‘&’ to separate their names in a parenthetical citation. Use ‘and’ in a narrative citation:

Example of APA direct quote with two authors

  • Quoting your source by multiple authors (3 and more). Put ‘et al.’ after the first author’s name to replace all others:

Example of APA direct quote with multiple authors

APA Direct Quote: No Page Number

Nowadays you often have to include an APA direct quote from some website, since more and more important works get published online. If there is no page number to easily locate material you have used, you must find some other available locator for such publication and include it into parentheses. For a website, the best way is by providing paragraph number:

Example of APA direct quote with No page number

Other locator kinds that could be used for sources without pages:

  • Section or heading
  • Timestamp for an audio or video
  • Act or scene for a play.

In case you have some questions about APA website citation , read one more of our blogs.

Citing Direct Quotes (40 Words or More)

Sometimes you might need to use an APA direct quotation longer than 40 words. In this case you have to make it a block quotation. Such blocks are not to be included into your paragraphs. On the contrary, you should use special formatting to make them differ from an entire body of your paper:

  • Do not enclose a block quote into quotation marks
  • Start it on a new line
  • Indent an entire block quotation, 0.5 in
  • Double-space the entire block.

Like regular quotations, block quotations can be cited with a parenthetical or narrative citation. If you use the parenthetical type, insert your whole citation into the block. If you use the narrative type, you will need to include reference to an author into your regular sentence and only put page number into block.

How to Modify Direct Quotes in APA

Changing or omitting words from a direct quotation APA is allowed in case a word-for-word quotation from the original source does not fit well into your narrative. APA has some clear guidelines on how to do it. Some changes are allowed without any special formatting:

  • changing the first letter to uppercase or lowercase.
  • adding or omitting some punctuation marks, like periods.

Other changes require extra formatting:

  • In order to cut down some words or phrases within a quotation, just replace them with three dots: e.g. “Quotes are … helpful”.
  • In order to add your own information to a quotation, enclose these additional words into square brackets: e.g. “[quotes are] very helpful!”
  • You can highlight some key points in your quotation by putting the selected fragment in italics. Also, add a comment within square brackets stating that this emphasis is yours: e.g. “Quotes are very [emphasis added] helpful”.
  • You can point out a mistake in a quotation: add “[sic]” after it to show that it was made by the author: e.g. “Quotes are [sic] very helpful”.

If you have any questions about citing an interview APA , use one more blog we prepared for students. 

Direct APA Quotation: Bottom Line

In this article we have explored the general rules of making a direct quotation in APA style. All necessary details of formatting have been provided in accordance with the 7th edition of APA. We have covered the following important elements:

  • General format
  • Quotations without a page number
  • Block quotes
  • Modifying direct quotes.

Hopefully this knowledge helps you with your work. We have a lot more useful content related to essay writing and paper formatting so feel free to explore it! You can also send us a message if you have any feedback or request for more help.

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Frequently Asked Questions About Direct Quotation in APA Style

1. what is the difference between direct and indirect quotes in apa style.

The difference between APA direct quotes and indirect quotes is that direct quotations consist of the exact words taken from a source, while indirect quotations do not repeat original source word-to-word. Instead, you can use your own words to express the idea of the source you are quoting, just make sure you convey it correctly, without adding your own information that could twist its meaning.

2. When should I use "et al." when quoting in APA?

When quoting in APA style, you should use the “et al.” phrase to make a proper reference to a source by multiple authors. “Et al.” stands for the Roman phrase “et alia” which means “and others” in English. “Et al.” should be placed after the first author’s last name and before the publication year. E.g.: (Doe et al., 2020, p. 22).

3. How to cite a direct quote from a website in APA?

Citing a direct quote from website in APA can be tricky as articles posted on websites typically don’t have pages. Therefore you cannot specify any page in your quotation to locate in your source. Instead, you can use the number of a paragraph which contains this piece of text. So, your citation should contain the website’s author's name, the date when this article was published and the paragraph number. E.g., (Doe, 2020, para. 6).

4. How do you cite a direct quote from video in APA style?

A direct quote from video in APA cannot include any page number to locate the scene you are quoting. Therefore, you need to specify an exact timestamp as a locator of your quote. The same rules apply to quoting an audio material. In both cases you still need to provide the author’s name and the year of publication as well. E.g., (Doe, 2020, 1:15:30).

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How To - Use the APA Style Guide

  • APA Style: Home
  • What is new in the 7th Edition?
  • Elements of APA Reference Lists
  • Formatting & Sample Papers
  • Book Reference Examples
  • Journal Article Reference Examples
  • Magazine Article Reference Examples
  • Newspaper Article Reference Examples
  • Reference Work Reference Examples
  • Websites Reference Examples
  • Images/Art Reference Examples
  • Video & Film Reference Examples
  • Social Media Reference Examples
  • Citations for Paraphrased Sources
  • Citing Direct Quotations
  • Formatting Authors in In-Text Citations
  • Citing Secondary Sources
  • Video Tutorials: APA Style
  • Annotated Bibliography This link opens in a new window
  • --- How To - Use Citation Style Guides ---
  • Using Zotero This link opens in a new window
  • Using Mendeley This link opens in a new window

7th ed Citing Direct Quotations

Citations for direct quotations.

A direct quotation is a verbatim reproduction from another work. The APA recommends paraphrasing when possible. The format of the quotation and the in-text citation depends on the length of the quotation. The in-text citation will include the author, year, and page number(s). The page number format is different for single pages, a page range, and non-consecutive (discontinuous) pages. The APA formats direct quotations into short quotations (fewer than 40 words), and block quotations (40 words or more). 

Page Numbers

No Page Numbers? Check out the APA Style's section on Direct Quotation of Material Without Page Numbers This link opens in a new window . You can use section names, paragraph numbers, time stamps (for audiovisual works), and more. 

Short Quotations

Short quotations contain fewer than 40 words. To incorporate this type of quotation into your work enclose the words in quotation marks. Do not add an ellipsis unless one is used in source. Add a full in-text citation in the same sentence.

Parenthetical Citation

General Format

A parenthetical citation can be either immediately following the quotation or at the end of the sentence.

Text "quote" (Author, Year, Page).

Text "quote" (Author, Year, Page) more text.

For Example

Mental health care for veterans and active duty military needs to be greatly improved. One tool that is used is the Combat Exposure Scale (CES) this is a "seven-item self-report measure that assesses wartime stressors experienced by combatants" (Lawhorne-Scott et al., 2012, p. 36).

Narrative Citation

A narrative citation typically includes the author and year before the quotations and the page number(s) after the quotation.

Author (Year) text "quote" (Page).

However if the quote begins the sentence, the author will follow in a narrative form with the year and date in parentheses afterwards.

"Quote" text Author (Year, Page) more text.

Chen et al. (2019) noted that "an increased patient–nurse ratio would induce nurses’ intention to leave their job" (p. 12).

"Workforce staffing and scheduling for clinical units in healthcare system is a formidable challenge" wrote Sedeh (2018, p. 1) in their review of nurse staffing in emergency room departments.

Block Quotations

Block quotations contain 40 words or more. To incorporate this type of quotation into your work you will need to begin the quotation on a new line, indent the left margin for the entire quotation, and double-space the quotation. Add a full in-text citation either in the narrative while including the page numbers at the end after the quotation's final punctuation, or a parenthetical citation after the last punctuation.

A parenthetical citation is placed after the quote's final punctuation.

The symptoms of anxiety can be debilitating:

A narrative citation typically includes the author and year before the block quotation and the page number(s) immediately after the quotation's last punctuation.

Chen et al. (2019) detail how hospitals are in the business of saving lives and those in charge have a lot to take into account when planning their nurse-patient ratios:

  • << Previous: Citations for Paraphrased Sources
  • Next: Formatting Authors in In-Text Citations >>
  • Last Updated: Jan 18, 2024 8:33 AM
  • URL: https://libguides.shepherd.edu/APA

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Benefits of Citing Book in APA Form for Reader

A PA format stands for the American Psychological Association form, a guideline for formatting academic documents such as research papers, essays, and theses. It is to cite social science disciplines such as psychology, sociology, and education.

APA format specifies guidelines for various elements of an academic paper, including the title page, abstract, body, and reference page. The APA form intends to provide consistency in academic writing, making it easier for readers to understand the analysis presented in a paper. It also helps authors ensure that their work meets the standards of their field. 

How to Use the APA Citation Format

If you’re curious about how to cite a book in APA, this is the right section. Although many college students find it hard to cite books, there are several ways to get this done. We’ll list helpful tips below.

Paraphrasing and Reference List 

When writing data, the author’s last name and year of publication are still included in brackets, without including the page number. Example: (Smith, 2019) or Smith (2019) argued that…

A reference list is a separate page at the end of the paper that lists all data cited within. It is organized alphabetically by the author’s last name, year of publishing, the title of the work, plus publication information.

Use Proper Formatting 

APA citation needs a specific form for the referencing list, including double spacing, hanging indentation, and italicizing book and journal titles. When citing electronic sources, the author’s name, publication year, or title must be there, followed by a URL.

Outsource Your APA Style Papers 

Some find it hard to cite books in APA, especially if they are new or are unfamiliar with the guidelines. Suppose you’re a student like this who wants to get your paper written in APA format , or you need just a quality essay. In that case, you can always outsource it to academic platforms where you have an opportunity to hire a writer to help you get this done in record time. 

On these platforms, students choose writers who have years of experience. They have skills in all types of citations, like APA, so you’ll get proper value for the service. 

Use In-text Citations and Direct Quotes 

When listing ideas from a source within the text, the author’s last name and the year of publication are in brackets. For example, (Smith, 2019).

Direct quotes must be enclosed in quotation marks. Also, include the page number where quotes are found. For example, “This is a direct quote” (Smith, 2019, p. 10).

The Benefits of Citing Your Books With APA 

The APA form is essential to academic research and publication, as it promotes consistency, accuracy, and professionalism. Here are some of the benefits of using this citation for your books.

  • Clear and Consistent: It provides clear guidelines for citing data that promote reference consistency.
  • Avoid Plagiarism: It helps writers to avoid plagiarism by referencing their data accurately.
  • Easy to Follow: It provides specific guidelines for in-text citations, reference lists, and other formatting requirements that are easy to follow.
  • Widely Accepted: It is accepted across disciplines, including social sciences, education, nursing, psychology, and other fields.
  • Boost Reliability: By citing sources according to APA guidelines, writers prove their professionalism by showing that they have conducted thorough probing and are well-versed in the relevant literature.
  • Allows Replication: It allows other researchers to replicate the study by providing clear guidelines on how to cite the data.
  • Provides a Standard Form: It provides a standard form for referencing data, which makes it easy for readers to locate the data cited in a particular work.

Why APA Citation is Used in Books Across Several Disciplines 

Writing has different citation forms, but the APA form is widely accepted because it cuts across various disciplines. Here are reasons why it is so popular in the academic sector.

Standardization

APA form provides a standard way of referencing data recognized by many disciplines. Using a common format helps ensure everyone is on the same page regarding referencing data.

Clarity and Accuracy

APA form aims to promote clarity in reference data. This is important in all aspects, ensuring readers can verify the data cited in a given work. It certifies that they can easily understand the information presented. This clearness ensures correctness since the readers know exactly what they’re reading.

Range 

One can use the APA form for different data varieties, which include books, journals, articles, and websites. APA has a range wide enough to cut across several disciplines for any type of research. One of the reasons why the APA form is so broad is that it provides specific guidelines for referencing different types of data. For example, when referencing a college book , the author’s name, publication date, book title, and publisher information when referencing a college book.

Historical Use

APA form has been used for over 80 years, making it a well-established citation form. Due to how long it has existed in academic publishing, APA is now a standard in the educational sector. The APA created the guidelines to address the need for consistency and standardization.

The first APA Publication Manual aired in 1952, with the latest being the 7th, published in 2019. Over the years, the APA form has improved to show changes in academic publishing.

Flexibility 

While APA form has specific guidelines for referencing data, it also allows variation. This means researchers can adapt it to suit the requirements of their discipline.

Conclusion 

There are many benefits to citing books in APA form for readers. The use of APA promotes accuracy across disciplines. By referencing data in APA form, readers verify the data cited in a given work, ensuring that the data is correct. This is important in a study where accuracy is crucial.

APA helps to boost clarity in analysis, making it easier for others to build upon previous work. The APA form’s uniformity also helps ensure everyone is on the same page regarding citing data. It is crucial that everyone learns how this works to ensure smooth reading.

The post Benefits of Citing Book in APA Form for Reader appeared first on Sunny Sweet Days .

Are you a student curious to learn about the APA citation format and how it applies to you? Check out this article below for a comprehensive guide!

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COMMENTS

  1. Direct quotes in APA Style

    Revised on June 16, 2022. A direct quote is a piece of text copied word-for-word from a source. You may quote a word, phrase, sentence, or entire passage. There are three main rules for quoting in APA Style: If the quote is under 40 words, place it in double quotation marks. If the quote is 40 words or more, format it as a block quote.

  2. Quotations

    This guidance has been from the 6th edition. In-Text Citation Checklist (PDF, 227KB) Short quotations (fewer than 40 words) For quotations of fewer than 40 words, add quotation marks around the words and incorporate the quote into your own text—there is no additional formatting needed.

  3. In-Text Citations: The Basics

    Purdue OWL Research and Citation APA Style (7th Edition) APA Formatting and Style Guide (7th Edition) In-Text Citations: The Basics In-Text Citations: The Basics Note: This page reflects the latest version of the APA Publication Manual (i.e., APA 7), which released in October 2019.

  4. Direct Quotes

    Two authors in the narrative: Use and between the two last names. Three or more authors: Only cite the first author, followed by et al. If directly quoting, include the author, year of publication, and page number for the reference. Introduce the quote with a phrase like according to or state the author's last name.

  5. Library Guides: APA 7th referencing style: Direct quotations

    A direct quotation reproduces word-for-word material taken directly from another author's work, or from your own previously published work. If the quotation is fewer than 40 words, incorporate it into your paragraph and enclose it in double quotation marks. David Copperfield starts with "Whether I shall turn out to be the hero of my own life ...

  6. Research Guides: APA Style: Basics: Citing Direct Quotations

    No Page Numbers? Check out the APA Style's section on Direct Quotation of Material Without Page Numbers . You can use section names, paragraph numbers, time stamps (for audiovisual works), and more. Short Quotations Block Quotations << Previous: Citations for Paraphrased Sources Next: Formatting Authors in In-Text Citations >>

  7. Direct Quotes

    Direct Quotes Direct Quotes | 7th Edition While academic writing encourages paraphrasing over quoting, there are instances when it is necessary to cite a direct quotation. When doing so, follow the corresponding rules for the in-text citation type and add a page number to the end of the citation.

  8. How to Quote

    To cite a direct quote in APA, you must include the author's last name, the year, and a page number, all separated by commas. If the quote appears on a single page, use "p."; if it spans a page range, use "pp." An APA in-text citation can be parenthetical or narrative.

  9. APA style direct quotes and block quotes

    Using direct quotes in APA style. ... There is a specific way to format page numbers in APA citations. When the quote is from a single page simply use "p." But when there are multiple pages being referenced, use the abbreviation "pp." and an en dash to indicate the page range (pp. 34-38). If the pages are not within a range, simply ...

  10. Direct Quote

    General Guidelines: Direct Quote Quoted material should be reproduced word-for-word. Always include the author's last name, year of publication, and page number (s). Use 'p.' for a single page number (Example: p. 15) and 'pp.' for multiple page numbers (Example: pp. 125-126).

  11. APA Style 6th Edition Blog: How to Cite Direct Quotations

    How to Cite Direct Quotations. by Timothy McAdoo. One of our goals for this blog is to convey that following the guidelines of APA Style need not restrict your flexibility as a writer. Because of space limitations, many style points illustrated in the APA Publication Manual show only one or two examples. We're happy that the blog now allows ...

  12. In Text Citations

    APA encourages paraphrasing over using direct quotes. Use direct quotes when: Reproducing an exact definition; Author has said something memorably or succinctly; When you want to respond to exact wording; When creating a citation for a direct quote, provide author, year and page number for both narrative and parenthetical citations. Ex ...

  13. APA Direct Quotes ~ Understanding & Usage

    Citing APA direct quotes You must provide an in-text citation when you make references to sum up APA direct quotes or to paraphrase another source. There must be a reference list record for each in-text citation used in your essay. Example The author's last name and the year of publication are used in APA in-text citations, as used in:

  14. APA In-Text Citations

    The in-text citation APA style provides us with a tidbit of information. Just enough to glance at it and keep on going with reading the paper. To recap, in-text citations are great because: They credit the original author of a work or information. They let readers quickly see where the information is coming from.

  15. In-text Citation: Direct Quote

    Direct quotes do not have to be an entire sentence; they can be a partial sentence or just a few words unique to your author or field of research. For APA 7th ed format, add the in-text citation either after the direct quote, wherever it appears in the sentence, or at the end of the sentence (APA 7th ed Handbook 8.26):

  16. Direct quotes, paraphrasing and in-text citation

    Quotes of 40 or more words are set as a block quotation, and indented (shifted) about 1 cm from the left margin. Quotation marks are not used (even if it is a direct quote). The in-text citation is added at the end of the quote, after the full stop. There is no full stop following the in-text citation. Example of quote of 40 or more words in a ...

  17. APA Style 6th Edition Blog: Direct quotations

    The examples in the following blog post are in sixth edition APA Style. by Chelsea Lee. All APA Style in-text citations have two parts: the author and the date. Some in-text citations also include page numbers (or other location information when page numbers are not available, as with some online materials). This post describes when and how to ...

  18. Direct quotation of material with page numbers

    When quoting directly, always provide the author, year, and page number of the quotation (in both parenthetical and narrative in-text citations ). Follow these guidelines when providing a page number: For a single page, use the abbreviation "p." (e.g., p. 25, p. S41, p. e221).

  19. How to Cite in APA Format (7th edition)

    APA in-text citations The basics. In-text citations are brief references in the running text that direct readers to the reference entry at the end of the paper. You include them every time you quote or paraphrase someone else's ideas or words to avoid plagiarism.. An APA in-text citation consists of the author's last name and the year of publication (also known as the author-date system).

  20. In-Text (Parenthetical) Examples

    Good to know The punctuation at the end of the sentence goes after and outside the parenthesis. I am paraphrasing (Smith, 2019). If you are using a direct quote, there is no comma between the end of the quotation and the in-text citation. "this is a quote" (Smith, 2019, p. 263). Last Updated: Feb 2, 2024 10:42 AM https://cccs.libguides.com/accapa

  21. APA Direct Quote: How to Format Direct Quotations in 5 Min

    APA Direct Quote Example. Here are several APA direct quote examples so you could better understand these rules: Quoting your source by a single author: Quoting your source by two authors. Use '&' to separate their names in a parenthetical citation. Use 'and' in a narrative citation: Quoting your source by multiple authors (3 and more).

  22. Citing Direct Quotations

    No Page Numbers? Check out the APA Style's section on Direct Quotation of Material Without Page Numbers . You can use section names, paragraph numbers, time stamps (for audiovisual works), and more. Short Quotations Block Quotations << Previous: Citations for Paraphrased Sources Next: Formatting Authors in In-Text Citations >>

  23. Benefits of Citing Book in APA Form for Reader

    Use In-text Citations and Direct Quotes When listing ideas from a source within the text, the author's last name and the year of publication are in brackets. For example, (Smith, 2019).