Linking Words – Full List, Examples & Worksheet

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Candace Osmond

Candace Osmond studied Advanced Writing & Editing Essentials at MHC. She’s been an International and USA TODAY Bestselling Author for over a decade. And she’s worked as an Editor for several mid-sized publications. Candace has a keen eye for content editing and a high degree of expertise in Fiction.

Worried that your essay lacks structure and coherence? Perhaps you should use linking words, transition words, or connectors to give it a boost.

Linking words join separate sentences to improve writing flow. You can also find them mid-sentence to connect clauses.

Read on as I show you the definition and types of linking words in English. I also list examples of linking words under every category, and I whipped up a helpful worksheet to test your skills.

What Are Linking Words?

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Linking words, transition words, or connecting words in the English language help connect ideas and sentences when speaking or writing.

Linking words and phrases are connectors or transitional phrases. They are also part of formal language, so you’ll find them in academic writing, opinion writing, critical essays, dialectic essays , journalism, and business documents.

Some linking verbs link clauses within a sentence, such as although, in case, and whatever. That means you can find them in the middle of sentences from time to time. Others link two complete sentences, such as besides, as a result, and however.

List of Transition Words

Now that you know the meaning of transition words, let’s look at the usage of transition words in sentences and clauses. Don’t worry, I’ll break it all down for you!

Below, I’ve got a list of linking words and phrases to serve as alternative choices for connecting ideas in writing. Note that there are several types of transition words which we will discuss later.

Agreement/Addition/Similarity

Linking words may help the reader understand additional comments or ideas in a statement. They may also express agreement or similarities. These words are also called additive transition words, commonly found in expository essays and narrative essays.

  • In the first place
  • As a matter of fact
  • In like manner
  • In addition
  • Not only, but also
  • Coupled with
  • In the same way
  • In the same manner
  • First, second, third
  • Not to mention
  • In the light of
  • By the same token
  • Additionally
  • Correspondingly
  • Furthermore
  • Comparatively
  • At the same time
  • Together with
  • Identically

Here are some examples of additive linking words in a sentence.

  • The group found that a constructivist approach leads to higher test scores. Moreover, essay examinations show higher levels of learning.
  • The resort has tennis courts. Furthermore, it has an Olympic pool.

Negative Ideas

Some linking words come in pairs to join negative ideas.

  • Not, neither
  • Neither, nor

Here are sentence examples of linking words showing negative ideas.

  • I haven’t seen Lory, neither have I talked to her friend.
  • I neither drink nor smoke.

Opposition/Limitation/Contradiction

Whereas some linking words show an extra idea, these transition phrases and words express contrasting ideas in writing.

  • Although this may be true
  • In contrast
  • (and) still
  • Notwithstanding
  • Different from
  • Of course…, but
  • On the other hand
  • On the contrary
  • Be that as it may
  • Nonetheless
  • Even so/though
  • Nevertheless
  • In spite of

Here are some sentences with linking words of opposition.

  • The short story can be analyzed using a functionalist lens. However, its historical theme is better understood with a critical perspective.
  • As much as I want to go, I must take care of my sister.

Some linking words show relationships between ideas by accepting an idea with reservation instead of showing complete opposition. Here are some examples.

  • All the same
  • Regardless of this
  • Up to a point

Here are some sentence examples.

  • Many citizens opposed this unfair policy, which the president nevertheless enacted.
  • I like him even if we have different views in life.

Cause/Condition/Purpose

You may also use linking words in your writing piece to show conditions and purpose for a logical flow of ideas. Words like reason get the reader ready to understand why. These words are commonly found in hypothesis essays.

  • In the event that
  • Granted (that)
  • Provided that
  • On (the) condition (that)
  • For the purpose of
  • With this intention
  • With this in mind
  • In the hope that
  • Inasmuch as
  • To the end that
  • For fear that
  • In order to
  • Seeing/being that
  • The researchers used this method so that the results would be valid, reliable, and aligned with the objectives.
  • I will not be attending the seminar due to a high fever.

Examples/Support/Emphasis

You can also use transition words in your piece of writing that show examples or support of an idea.

  • In other words
  • To put it differently
  • For one thing
  • In particular
  • As an illustration
  • In this case
  • For example
  • For instance
  • For this reason
  • To put it another way
  • To demonstrate
  • That is to say
  • With attention to
  • By all means
  • To emphasize
  • To enumerate
  • Particularly
  • Significantly
  • Specifically
  • Surprisingly
  • Important to realize
  • Another key point
  • On the negative side
  • First thing to remember
  • Must be remembered
  • To point out
  • Point often overlooked
  • She visited several cities, namely Portland, Jacksonville, Charleston, and Hartford.
  • Transition words improve writing flow. For instance, we use further to add extra ideas related to the previous statement.

Effect/Consequence/Result

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You might also spot transitional devices for essays that show consequences, results, and effects.

  • As a result
  • In that case
  • Under those circumstances
  • Accordingly
  • Consequently

Consider the examples below.

  • We watered the plant for seven days. In effect, it grew three inches taller.
  • Because she didn’t study for the test, Anna failed and had to retake it.

Conclusion/Summary/Restatement

These words and phrases show transitions between sentences to show conclusions. You’ll find these words in essay conclusions of different essay types.

  • In simple language
  • In explanation
  • In lay terms
  • In a nutshell
  • As can be seen
  • In simple terms
  • Generally speaking
  • All things considered
  • As shown above
  • In the final analysis
  • In the long run
  • In either case
  • Given these points
  • As has been noted
  • In any event
  • On the whole
  • By and large
  • For the most part
  • In conclusion
  • To summarize

Note that in lay terms and in explanation are formal alternative choices to “ in a nutshell.”

Here are some examples.

  • Matter is a material that occupies space and has mass. In simple language, it is any physical substance.
  • I don’t want to climb the corporate ladder. After all, money isn’t everything.

Time/Chronology/Sequence

Linking words’ other role in writing is to show sequence or chronology. Under the time category, these phrases add a meaning of time. You can find these words in an essay introduction when the writer explains how the paper is structured.

  • In due time
  • From time to time
  • At the present time
  • Sooner or later
  • Up to the present time
  • To begin with
  • Straightaway
  • In the meantime
  • In a moment
  • Without delay
  • All of a sudden
  • At this instant
  • First, second
  • By the time
  • Immediately
  • Occasionally
  • I watched the movie on television. Eventually, I fell asleep.
  • First, fill the pan with water. Then, bring it to a boil.

Space/Location/Place

The following transition words are famous adverbial expressions that limit or modify space. Some of these words and phrases are also transition words of time.

  • In the middle of
  • To the left/right
  • In front of
  • On this side
  • In the distance
  • In the foreground
  • In the background
  • In the center of
  • Adjacent to
  • Opposite to

Below are sentence examples using transition words of space.

  • My house is located behind the building.
  • To the left of the supermarket is a flower shop.

Common Mistakes With Transition Words

Transition words help you create a flow of arguments for readers to understand what you’re saying. But misused transition words and phrases will make your writing unclear. Avoid these mistakes to give your readers a better experience.

Starting a Sentence With So, And, and Also

Both so and and are coordinating conjunctions, which means they can start independent clauses that stand on their own. But it’s not recommended to use these words and also as sentence starters in formal writing. For example:

  • Incorrect: Also, there are unauthorized charges on my credit card account.
  • Correct: Furthermore, there are unauthorized charges on my credit card account.

Combination of Transition Words And/Or

When writing an essay, avoid English transition words and/or because it makes your paper look messy. Instead, consider whether you need both connectors or only one of them. If you need them both, try this alternative.

  • Incorrect: boat and/or plane.
  • Correct: boat, plane, or both.

Using As Well As as Alternative to And

As well as has a different meaning from the transition word and. And means you’re listing something of equal importance. Meanwhile, as well as is for additional, less essential information. Here’s an example.

  • Incorrect: In this paper, I discuss my movie analysis as well as provide recommendations for improvement.
  • Correct: In this paper, I discuss my movie analysis and provide recommendations for improvement.

Archaic Words

Your writing may not make any sense to readers if you overuse archaic transition words like therewith .

For example, hereby means as a result. We can replace it with more modern and explicit phrasing expressing how the current statement is connected to the previous statement.

Linking Words Summary

A linking word is a term that connects different ideas in your text, whether they are contrasting, supporting, or adding. They can improve your writing and help it flow better, I promise!

Regardless of the style of writing, every piece of writing contains linking words to show perfect transitions. I hope my guide on the definition and list of transitions helps you use these words and phrases correctly. Memorize each category, and don’t overuse them in essays.

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  • Transition Words & Phrases | List & Examples

Transition Words & Phrases | List & Examples

Published on May 29, 2020 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on August 23, 2023.

Transition words and phrases (also called linking words, connecting words, or transitional words) are used to link together different ideas in your text. They help the reader to follow your arguments by expressing the relationships between different sentences or parts of a sentence.

The proposed solution to the problem did not work. Therefore , we attempted a second solution. However , this solution was also unsuccessful.

For clear writing, it’s essential to understand the meaning of transition words and use them correctly.

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Table of contents

When and how to use transition words, types and examples of transition words, common mistakes with transition words, other interesting articles.

Transition words commonly appear at the start of a new sentence or clause (followed by a comma ), serving to express how this clause relates to the previous one.

Transition words can also appear in the middle of a clause. It’s important to place them correctly to convey the meaning you intend.

Example text with and without transition words

The text below describes all the events it needs to, but it does not use any transition words to connect them. Because of this, it’s not clear exactly how these different events are related or what point the author is making by telling us about them.

If we add some transition words at appropriate moments, the text reads more smoothly and the relationship among the events described becomes clearer.

Germany invaded Poland on September 1, 1939. Consequently , France and the United Kingdom declared war on Germany. The Soviet Union initially worked with Germany in order to partition Poland. However , Germany invaded the Soviet Union in 1941.

Don’t overuse transition words

While transition words are essential to clear writing, it’s possible to use too many of them. Consider the following example, in which the overuse of linking words slows down the text and makes it feel repetitive.

In this case the best way to fix the problem is to simplify the text so that fewer linking words are needed.

The key to using transition words effectively is striking the right balance. It is difficult to follow the logic of a text with no transition words, but a text where every sentence begins with a transition word can feel over-explained.

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connecting words in english writing

There are four main types of transition word: additive, adversative, causal, and sequential. Within each category, words are divided into several more specific functions.

Remember that transition words with similar meanings are not necessarily interchangeable. It’s important to understand the meaning of all the transition words you use. If unsure, consult a dictionary to find the precise definition.

Additive transition words

Additive transition words introduce new information or examples. They can be used to expand upon, compare with, or clarify the preceding text.

Adversative transition words

Adversative transition words always signal a contrast of some kind. They can be used to introduce information that disagrees or contrasts with the preceding text.

Causal transition words

Causal transition words are used to describe cause and effect. They can be used to express purpose, consequence, and condition.

Sequential transition words

Sequential transition words indicate a sequence, whether it’s the order in which events occurred chronologically or the order you’re presenting them in your text. They can be used for signposting in academic texts.

Transition words are often used incorrectly. Make sure you understand the proper usage of transition words and phrases, and remember that words with similar meanings don’t necessarily work the same way grammatically.

Misused transition words can make your writing unclear or illogical. Your audience will be easily lost if you misrepresent the connections between your sentences and ideas.

Confused use of therefore

“Therefore” and similar cause-and-effect words are used to state that something is the result of, or follows logically from, the previous. Make sure not to use these words in a way that implies illogical connections.

  • We asked participants to rate their satisfaction with their work from 1 to 10. Therefore , the average satisfaction among participants was 7.5.

The use of “therefore” in this example is illogical: it suggests that the result of 7.5 follows logically from the question being asked, when in fact many other results were possible. To fix this, we simply remove the word “therefore.”

  • We asked participants to rate their satisfaction with their work from 1 to 10. The average satisfaction among participants was 7.5.

Starting a sentence with also , and , or so

While the words “also,” “and,” and “so” are used in academic writing, they are considered too informal when used at the start of a sentence.

  • Also , a second round of testing was carried out.

To fix this issue, we can either move the transition word to a different point in the sentence or use a more formal alternative.

  • A second round of testing was also carried out.
  • Additionally , a second round of testing was carried out.

Transition words creating sentence fragments

Words like “although” and “because” are called subordinating conjunctions . This means that they introduce clauses which cannot stand on their own. A clause introduced by one of these words should always follow or be followed by another clause in the same sentence.

The second sentence in this example is a fragment, because it consists only of the “although” clause.

  • Smith (2015) argues that the period should be reassessed. Although other researchers disagree.

We can fix this in two different ways. One option is to combine the two sentences into one using a comma. The other option is to use a different transition word that does not create this problem, like “however.”

  • Smith (2015) argues that the period should be reassessed, although other researchers disagree.
  • Smith (2015) argues that the period should be reassessed. However , other researchers disagree.

And vs. as well as

Students often use the phrase “ as well as ” in place of “and,” but its usage is slightly different. Using “and” suggests that the things you’re listing are of equal importance, while “as well as” introduces additional information that is less important.

  • Chapter 1 discusses some background information on Woolf, as well as presenting my analysis of To the Lighthouse .

In this example, the analysis is more important than the background information. To fix this mistake, we can use “and,” or we can change the order of the sentence so that the most important information comes first. Note that we add a comma before “as well as” but not before “and.”

  • Chapter 1 discusses some background information on Woolf and presents my analysis of To the Lighthouse .
  • Chapter 1 presents my analysis of To the Lighthouse , as well as discussing some background information on Woolf.

Note that in fixed phrases like “both x and y ,” you must use “and,” not “as well as.”

  • Both my results as well as my interpretations are presented below.
  • Both my results and my interpretations are presented below.

Use of and/or

The combination of transition words “and/or” should generally be avoided in academic writing. It makes your text look messy and is usually unnecessary to your meaning.

First consider whether you really do mean “and/or” and not just “and” or “or.” If you are certain that you need both, it’s best to separate them to make your meaning as clear as possible.

  • Participants were asked whether they used the bus and/or the train.
  • Participants were asked whether they used the bus, the train, or both.

Archaic transition words

Words like “hereby,” “therewith,” and most others formed by the combination of “here,” “there,” or “where” with a preposition are typically avoided in modern academic writing. Using them makes your writing feel old-fashioned and strained and can sometimes obscure your meaning.

  • Poverty is best understood as a disease. Hereby , we not only see that it is hereditary, but acknowledge its devastating effects on a person’s health.

These words should usually be replaced with a more explicit phrasing expressing how the current statement relates to the preceding one.

  • Poverty is best understood as a disease. Understanding it as such , we not only see that it is hereditary, but also acknowledge its devastating effects on a person’s health.

Using a paraphrasing tool for clear writing

With the use of certain tools, you can make your writing clear. One of these tools is a paraphrasing tool . One thing the tool does is help your sentences make more sense. It has different modes where it checks how your text can be improved. For example, automatically adding transition words where needed.

If you want to know more about AI for academic writing, AI tools, or writing rules make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples or go directly to our tools!

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Linking Words: List of Sentence Connectors in English with Examples!

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Struggling to connect ideas? ‘Connectors in English’ have your back. Connect, express, and impress – all with Connectors in English!

Connectors Definition

Linker Words or Word Connectors are used to link large groups of words: phrases and sentences . You can also use them to connect paragraphs to give them coherence. Sentence connectors are usually placed at the beginning of a sentence and may be categorized as follows:

  • This restaurant has the best kitchen in town. However, their staff are quite rude.

2. IN CONTRAST

  • House prices have gone up this year. In contrast, car prices seem to be stagnating.

3. NEVERTHELESS

  • I was in so much pain I didn’t want to get up in the morning. Nevertheless, I went to football practice as usual.

4. NONETHELESS

  • I don’t think Sean has serious behavioural problems. Nonetheless, I’ll talk to him first thing in the morning.
  • I’ve asked you a thousand times not to leave your dirty socks on the floor. Yet, you keep doing it.

6. ON THE OTHER HAND

  • England has the best language schools. On the other hand, it has the worst weather.

7. BY COMPARISON

  • Going out with Jim has its risks. By comparison, being with Tim is as easy as falling off a log.

8. ON THE CONTRARY

  • I don’t hate Jim. On the contrary, I’m rather fond of him.
  • I didn’t want to take a side in the argument. Instead, I put my headphones on and listened to some smooth jazz.

10. IN ANY CASE

  • I was thinking of going round Jim’s place. In any case, I haven’t been invited.

11. ALL THE SAME

  • Yes, he’s very good-looking. All the same, I don’t think you should go out with him.

Read more: Other ways to say ON THE OTHER HAND!

transition in a sentence

👉 SIMILARITY

1. LIKEWISE

  • You can’t give your phone number to every man who asks for it. Likewise, you can’t go out with everyone who fancies you.

2. SIMILARLY

  • You’re not allowed to use your phone here. Similarly, you have to switch it off when you’re in the library.

3. CORRESPONDINGLY

  • She’s an excellent photographer. Correspondingly, her paintings are works of art.

4. IN THE SAME WAY

  • Cutting down on sugar will help you lose weight. In the same way, doing more exercise will help you get rid of a few kilos.
  • I want to talk to Prince Harry when I’m in England. Also, I want to meet his sister-in-law.

Read more: Difference between COMPARED TO and COMPARED WITH

linker words

1. AS A RESULT

  • I’ve done a pranic healing course. As a result, I’ve been able to cure my neighbour’s sick cat.

2. AS A CONSEQUENCE

  • Zack has skipped school on many occasions. As a consequence, he’s failed his French test.

3. THEREFORE

  • We’re going to experience some meteor showers in the next few days. Therefore, the number of miraculous self-healings will rise.
  • You didn’t tell me you wanted to come. Thus, we won’t be taking you with us.

5. ACCORDINGLY

  • Plenty of tourists visit the area in summer. Accordingly, selling hand-made objects is the main source of income for locals.

Read more: 6 Ways to Improve Your English Writing Skills

connectors-of-sequence

👉 SEQUENCING

1. FIRST, FIRSTLY, FIRST OF ALL, IN THE FIRST PLACE

  • First of all, I’d like to talk about the benefits of having a pet pig.

2. TO BEGIN WITH

  • To begin with, pet pigs are cleaner than dogs.

3. FOR ONE THING

  • For one thing, they’re completely loyal to their owners.

4. SECOND, SECONDLY, IN THE SECOND PLACE

  • Secondly, their impressive numeracy skills must be mentioned.

5. FOR ANOTHER THING

  • For another thing, you might want to consider how cute they look in pyjamas.

6. THIRD, THIRDLY, IN THE THIRD PLACE

  • In the third place, you can always count on your pet pig to perform some tricks for you when you’d like to impress a pretty girl.
  • Also, they don’t eat much.
  • Besides not eating much, they won’t ever chew on your electric cords.

9. IN ADDITION

  • In addition, they can be taught to feed themselves if you allow them access to your pantry.

10. FURTHERMORE

  • Furthermore, they make wonderful walking buddies.

11. MOREOVER

  • Moreover, they’ll show you the way home when you’re drunk.

12. FINALLY

  • Finally, pet pigs are fantastic guards. No burglar would ever have the heart to hurt a pet pig.

13. LAST, LASTLY, LAST OF ALL

  • Lastly, your reputation as an eccentric will rapidly grow in the neighbourhood if you’re seen walking a pet pig on a leash every morning.

Read more: 18 Powerful Websites to Improve Your Writing Skills in English

connectors

👉 ORDER OF IMPORTANCE

1. MOST IMPORTANTLY

  • I’d like to talk to you about how to keep calm at your workplace. Most importantly, never go to the canteen while your boss is there.

2. PRIMARILY

  • You’ll have to focus on your immediate surroundings. Primarily, on your computer screen.

3. ABOVE ALL

  • Above all, don’t ever look up from your notes when people are around.

4. MOST SIGNIFICANTLY

  • Most significantly, avoid eye-contact at all costs.

5. ESSENTIALLY, BASICALLY (usually spoken)

  • How can I put this? Essentially, having an affair with one of your colleagues should be the last thing on your mind.

Read more: 7 Special Apps To Quickly Improve Your Typing Speed

Sequence-Connectors-and-Example-Sentences

👉 PARTICULARIZATION

1. IN PARTICULAR, PARTICULARLY

  • Nearly a third of marriages end in divorce. In particular, it’s middle-aged couples that yearn for much more from life.

2. MORE SPECIFICALLY

  • Couples tend to argue about financial issues. More specifically, they argue when one of them is out of work.

Read more: How Many Types of Expressions there are in English?

words connectors

👉 EXAMPLIFICATION

1. FOR EXAMPLE

  • To solve this problem, you might want to try making small gestures. For example, making your spouse’s favourite meal for dinner or giving him a massage after a tiring day.

2. FOR INSTANCE

  • Appreciate the small things your spouse does for you. For instance, leave thank-you notes for them every now and then.

3. TO ILLUSTRATE

  • Misunderstandings can be highly destructive. To illustrate, if your spouse sees you with a friend of the opposite sex in a café, he might not understand why he hasn’t been invited and demand an explanation.

Read more: Other ways to say for example?

👉 EXPLANATION

1. THAT IS TO SAY, THAT IS

  • Keep romance alive. That is to say, don’t let your lovelife fall into routine.
  • I have a very good reason for not trusting my ex. Namely, he’s a convicted felon.

3. IN OTHER WORDS

  • Don’t be unsociable. In other words, go out and make some friends.

4. PUT DIFFERENTLY

  • John has managed to get over Jane. Put differently, he’s started seeing other women.

Read more: 10 Common English Expressions with Explanation (Video)

👉 EMPHASISING

1. AS A MATTER OF FACT

  • I love sleeping with my pet pig. As a matter of fact, I can’t fall asleep unless he’s in my bed.
  • I told them not to invite Rachel to the party. In fact, I was the only person who saw what a party pooper she really was.

3. ACTUALLY

  • I think it would be a good idea to send her some flowers. Actually, you should get her a hundred orchids.
  • He may be the best-dressed man around. Indeed, he has a really good taste in fashion.

Read more: Essential Academic Writing Examples and Phrases!

👉 FOCUSING AND LINKING

1. AS FOR (often suggests disinterest or dislike)

  • I’m going to Janet’s party at the weekend. As for Mary’s, I think I’ll pass.

2. WITH RESPECT TO

  • Starting your own IT company may be the one of the best things you can do right now. With respect to opening a pet shop, it’s hard to say the same thing.

3. REGARDING

  • Start your day with making the most important phone calls. Regarding emails, you might put them off until later.

4. WITH REGARD TO

  • With regard to handling complaints, you might want to keep in mind that your customers are always right.

5. AS REGARDS

  • Working from home has many advantages. As regards disadvantages, it might be difficult to keep your cat off your keyboard.

6. TALKING OF

  • Talking of cats, you can’t trust them to keep you company when you need it. They’re quite selfish creatures.

7. AS FAR AS … CONCERNED

  • As far as dogs are concerned, they might give you a chance to get up from your desk and get some exercise during the day.

Read more: English Grammar: Sentence Structure in English

👉 CONCLUSION

1. IN CONCLUSION

  • In conclusion, it may be said that pigs make the best pets.

2. IN BRIEF

  • Meeting my boss at the pub was an interesting experience. In brief, it was a disaster.

3. IN SUMMARY

  • In summary, it may not be the best idea to frequent the same pubs as your boss.

4. TO SUM UP

  • To sum up, some people are better suited to working from home than others.

5. ALL IN ALL

  • All in all, you have to make sure both you and your customers are satisfied with your work.

Read more: What are the other ways to say in conclusion ?

👉 CORRECTION

  • I thought it was a good idea to get a ferret. Rather, it had always been my dream to get one.

2. TO BE MORE PRECISE

  • You might want to change a few things. To be more precise, I think you should start again from scratch.

Read more: Best English Grammar and Spelling Checkers Online

1. AT FIRST

  • It wasn’t a piece of cake to learn English. At first, I couldn’t pronounce all the words correctly.
  • Then, I couldn’t spell all the words correctly.

3. AFTERWARDS

  • Afterwards, I had a hard time understanding the tenses.
  • Later, I couldn’t memorize phrasal verbs and idioms.

5. IN THE MEANTIME

  • In the meantime, I was getting some help from MyEnglishTeacher .

6. MEANWHILE

  • Meanwhile, I was enjoying my skype lessons more and more.

Read more: A Visual List of 100 English IDIOMS FOR TIME with Examples

👉 DISMISSAL

(of what was said before)

  • I couldn’t get my head around the Passive Voice. Anyway, I don’t think it’s important to use it all the time.
  • Anyhow, I’ve just decided to learn Russian next.

3. AT ANY RATE

  • At any rate, I don’t want to become a simultaneous interpreter in five languages.

Linking Words Quiz › TEST YOURSELF

  • As far as / thinking
  • As far as / concerned
  • However / asked
  • As for / treated
  • Likewise / equally
  • Another / like
  • Just as / so too
  • To begin with
  • Nevertheless
  • On the other hand
  • Furthermore
  • Accordingly
  • All the same
  • In particular
  • In the back
  • For one thing
  • Subsequently
  • Despite this
  • On top of that
  • In other words
  • Along those lines
  • In contrast
  • At any rate
  • Firstly / Secondly
  • Now / Later
  • Soon / After
  • Before / After
  • On the other side
  • As a result

👉  Connectors Synonyms

Connectors are not only used in grammar . Connectors are things that are used to connect or tether two, or more, things together. There are many different synonyms for connectors:

  • Bond, coupling, joint, link, adapter, clamp, fastener, junction, tie, terminal, plug, fitting, splicing, fastener, sleeve, etc.

👉  Sentence Definition

A sentence is a set of words that forms a coherent and complete thought and message. This means that a sentence says something concrete. It has to be structured and logical in order for the sentence to be correct.

Sentences are made up of various parts , such as: nouns, verbs, adjectives, pronouns, articles, etc. Within a sentence, there are parts that relate the thought and message , such as: subject, predicate, object, phrase, punctuation, etc. Each of these parts is important for a sentence to be complete.

Through sentences we tell other people what we think, feel, or what we want to do . In order to relate those thoughts we string together words into groups. These finally relate our message to other people and the world.

There are four different types of sentences , and each has its own specific goal and structure. These types are: declarative, imperative, interrogative, and exclamatory.

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One of the best posts I’ve ever read here. Congrats!!

It’s awesome so useful and practical thanks a million. I’m gonna share it with my friends.

Daniel Deressa

I liked it so much. Thank you Mr/Mrs tutor.

Durga Karki

Indeed, it refreshing our vocabulary

Anom

Thank you very much!! This must be by far one of the greatest post I’ve seen to improve my writing skills and expand the vocabulary of connectors. Therefore 😉 , I will add to my list of resources and share with my friends

So glad! 😃❤️

Avik

Thanks a ton, teacher!

Sure, anytime!

Simran kalsi

Thankyou soo muchhh for this usefull info..

pathmawathy anuratharan

Thank you so much for this useful

Mathew TD

Excellent exercise

My great thanks

It is highly appreciated

alim

Thanks a lot

you are welcome!

Mohan

Helpful post! You have nicely divided all the connectors in group like result, time, explanation, conclusion …. and present them with accurate examples. Everything is easy to grab. Thanks for sharing this rare post.

Thank you so much Mohan! I’m glad you loved it!

Akande Kola

Thanks for this usefull lessons. They are highly educattive.

Thank you so much!

Oscar

So far this is the best post I’ve ever seen. I find it hard to use those connectors in statements. I can speak basic English and sometimes not concise with my statements because I’m not good in using connectors in English. Thank you for this great post. It will help a lot of speakers to become articulate with the language.

Thank you so much Oscar for your feedback!

Nam

Thanks millions for posting the tables of connecting sentences. Have a great life

Mica

I love this array of connectors. Great selections to fit our lesson. Thank you to all who are part of this website and contributors. God bless you all!

MyEnglishTeacher.eu

Thank you so much Mica.

Concept Mastery

Linker words, also known as sentence connectors, play a crucial role in connecting phrases, sentences, and paragraphs for enhanced coherence in writing. In terms of contrast, words like “however,” “in contrast,” and “nevertheless” emphasize opposing ideas. For expressing similarity, “likewise,” “similarly,” and “correspondingly” are effective. Result-oriented connectors include “as a result,” “therefore,” and “accordingly,” signaling outcomes or consequences. These words help create a logical flow within text, ensuring a smooth transition between ideas. Whether highlighting differences, similarities, or results, these connectors contribute to cohesive and well-structured writing, facilitating the comprehension of complex information.

himali

Its very useful , thank you.

Thank you so much Himali!

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Linking/transition words: Things you need to know...

All assignments are written in formal language.   You need to ensure that you demonstrate your knowledge and understanding alongside your ability to answer the question/solve the problem. 

Below are some ideas to help you to develop your structure and flow.

  • Linking / transition words and phrases join ideas, sentences and paragraphs together. They should be used within sentences and to move from one idea to another (between sentences).   

These words and phrases indicate the direction, order and flow of ideas. Significantly, they strengthen the quality and structure of your work.

  • Redundant Words - less is more.  P articularly when trying to reduce the word count, it is important to look for phrases which can be replaced with a single word.

Linking/Transition Words

Transitions link one main idea to another separated by a semi-colon or full-stop.  When the transition word is at the beginning of the sentence, it should be followed by a comma:

Among other functions, they can signal cause and effect or sequencing (see examples in the table below).

Linking words: conjunctions

Linking words within a sentence  are referred to as coordinating conjunctions.  Do not worry about the term: think about the function.

Conciseness / redundant words

Microsoft Word now has an additional feature within the Edito r - it is called conciseness or wordiness.  

  • If you cannot see the Editor menu a quick tip is to hold down the function (fn key at the bottom left of the keyboard) + F7 (top line of keys).
  • From the Refinements section - select Conciseness - if there are any suggestions a number will appear in the box alongside this option
  • A dotted line will appear under any groups of groups
  • Either select the identified text by clicking with your right mouse button OR click on the down down next to the Conciseness menu.
  • MS Word will display any alternative words which you can either select and they will be replaced in your text or reject if you want to keep the original phrases.

Examples:  try to replace phrases with a single words which mean the same.

Linking Words And Phrases In English (List With Examples)

In this study guide, you will learn how to use linking words in English. You will discover the meaning of common linking words and learn how to use them in a sentence. Examples are provided to show you the sentence position and use of common linking words in English. Check out the exercises at the end to test your understanding!

connecting words in english writing

What are linking words?

  • Meanings & uses
  • List with examples

Improve Your English for College or University: 6 Simple Steps

What you will learn:

Discourse markers (‘linkers’) are words or phrases that we use to make links between words in a sentence. These discourse markers are used in both spoken and written English.

Here we will focus on discourse markers in writing and formal spoken English – commonly known as ‘linking words’. Linkers are a way of making connections between ideas and sentences.

Formal and informal linkers

Informal linking words are used in spoken English. You can link your ideas with words and phrases like: I mean , honestly , after all , besides and in any case . It is useful to learn which linking words are most appropriate in formal and informal situations. In an email, you might choose linking words such as so , but , and because . These should already be familiar.

In an essay, you are more likely to choose formal linkers, such as therefore , however , consequently, on the contrary and moreover . There are some linking words that are so formal that you may choose not to use them at all in your writing. Examples include: thus , hence and nonetheless .

Linking words and sentence position

Many linking words are used at the beginning of a sentence, while others can be used in the middle or at the end. Words and phrases connected with sequencing and structure appear at the start of a sentence. Examples include: first , secondly , finally and in conclusion . Adverbs, which express the writer’s opinion, also occur at the start of a sentence, for example evidently and obviously .

Linking words can be used between clauses, in the middle of the sentence. Examples include: words that contrast ideas ( however , although), show consequence ( therefore, as a result), and phrases that add more information ( moreover, furthermore) . A few linking words can be placed at the end of the sentence. Look at the following example: Learning a second language is motivating. It can be very difficult, however .

Punctuation

The use of punctuation with some linking words and phrases is important. Some grammar books provide you with specific rules about punctuation and clauses in a sentence. The most important reason for using punctuation in a sentence is so the reader can understand your intended meaning.

Punctuation, particularly commas , should help the reader to identify clauses in your writing and lead to a clearer understanding of the text. Look at these two example sentences – which is easier to understand?

A: To conclude the cars of the future are likely to be more environmentally friendly however this change may take many years to implement and moreover will require the support of the general public.

B: To conclude, the cars of the future are likely to be more environmentally friendly, however, this change may take many years to implement and, moreover, will require the support of the general public.

Linking words are very important in written texts. Without them, your writing may be disconnected and difficult to read. In English examinations, students are often graded on their ability to write cohesive sentences. Therefore, learning how to use linking words correctly is an important skill in learning English as a second language. The examples below will help you to understand the meaning of linking words in written texts and to improve your own linking skills!  

Linking words: meanings and uses

Conjunctions are a familiar group of linking words, which join two clauses in a sentence, such as but , because or however.  In fact, linking words have many different functions in a sentence and range from single words to phrases of up to four words. The categories below show the most common types of linking words.

Sequencing First, secondly, subsequently, finally

Words like first , second and finally appear at the start of a sentence. They help the reader to navigate their way through the text. They are used in essays but also in instructions, for example recipes.

Adding information In addition, also, furthermore, what is more

These linking words are used to give additional information or to strengthen our argument.

Comparison Similarly, equally, likewise

We use these linking words to add further examples or to make connections between ideas.

connecting words in english writing

Giving examples For example, for instance, e.g., such as

Use these linking words to give examples.

Consequence Consequently, therefore, as a result, hence

These linking words can be used to describe how one idea logically follows another.

Generalisation On the whole, generally, in general

These linking words are usually positioned at the start of a sentence. They are used before a general statement.

Summing up To sum up, in summary, to summarise, to conclude, in conclusion

These types of phrases are commonly used to start the final section of an essay. They are also used in formal spoken English, for example a speech or the TV news, to signal to the listener that the speech is coming to an end.

Contrasting However, on the other hand, conversely, in contrast, rather, while, whereas

These linking words are used to introduce an idea or argument that contrasts with what has been said before. In an essay, they are useful for introducing, for example, the disadvantages in an advantages and disadvantages essay. The use of rather in this context is very formal.

Stating fact In fact, as a matter of fact, actually

These types of linking words can be used to signal to the reader that the writer’s meaning is different to what the reader expects.

Concession Although, despite, in spite of, even though

These linking words are used to show that we acknowledge another person’s opinion, even if we may not agree with it.  

A-Z List of common linking words with examples

The list below includes all the commonly used linking words in written English. Example sentences are also provided to help you understand them in context.  

Additionally Additionally , students should complete at least 3 hours of homework per week.  

As a result In recent years, few students have studied languages at school. As a result , the number of people taking language courses at degree level has decreased.  

But It is important to adjust your mirrors, but do not do this while driving your car.

Consequently John did not study hard for his exams. Consequently , his grades was disappointing.

Conversely People who have no savings often have trouble when applying for bank loans. Conversely , those who already have savings find it much easier to get credit.

Equally Studying languages face-to-face has a positive impact on learning. Equally , online learning can allow students to progress quickly.

Firstly, secondly, etc. Firstly , we’d like to say a warm welcome to all our new undergrads. Secondly , we’d like to remind you that students should attend all lectures on time for the duration of the semester.

For example You should wear suitable clothing for this trip. For example , a waterproof coat and a warm hat.  

For instance You can substitute some ingredients in this recipe. For instance , honey can be used instead of sugar.

Furthermore In my opinion, the government should provide adequate guidance on physical exercise. Furthermore , I believe it has a duty to advise the public on health and diet.

Generally (speaking) Generally , working from home is less stressful and more productive than working in a noisy office.

Hence Mark had inherited a lot of money from his grandmother; hence the large house.  

However Sports facilities, such as gyms and swimming pools, help people to keep fit. However , people also need motivation to help them improve their health.

In addition As a community, we should do more to improve our wellbeing. In addition , the government should start a new advertising campaign to promote health and fitness nationwide.

In conclusion In conclusion , the advantages of tourism outweigh the disadvantages.

connecting words in english writing

In contrast Working from home can save time and money. In contrast , commuting long distances to work every day can be time-consuming and expensive.  

In fact We didn’t enjoy the film. In fact , it was pretty terrible!

In general In general , working from home is more convenient than travelling to the office.

In particular Young children are influenced by the people around them, in particular their parents.  

In spite of this Tony was not offered a place at his chosen university. In spite of this , he achieved a first class degree and went on to have a successful career.

Likewise Squirrels feed on hard grains and nuts, using their sharp front cutting teeth to break up their food. Likewise , rats are able to gnaw through hard materials.

Moreover Children from less affluent households were reported to read less. Moreover , children who did not have books in the house were found to be much more likely to have a low reading age.

Nevertheless You should try to eat five portions of fruit and vegetables a day and reduce your fat intake. Nevertheless , any changes you can make to your diet will have a positive effect.  

Nonetheless The disadvantages of living in a city include noise and pollution. Nonetheless , the majority of people still choose to live in urban areas.

On the contrary On the contrary , many students chose universities that showed a good standard of teaching rather than a high ranking.

On the other hand Tourism can have a positive effect on the wealth of a country. On the other hand , it can also have a negative impact on the environment.

On the whole On the whole , most students prefer informal tutorial groups to large group lectures.  

Rather Rob wasn’t successful in the interview, rather he was given some advice on improving his application.

So I really love Spanish culture, so I’m looking forward to my trip to Madrid next month.

Such as Stringed instruments, such as the violin and the cello, are among the most difficult to learn.

Therefore Sue broke her leg. Therefore , she was unable to attend work for a month.

Thus The availability of high-sugar and high-fat foods has had an impact on people’s health; thus , the rate of obesity is increasing.

To conclude To conclude , a child’s home background has a dramatic effect on their educational achievement.

Positive excited multi-ethnic students in casual clothing lying on floor in campus library and laughing while watching curious video on laptop

To summarise To summarise , consumer habits are changing: there has been a marked increase in the amount of clothing and technology sold online during the pandemic.

To sum up To sum up , learning a new skill, like a language, can be challenging, but it is also rewarding.

Similarly Similarly , increasing the price of fuel and raising parking charges may discourage people from driving into city centres.

Still Digital technology has made working from home easier. Still , many people prefer the social contact of going to their workplace.

What is more Too much screen time may affect children’s activity levels. What is more , extended time spent using electronic devices may have a negative impact on their eyesight.

Whereas Boys tend to develop physical skills, such as jumping, at a young age, whereas girls tend to develop fine motor skills.

While While men still make up the largest proportion of students on science courses, the number of women is steadily increasing.

Yet The penalties for breaking the law are high, yet some people continue to commit crimes.  

Linking words: exercises

  • Which of these groups of linking words show consequence? a. however, although, but b. therefore, so, as a result c. for example, such as d. to conclude, in summary, to sum up
  • Which of these groups of linking words are used to contrast ideas? a. however, although, but b. therefore, so, as a result c. for example, such as d. to conclude, in summary, to sum up
  • Which linking word does not belong in this group? a. on the whole b. in general c. as a result d. generally
  • Which statement is correct? a. Linking words can be positioned at the start, middle or end of a sentence. b. Linking words can be positioned at the start or end of a sentence. c. There are no rules about where linking words can be positioned in a sentence. d. Linking words can be positioned at the middle or end of a sentence.
  • Which word is spelled incorrectly ? a. nonethemless b. consequently c. similarly d. likewise
  • Which word has a similar meaning to ‘sum up’? a. in conclusion          b. in addition          c. in contrast
  • I eat lots of vegetables, _______________ carrots, broccoli and peppers. a. such as b. similarly          c. therefore
  • Jason’s income has decreased in recent months, ________ he needs to be careful with money. a. although b. therefore          c. however
  • The weather here reaches around -10ºC in winter, ________ the summer is quite warm. a. whereas    b. so c. in addition
  • _____________ measure the dry ingredients and put them in a bowl. a. in spite of this      b. first          c. hence
  • You can use a paper dictionary to check vocabulary. _________, you can use an electronic dictionary. a. in any case b. subsequently c. equally d. for instance
  • Eating healthy food can have an impact on your weight and your health. ____________, you should try to limit your consumption of fatty food. a. rather b. in particular c. despite this d. while
  • There are many ways to read a book electronically. _________, many people still choose to buy paperback books. a. to sum up          b. yet      c. for example        d. what is more
  • Many people like the convenience of working solo from home. _____________, working with other people can be more motivating. a. for instance      b. therefore        c. nonetheless        d. conversely
  • Which word does not fit in this group of linking words? a . on the other hand b. nevertheless c. however      d. finally
  • Which word does not fit in this group of linking words? a. as a matter of fact b. in fact    c. whereas    d. actually  
  • Which linking words are used to add information? a. similarly, equally, likewise b. to conclude, in conclusion, in summary c. on the other hand, whereas, however d. in addition, furthermore, what is more
  • Which linking words are used to make comparisons? a. similarly, equally, likewise b. to conclude, in conclusion, in summary c. on the other hand, whereas, however d. in addition, furthermore, what is more
  • Which linking words are used for summing up? a. similarly, equally, likewise b. to conclude, in conclusion, in summary c. on the other hand, whereas, however d. in addition, furthermore, what is more
  • Which linking words are used to contrast ideas? a. similarly, equally, likewise b. to conclude, in conclusion, in summary c. on the other hand, whereas, however d. in addition, furthermore, what is more

————————————————————————————————————–

  • nonetheless

connecting words in english writing

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10 Tips to Prepare Your Academic English for University

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Connectors in English: How to Use Them to Make Your English Flow Beautifully

Are your essays in English marked poorly despite your grammatically correct sentences?

Have you ever been told that your paragraphs don’t connect to each other even though they talk about the same topic?

This is where English connectors come in—a.k.a., the words I’ve marked in bold above!

Today, I’m going to talk about what connectors in English are, the most common ones you’ll come across and how to practice them.

Once you’re done with this article, I hope you’ll agree that these words and phrases are simply magical!

What Are English Connectors?

English connectors for cause and effect, english connectors for illustration, english connectors for emphasis, english connectors for comparison, english connectors for contrast, english connectors for sequence, english connectors for conclusion, tips for practicing english connectors, and one more thing....

Download: This blog post is available as a convenient and portable PDF that you can take anywhere. Click here to get a copy. (Download)

English connectors are little words and phrases that help you connect sentences, paragraphs and ideas. Used both in spoken and written English, they help make your English sound more logical and structured.

You can think of connectors as like the thread that holds a necklace’s beads (i.e. sentences, paragraphs and ideas) together.

In fact, you probably already use them without even realizing it!

Note that English connectors are different from English conjunctions . While conjunctions link two or more words or clauses within a sentence, connectors establish that two separate sentences or ideas are related to each other. 

To help you understand further, I’m going to walk you through some of the most common connectors in English and how they’re used. Some are used formally, while others are more casual. Some are even  interchangeable —that is, you can use them in place of similar words.

In everyday conversations , we often need to explain things.

Perhaps you were late for school because your car ran out of gas. Or you want to buy chocolates because you want to surprise your mother on her birthday.

Explaining things will be much easier if you throw in these important English connectors.

Let’s take a look at them!

Giving illustrations or examples helps us prove our point and convince other people to believe us. These words help people understand what you’re trying to say and can help them see why you believe what you believe.

While discussing an issue or idea, you may want to focus on a particular point or example. To make the listener understand the importance of that specific idea, you can use the following connectors.

Sometimes, we need to draw attention to certain similarities to make a point or explain something. This is especially important in writing!

To make better comparisons, use the following English connectors.

Sometimes, we need to express different or contradicting ideas side-by-side. Doing this helps the listener or reader focus on important differences and makes them aware of the many sides of a topic.

These connectors are useful when you’re giving step-by-step instructions or listing points.

Finally , how do you let your reader know that you’ve reached the end? (See what I did there?)

There are certain connectors that we usually use during conclusions or when we’ve reached the end of what we wanted to say. When writing or stating conclusions, you usually repeat the most important points.

Here are some quick tips that’ll help you learn English connectors more efficiently.

Make Your Own Sentences

To explain the meanings and uses of different connectors, I’ve provided example sentences for each. However, you’ll remember them much better if you come up with your own examples.

You can start by using connectors in your diary entries, notebooks, essays and the like. Soon, you’ll find yourself using these connectors in everyday speech as well!

Write a Short Story or Essay

To see the huge difference English connectors can make, try writing a paragraph without any connectors and then rewrite it using some of the connectors above. You’ll quickly realize that your sentences will flow better, sound more logical and become easier to understand.

Learn English with Authentic Content

You probably want to speak English like a native (or at least try to). So why not learn from natives? Try watching a speech in English to get a good idea of how these fit together. Look for the ones with transcripts that you can write notes in, maybe even circling all of the connecting terms as you see them. 

FluentU takes authentic videos—like music videos, movie trailers, news and inspiring talks—and turns them into personalized language learning lessons.

You can try FluentU for free for 2 weeks. Check out the website or download the iOS app or Android app.

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Do Online Exercises

Finally, to check whether you’ve understood how to use connectors correctly, you can try online exercises from websites that cover English grammar .

For example, the ones on English Daily  and English Grammar are pretty short and can be completed in a few minutes.

There’s also ToLearnEnglish , which provides a brief list of common connectors before you solve the exercise, making it a great resource for review.

Now that you know the most commonly-used English connectors, you can use them in sentences and paragraphs with great confidence. Try your hand at some of the exercises I’ve suggested for practice.

So what are you waiting for?

Get out there and start incorporating these useful English connectors into your everyday life!

If you like learning English through movies and online media, you should also check out FluentU. FluentU lets you learn English from popular talk shows, catchy music videos and funny commercials , as you can see here:

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If you want to watch it, the FluentU app has probably got it.

The FluentU app and website makes it really easy to watch English videos. There are captions that are interactive. That means you can tap on any word to see an image, definition, and useful examples.

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FluentU lets you learn engaging content with world famous celebrities.

For example, when you tap on the word "searching," you see this:

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FluentU lets you tap to look up any word.

Learn all the vocabulary in any video with quizzes. Swipe left or right to see more examples for the word you’re learning.

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connecting words in english writing

English Language

Transition Words

As a "part of speech" transition words are used to link words, phrases or sentences. They help the reader to progress from one idea (expressed by the author) to the next idea. Thus, they help to build up coherent relationships within the text.

Transitional Words

This structured list of commonly used English transition words — approximately 200, can be considered as quasi complete. It can be used (by students and teachers alike) to find the right expression. English transition words are essential, since they not only connect ideas, but also can introduce a certain shift, contrast or opposition, emphasis or agreement, purpose, result or conclusion, etc. in the line of argument. The transition words and phrases have been assigned only once to somewhat artificial categories, although some words belong to more than one category.

There is some overlapping with prepositions and postpositions, but for the purpose of usage and completeness of this concise guide, I did not differentiate.

Linking & Connecting Words — Part 1/2

Agreement / Addition / Similarity

Opposition / limitation / contradiction, examples / support / emphasis, cause / condition / purpose, effect / consequence / result, conclusion / summary / restatement, time / chronology / sequence, space / location / place.

The transition words like also, in addition, and, likewise , add information , reinforce ideas , and express agreement with preceding material.

in the first place

not only ... but also

as a matter of fact

in like manner

in addition

coupled with

in the same fashion / way

first, second, third

in the light of

not to mention

to say nothing of

equally important

by the same token

identically

together with

comparatively

correspondingly

furthermore

additionally

Transition phrases like but , rather and or , express that there is evidence to the contrary or point out alternatives , and thus introduce a change the line of reasoning ( contrast ).

although this may be true

in contrast

different from

of course ..., but

on the other hand

on the contrary

at the same time

in spite of

even so / though

be that as it may

(and) still

even though

nevertheless

nonetheless

notwithstanding

These transitional phrases present specific conditions or intentions .

in the event that

granted (that)

as / so long as

on (the) condition (that)

for the purpose of

with this intention

with this in mind

in the hope that

to the end that

for fear that

in order to

seeing / being that

provided that

only / even if

inasmuch as

These transitional devices (like especially ) are used to introduce examples as support , to indicate importance or as an illustration so that an idea is cued to the reader.

in other words

to put it differently

for one thing

as an illustration

in this case

for this reason

to put it another way

that is to say

with attention to

by all means

important to realize

another key point

first thing to remember

most compelling evidence

must be remembered

point often overlooked

to point out

on the positive side

on the negative side

specifically

surprisingly

significantly

particularly

in particular

for example

for instance

to demonstrate

to emphasize

to enumerate

Some of these transition words ( thus, then, accordingly, consequently, therefore, henceforth ) are time words that are used to show that after a particular time there was a consequence or an effect .

Note that for and because are placed before the cause/reason. The other devices are placed before the consequences or effects.

as a result

under those circumstances

in that case

because the

consequently

accordingly

These transition words and phrases conclude , summarize and / or restate ideas, or indicate a final general statement . Also some words (like therefore ) from the Effect / Consequence category can be used to summarize.

as can be seen

generally speaking

in the final analysis

all things considered

as shown above

in the long run

given these points

as has been noted

for the most part

in conclusion

to summarize

by and large

on the whole

in any event

in either case

These transitional words (like finally ) have the function of limiting, restricting, and defining time . They can be used either alone or as part of adverbial expressions .

at the present time

from time to time

sooner or later

up to the present time

to begin with

in due time

in the meantime

in a moment

without delay

all of a sudden

at this instant

first, second

immediately

straightaway

by the time

occasionally

Many transition words in the time category ( consequently; first, second, third; further; hence; henceforth; since; then, when; and whenever ) have other uses.

Except for the numbers ( first, second, third ) and further they add a meaning of time in expressing conditions, qualifications, or reasons. The numbers are also used to add information or list examples . Further is also used to indicate added space as well as added time.

These transition words are often used as part of adverbial expressions and have the function to restrict, limit or qualify space . Quite a few of these are also found in the Time category and can be used to describe spatial order or spatial reference.

in the middle

to the left/right

in front of

on this side

in the distance

here and there

in the foreground

in the background

in the center of

adjacent to

opposite to 

List of Transition Words

Transition Words & Phrases

Transition Words are also sometimes called (or put in the category of) Connecting Words. Please feel free to download them via this link to the category page: Linking Words & Connecting Words as a PDF. It contains all the transition words listed on this site. The image to the left gives you an impression how it looks like.

Usage of Transition Words in Essays

Transition words and phrases are vital devices for essays , papers or other literary compositions. They improve the connections and transitions between sentences and paragraphs. They thus give the text a logical organization and structure (see also: a List of Synonyms ).

All English transition words and phrases (sometimes also called 'conjunctive adverbs') do the same work as coordinating conjunctions : they connect two words, phrases or clauses together and thus the text is easier to read and the coherence is improved.

Usage: transition words are used with a special rule for punctuation : a semicolon or a period is used after the first 'sentence', and a comma is almost always used to set off the transition word from the second 'sentence'.

Example 1: People use 43 muscles when they frown; however, they use only 28 muscles when they smile.

Example 2: however, transition words can also be placed at the beginning of a new paragraph or sentence - not only to indicate a step forward in the reasoning, but also to relate the new material to the preceding thoughts..

Use a semicolon to connect sentences, only if the group of words on either side of the semicolon is a complete sentence each (both must have a subject and a verb, and could thus stand alone as a complete thought).

Further helpful readings about expressions, writing and grammar: Compilation of Writing Tips How to write good   ¦   Correct Spelling Study by an English University

Are you using WORD for writing professional texts and essays? There are many easy Windows Shortcuts available which work (almost) system-wide (e.g. in every programm you use).

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Linking Words & Phrases In English

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Connecting words and phrases in the English language is one area you will need to master, as you are learning the language. The English language is difficult, but hopefully, this short article will help you understand how to use linking words and phrases correctly.

When Would You Need to Connect Words and Phrases in English?

Words and phrases need to be connected for a variety of reasons. For example, you may want to make a comparison, contrast, show purpose or demonstrate condition. Most of the connectives, words that form the connection, are used to join two clauses together or start a new sentence expanding on the previous statement.

Linking Clauses Within A Sentence

The words included here are used when you want to join two parts of the sentence together.

Although/even though

  • Although she is old, she can still run far.
  • She is pretty and single, but even if she wasn’t pretty, she would still be single.
  • You might want to take flat shoes; in case you want to dance later.

  In spite of/despite

  • In spite of/despite the fact she was busy, she still made time to volunteer.
  •   He took a large umbrella so that if it rained, he wouldn’t get wet.
  •   You can rely on me whatever happens.
  •   Samantha has a dog, whereas Billy does not.
  •   I would lend money to you whenever you need it.
  •   I will still care for you wherever you go.

Above are different word choices you may use when you are linking two parts (or clauses) of a sentence. This list is by no means extensive and you may find other connectives that fit your subject better.  These are just a few examples to show you some different connectives and how they can be used within a sentence.

Linking Two Separate Sentences

The linking words and phrases included here are used when you want to link two complete sentences together. Remember, if a connective word starts the sentence it should be followed by a comma. The words in this section will be grouped, as they can often be used in place of one another.

As a result/Consequently/Furthermore

  •   The company is growing. Consequently, there will be more jobs on offer.

Besides/Furthermore/In addition/More over

  •   The holiday is too expensive. Besides, I don’t really want to go.

However/Nevertheless/Nonetheless

  •   The shop was open. However, nobody came to the kiosk.

In the same way/ Likewise/ Similarly

  •   I believe that teenagers are respectful. Similarly, research has shown this.

The above words can be used if you are linking two separate sentences together. As stated before, the list is not exhaustive. However, this should give you a good idea of the connectives out there and the way to use them to join two sentences.

The English language is tricky to learn and connecting words (or connectives) are part of that. Hopefully, there are enough examples of linking words and phrases included here to get you started. You may even be able to add more to the list yourself.

connecting words in english writing

Here or Hear? What’s the Difference and When to Use Them

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Linking Words in English: What Are They and Why Do They Matter?

Published on, june 8, 2022, november 15, 2022, this article may contain affiliate links.

connecting words in english writing

Without linking words, your writing will be harder for readers to understand. This article explains linking words and their importance, gives plenty of examples and provides extra guidance on the most confusing ones.

Linking Words in English: What Are They and Why Do They Matter?

Table of contents

Have a look at these two paragraphs. Which one sounds better?

Paragraph A

There was heavy traffic. Paolo was late to work. His boss was angry with him. He tried to apologise. His boss simply refused to listen.

Paragraph B

Because of the heavy traffic, Paolo was late to work. As a result, his boss was angry with him. However, when he tried to apologise, his boss simply refused to listen.

Did you find that paragraph B sounds much better? The ideas are connected and the text sounds more sophisticated .

In fact, the only difference between the paragraphs is that, in B, we used four simple linking phrases: because of , as a result, however and when .

What are linking words?

Linking words are sometimes called linking phrases (they can be made up of more than one word), connectors or even linkers.

In short, they connect ideas together. We use them in both writing and speaking, but they are most important in writing because they provide structure to your paragraphs.

Linking words can connect two parts of one sentence. They go at the beginning of a sentence or in between the two parts:

Example 1: Although it was summer, George was wearing a thick coat. Example 2: George was wearing a thick coat although it was summer.

Linking words can also connect an idea from the previous sentence (or paragraph) to the current one:

Example: Paolo was late to work. As a result , his boss was angry with him.

Why are linking words important?

Linking words provide a structure to your writing. They also inform the reader or listener of what is to come:

Example. Maria invited all of her friends to the party. Unfortunately …

The word unfortunately here tells the reader to expect bad news regarding Maria’s party. In speaking, this helps the listener to understand the next part of the message.

Lower-level English learners ( CEFR levels A1-A2) rarely use linking words. Learners at intermediate level (B1-B2) use basic linking words. Learners at an advanced level (C1-C2) use a full range of linking words and phrases, including the tricky ones which we will look at in a moment!

Hence, as your English improves to advanced level, you will need to understand and use a wider range of connectors (such as ‘ hence ’).

Examples of linking words

There are hundreds of linking words and phrases in English. It helps to think of them in different categories, so here is a categorised list with one example of each:

Consequence

  • As a result
  • Consequently

Example: George was late. As a result , his boss was angry.

Additional information

  • In addition
  • Furthermore

Example: Social media is addictive. Moreover , it has been shown to cause depression.

Cause and effect

Example: Due to the large volume of requests, we are not accepting further applications at the moment.

Contrasting

  • Even though

Example: Pedro is very tall. However , his brother is quite short.

Conditional information

Example: We will only proceed if you sign the documents.

Showing a different opinion

  • On the contrary
  • On the other hand

Example: People think that wine is unhealthy. On the contrary , a glass or two a day can improve longevity.

Clarification

  • To be clear
  • In other words

Example: These settings will disrupt the adaptive algorithms in the logic subroutines. Simply put , it will cause the computer to stop working.

  • Nonetheless
  • Nevertheless

Concession , or conceding, means admitting you were wrong or admitting that one part of your statement was problematic.

Example: George doesn’t believe in God. Nevertheless , he cannot explain how the universe came to exist.

  • In a nutshell
  • On the whole
  • All things considered

Example: In this essay, we have seen the many problems related to using coal. All things considered , it is not a suitable form of energy.

Tricky linking words

Here is a list of tricky linking words. These are all words that my own students often ask me to explain.

Because/Because of

These two terms have the same meaning, but the way that we use each one is different.

Because connects two independent clauses . If we wish to ignore confusing grammar terms, this means it joins two complete sentences:

Example: The traffic was bad because it was raining.

Whereas, because of joins one complete sentence to one noun or noun phrase. (A noun phrase is simply a noun made up of more than one word.)

Example: The traffic was bad because of the rain.

More examples:

Example: George lost money because the stock market went down. Example: George lost money because of the stock market.

Conditional sentences are sentences that state a possible condition, usually with the word if , but also with words like unless .

Conditional sentences in English are quite complex. We have the first conditional, the second conditional, the third conditional and even something called the zero conditional!

Let’s look at the second conditional if sentence, the one that causes the most confusion.

Example: If I had wings, I would fly like a bird.

Immediately after the word if, we use a past tense verb… even though the sentence is not in past tense. What tense is it in? Well, that’s the tricky part. A second conditional sentence describes an imaginary situation, so we can’t really say it’s present, past or future. It’s just imaginary.

Note that we use the past tense in one part of the sentence and the modal verb would in the other. Here are some further examples:

Example: If I had a billion dollars, I would be rich. Example: George would be sad if he didn’t have any friends.

When is a pretty straightforward linking word, but it does have one quirk . What do you notice about these sentences?

Example 1: When Rafael visited, we drank root beer. Example 2: When Rafael visits, we drink root beer. Example 3:  When Rafael visits, we will drink root beer.

Did you spot it? In the past tense, both sentence parts use a past tense verb. In the present tense, both sentence parts use a present tense verb. But in the future, the verb immediately following when remains in the present tense.

Incorrect : When I will go to Japan, I will visit Mount Fuji. Correct : When I visit Japan, I will visit Mount Fuji.

Why does English have such weird rules? Now that’s a good question!

My students often confuse unless and if . The meaning of unless is something similar to: if…not . This can be very confusing if you do not have a similar word in your own language.

Incorrect : I will take an umbrella unless it is raining. Correct : I will take an umbrella unless it is sunny. ( If it is not sunny)

Even though/even if

We can use even to make though or if stronger.

Be careful not to confuse these two. Even though has the same meaning as though/although , but the word ‘even’ shows that it is surprising or unexpected in some way.

Example: Even though Luigi is Italian, he doesn’t eat pasta.

Even if works the same way. The meaning is the same as if , but surprising or unexpected.

Example: Even if I had a billion dollars, I would still want more.

There are many linking words that look like you could use them to connect two parts of a sentence… but you can’t. However is the most common one.

Note the following examples:

Incorrect : I went to Mikhail’s house, however he wasn’t home. Correct : I went to Mikhail’s house. However, he wasn’t home.

We can use however to connect two ideas , but we cannot use it to join two sentence parts , like we do with but or although . We need to begin a new sentence.

Other words that are used in the same way are moreover , therefore and furthermore .

However, there is a “ workaround ”: semicolons.

Yes, I know, a semicolon is not a ‘word’, but I would like to mention it anyway.

My students often ask me what semicolons are for.

Here’s the answer. We can use a semicolon to connect any two sentences as long as the ideas in each sentence are related.

Let’s see some examples:

Incorrect : I didn’t enjoy the play it was too long. Correct : I didn’t enjoy the play; it was too long.

This is a writer’s trick. If you are not sure which linking word to use, just use a semicolon!

We can also use it to ‘correct’ sentences with however , moreover , therefore and furthermore :

Incorrect : I went to Mikhail’s house, however he wasn’t home. Correct : I went to Mikhail’s house; however, he wasn’t home.

In fact, this is a very common way to use semicolons.

Whatever/However/Whenever

When we add ‘ever’ to these words, we make them more general:

Whoever = anyone that However = any way that Whenever = anytime that Whatever = anything that Whichever = any one that Wherever = anywhere that

Here are some examples:

Example: You can come visit me whenever you want. (You can come visit me anytime that you want.)
Example: Whoever wins the contest will be rich. (Anyone who wins the contest will be rich.)
Example: You can use the information however you want. (You can use the information any way that you want.)

Again, these words are tricky because there may not be a direct translation for them in your own language. Thus, you may not think to use them when speaking English.

However, it is good to push yourself and use structures which are uncommon in your mother tongue. When you do this, you know your English is nearing an advanced level.

Improving your linking words

There are so many more linking words out there. To reach an advanced level of English, you will want to know as many as possible, and then use them in your own English. What is the best way to do this?

I have two tips that are perfect for independent learners:

1 Be curious

Every time you digest information in English, whether it is reading, watching videos or listening to podcasts, be curious. Listen out for linking words that you haven’t heard before.

When you hear a new one, write it down and see if you hear it again. After hearing it two or three times, try using it yourself.

2 Proofread

You do proofread your writing, don’t you?

Proofreading is the perfect time to go back through your text and examine the structure. Is it clear? Or should you add some linking words to help guide the reader?

Follow these tips and you will master linking words before you know it !

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#274: How to Use Linking Words in English | However, Instead, Therefore

May 10, 2023 | Advanced Vocabulary , Confusing Words in English

connecting words in english writing

Did you know words such as however, instead, meanwhile, and therefore help your speech to flow? They create smooth transitions from one sentence to the next. 

I like to think of these words as creating a bridge between sentences or ideas.

Without that bridge, there may be an unexpected or abrupt gap between ideas, which can confuse your listeners. 

Right now you might be thinking, “ That sounds great… but I don’t really know how to use them or what those words mean .” 

I hear you. And that’s why I’m sharing this lesson today.

These linking words – known as conjunctive adverbs in English grammar – are essential for clear, confident communication in English .

In fact, linking words are a crucial component of fluent and cohesive English communication. They help to connect ideas, show relationships between sentences, and create a logical flow of thought.

In this Confident English lesson, you’ll learn how to use linking words to compare and contrast as well as how to show cause and effect and progression.

Plus, you’ll learn what common linking words — such as however, instead, meanwhile — mean as well as how they are used in context. These words are commonly used in both written and spoken English, and can greatly enhance the clarity and coherence of your communication.

By the end of this lesson, you’ll have a solid understanding of how to use these essential linking words in your English communication for improved fluency and cohesion! 

Related Lessons:

  • Linking Words for Smooth Transitions

Linking Words in English | However, Instead, Therefore and More

What are conjunctive adverbs.

To start, let’s get a clear understanding of how these English linking words or conjunctive adverbs work and why they’re important.

A conjunctive adverb is an adverb (such as however or accordingly ) or an adverb phrase (such as on the other hand or as a result ) that joins two related ideas together, creating a bridge or smooth transition.

They’re also known as linking words.

More important, conjunctive adverbs have a job to do.

When used in a sentence, they

  • Show a connection between two ideas/thoughts in one sentence;
  • Link the ideas/thoughts mentioned through two or more sentences;
  • Clarify the relationships between ideas/thoughts within an independent clause.

What this means is they help us to

  • Compare/contrast
  • Show cause and effect
  • Indicate progression or sequence

How to use conjunctive adverbs in writing? 

Conjunctive adverbs are used in speaking and writing. 

There are a few specific rules when using these linking words in writing .

When it connects two ideas/thoughts in a sentence, we use a semicolon before it and a comma after it. 

  • Ex . “ My daughter broke her arm while climbing a tree ; consequently, she won’t be to write her homework for school for the next few weeks. ”

When conjunctive adverbs are used to connect ideas across several sentences or indicate the relationship between ideas it is followed by a comma.

  • Ex . “ Lina , however, will be joining us for the meeting tomorrow. ”
  • Ex . “ However, Lina will be joining us for the meeting tomorrow .”

And now, let’s look at specific conjunctive adverbs we use to indicate contrast, comparison, cause and effect, and progression.

In each case, I’ll share specific examples of linking words with sentences as well.

Conjunctive Adverbs for Contrast

  • Def : used to introduce a statement that contrasts with or seems to contradict something that has been said previously; means despite whatever manner, way, or degree
  • Ex . “ There may, however, be a good reason why Nina couldn’t come to the party. ”
  • Def : in a reversed manner or relationship; opposite way
  • Ex . “ Kelly has a sweet tooth; conversely, her husband prefers savory foods.”
  • Def : to indicate substitution or replacement; alternatively
  • Ex . “ We had planned to see a movie and then go to dinner. By the time we got there, the movie was over; instead, we chose to go straight to the restaurant. ”
  • On the other hand
  • Def : in contrast to the previous statement; presents a different point of view
  • Ex . “ I’d love to implement this new social media strategy; on the other hand, I think it will take longer than we think to implement. ”

Conjunctive Adverbs for Comparison

  • Def : in the same way
  • Ex . “We offer a great benefits package to our employees; likewise, we also offer competitive salaries.” 
  • Def : in like style, way, or manner 
  • Ex . “ Similarly, cyclists must also stop at red lights. ”

Conjunctive Adverbs for Cause & Effect

  • Accordingly
  • Def : in agreement with; correspondingly
  • Ex . “ Classes are canceled today; accordingly, you’ll be given an extra day to study for your upcoming test. ”
  • Def : because of a preceding fact/premise
  • Ex . “ The project deadline has changed and we’ll need to finish this earlier than expected; hence, we’ll need everyone on the team to shift their focus until this project is complete. ”
  • Def : for that reason, cause, or purpose (refers to previously mentioned idea/thought)
  • Ex . “ We’ve accidentally doubled booked the meeting room; therefore, we’ll have to ask you to move your meeting to a later time. ”
  • Consequently
  • Def : as a negative result of something
  • Ex . “ I spent most of my money on the renovations and, consequently, could not buy a car. ”

Conjunctive Adverbs for Progression/Sequence

  • Subsequently
  • Def : at a later time; following right after in time or place
  • Ex . “ The third quarter losses were unforeseen. The company, subsequently, laid off 50 employees. ”
  • Def : at a later time; following after in time
  • Ex . “ Then, the company filed for bankruptcy. ”
  • Def : at the end or conclusion; ultimately or lastly
  • Ex . “ Finally, I believe it’s important to advocate for gender equity in the workplace. ”
  • Note : We also use ordinal numbers as conjunctive adverbs to indicate a sequence (i.e. first, second, third, etc.)
  • Incidentally
  • Def : used to introduce a related idea/thought, after the main topic is mentioned, but with less importance.
  • Ex . “ We loved the play; incidentally, remind me to send you the directions to the theater .”

Conjunctive Adverbs for Time

  • Def : until something expected happens; while something else is happening
  • Ex . “ The cake should cool for at least an hour. Meanwhile, begin preparing the buttercream. ”
  • Def : of late; recently
  • Ex . “Lately, I’ve been walking to work instead of taking the bus. ”
  • Def : at the present time; also used when beginning to tell someone about something
  • Ex . “Now, keep in mind that New York is a busy city with millions of people.”
  • Ex . “It took Zena many years to sharpen her skills; now, she mentors young people across the city.”

It’s time to practice!

Read the paragraphs below and determine which conjunctive adverbs from today’s lesson would be appropriate to use in each blank.

Practice 1:

Stress is a common issue in today’s fast-paced world; (1) _______, it can be managed effectively with some simple techniques. (2) Taking breaks throughout the day or going for a walk can help alleviate stress; _________, meditating can help as well. 

Practice 2:

Imagine a team leader in a meeting saying… 

(3) The scope of this product launch is much broader than initially anticipated; ________, I’ll need to re-evaluate our priorities and will ask a few team members to shift their focus to the launch so we can meet our deadlines. (4) ________, Susan and Ahmed, I’ll keep you on rebranding the campaign for XYZ Company as we have some important deadlines approaching for that project as well.

You can share your answers — as well as your questions — with me in the comments below. I’ll also add possible answers at the top of the comment section.

~ Annemarie

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Possible answers to the quiz: Answers : (1) however; (2) Similarly; (3) Subsequently; (4) Meanwhile

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Practice 1: Stress is a common issue in today’s fast-paced world; (1) however, it can be managed effectively with some simple techniques. (2) Taking breaks throughout the day or going for a walk can help alleviate stress; likewise, meditating can help as well.  Practice 2: (3) The scope of this product launch is much broader than initially anticipated; subsequently, I’ll need to re-evaluate our priorities and will ask a few team members to shift their focus to the launch so we can meet our deadlines. (4) meanwhile, Susan and Ahmed, I’ll keep you on rebranding the campaign for XYZ Company …  Read more »

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75 linking words for academic writing (+examples)

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Linking words play an important role in academic writing: They connect different paragraphs, sections or ideas in a text. Therefore, they considerably improve the readability and argumentation of academic texts such as a thesis, dissertation, essay or journal publication. This list of 75 linking words includes examples of how they can be used in academic writing.

Disclosure: This post may contain affiliate links, which means I may earn a small commission if you make a purchase using the links below at no additional cost to you . I only recommend products or services that I truly believe can benefit my audience. As always, my opinions are my own.

Linking words expressing order and sequence in academic writing

Linking words expressing additions in academic writing, linking words expressing cause and effect in academic writing, linking words expressing contrasts and comparisons in academic writing, linking words expressing emphasis in academic writing, linking words expressing illustrations in academic writing, linking words expressing summaries and conclusions in academic writing, linking words expressing conditionality in academic writing, linking words expressing generalisations in academic writing, linking words expressing concessions in academic writing.

1. First(ly), second(ly), third(ly)

Example: First, I review the existing literature on cross-border collaboration. Second, I explain the methodology …

Example: The thesis starts with a literature review. Next, I describe the case study design.

Example: Finally, recommendations for future research are presented.

4. Subsequently

Example: Study participants underwent several experiments and were subsequently examined.

5. Afterwards

Example: The event increased public awareness of this issue. Afterwards, politicians debated it more openly.

6. Eventually

Example: Eventually, this led to the creation of a social movement.

Example: Before scientists discovered the role of neurons in information processing, they assumed that…

8. Previously

Example: Previously, scholars believed that nurture was the most important factor in a child’s development.

connecting words in english writing

Example: Scholars examine the causes and effects of poverty.

10. Furthermore

Example: Furthermore, the data illustrates the number of chemicals that can be found in drinking water.

11. Additionally

Example: Additionally, the interviewee lamented a lack of attention to his work.

12. As well as

Example: Scholars utilise qualitative as well as quantitative methods to study this phenomenon.

13. Besides

Example: Besides the public outreach component, we wrote a handbook to disseminate the research results in the academic community.

Example: The financial compensation was also appreciated by the study participants.

15. Moreover

Example: Moreover, interviewees were asked to describe their own experiences.

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16. Because

Example: This theory was ultimately rejected because it was built on a flawed dataset.

Example: The outcomes improved since different parties joined forces.

Example: As the number of studies increases, better conclusions can be drawn.

Example: Scientists realised that the data analysis had flaws. So they decided not to run the same data analysis again.

20. Therefore

Example: Many researchers have conducted this experiment with similar results. Therefore, this theory can be debunked.

21. Consequently

Example: The literature highlights the importance of age and physical fitness. Consequently, these factors will be investigated further.

Example: Due to a low response rate, the study’s validity is low.

23. Nevertheless

Example: One academic study found the opposite results. Nevertheless, it can be argued that…

Example: Many scholars have explored this issue. Yet, to date, no inclusive framework exists to explain…

25. Although

Example: Although a confidentiality agreement was provided, study participants were hesitant to disclose private information.

26. In spite of

Example: In spite of the different study contexts, all experiments pointed to similar results.

27. Whereas

Example: People often stated that they are aware of the rules whereas they behaved as if they did not.

Example: While older studies often emphasise structural effects, newer ones tend to highlight the role of agency.

29. In contrast

Example: In contrast to previous findings, my analysis shows that…

30. Similarly

Example: One study found that the majority of residents in disadvantaged areas do not have access to sufficient resources. Similarly, my research revealed that most residents live too far away from the services and resources they would need to climb the social ladder.

31. Equally

Example: E qually important, however, is the role of personal beliefs in decision-making processes.

32. Likewise

Example: The interviewee considered this issue important and expected his colleagues to do likewise.

33. On the other hand

Example: On the one hand, research in this field advanced considerably in the last 20 years. On the other hand, a lot remains unclear.

Example: Unlike social scientists, physical scientists often conduct laboratory examinations.

connecting words in english writing

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35. Particularly

Example: Particularly relevant for this study is the molecular orbital theory.

36. Especially

Example: Especially younger interviewees expressed dissatisfaction with the status quo.

37. Above all

Example: Above all, this method can generate better insights into the physical processes at hand.

Example: Indeed, motivation turned out to be a defining factor of academic success.

38. Clearly

Example: Clearly, these scholars were not aware of recent advances in medical sciences.

39. Definitely

Example: This was definitely the most important event of the year.

40. Importantly

Example: More importantly, the findings underscore the importance of conflict resolution.

41. Undoubtedly

Example: Undoubtedly, all stakeholders had good intentions.

42. Obviously

Example: Obviously it is too early to draw final conclusions.

43. Of course

Example: Of course, this study should be replicated in a different context.

44. Surprisingly

Example: Surprisingly, all results were unambiguous.

45. Such as

Example: Scientists have explored different parts of the problem, such as CO2 emissions and hydrological processes.

46. For example

Example: Many interviewees were nervous. For example, when asked to describe the event, some of them started to stutter.

47. For instance

Example: Scholars have criticised this approach for different reasons. For instance, they argued that qualitative methods are insufficient to draw generalisable conclusions.

48. In this case

Example: Difficulties arise when no study participants can be found. In this case, alternative methods should be considered.

50. To conclude

Example: To conclude, the empirical analysis supports previous research findings.

51. In conclusion

Example: In conclusion, the reviewed literature highlights a clear research gap.

52. To sum up

Example: To sum up, a mixed methods approach is a better choice than a purely quantitative one.

53. In summary

Example: In summary, it is my opinion that conditions should be improved.

54. In short

Example: In short, scholars call for more research on climate change mitigation.

55. Altogether

Example: Altogether, these examples support the main argument.

Example: Energy supply became a growing problem. Thus, new policies were implemented.

Example: The first dataset was incomplete. Hence, a new dataset had to be developed.

Example: Unless stated otherwise, I refer to the concept as…

59. As long as

Example: As long as the conditions do not change, the results should remain stable.

Example: If scientists study this phenomenon in the future, they should pay attention to structural drivers.

61. Provided that

Example: Provided that nothing changes, the effects on society will be negative.

Example: Should the distribution change, it is fair to expect…

63. Even if

Example: Even if more experiments are conducted, human behaviour remains hard to predict.

Example: Often, this issue was flagged by interviewees themselves.

65. Commonly

Example: Commonly, this criterion is used for categorising plants.

66. Overall

Example: Overall the data confirmed the hypothesis.

67. Typically

Example: Typically emotions run high in such situations.

68. Generally

Example: Generally speaking, scholars address this issue from two angles.

Example: Mainly researchers in the global North discuss this phenomenon.

Example: Mostly, these results cannot be replicated outside of the lab.

71. Even if

Example: This is hard to prove. Even if the study sample is large enough.

72. Regardless of

Example: Regardless of their genetic makeup, mice showcased the same symptoms.

Example: Albeit experiencing setbacks, successful students do not get discouraged.

74. Admittedly

Example: Admittedly, the validity of this study should be increased.

75. Nonetheless

Example: Nonetheless, this study can be seen as a valuable contribution to the international literature.

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Linking Words in English with Examples

Linking Words in English

Linking words, also known as transition words or connectors , are defined as words or phrases that connect clauses, sentences, paragraphs, and ideas together, and convey the intended meaning more clearly and effectively. These words not only make the text readable but also help the readers to understand the writer’s perspective. We can use these words to express ideas, contrast, comparison, order, cause and effect, time, and many other functions. Linking words is an essential part of writing to “link” all your ideas in a way that helps create a smooth flow and connections between different parts of a text. In this article, we will take a comprehensive look at what linking words are, their functions with examples, and how to use them effectively. So, let’s get started!

Table of Contents

What are linking words?

Linking words are words or phrases that we use to link or connect different parts of a text. They help make the writing smoother and show how different ideas are related to each other. Linking words make it easier for readers to understand the flow of information and how one idea leads to another. Linking words can be used to indicate contrast, similarity, cause and effect, time, addition, conclusion, and more. Examples of linking words include “and,” “but,” “because,” “however,” “also,” “for example,” “therefore,” and so on. For instance,

She wanted to go shopping; however , it started raining.

Here connecting word “However” indicates a contrast between her desire to go shopping and the unexpected rain, helping the reader understand the change in the situation.

Why use linking words?

Linking words are essential for effective writing because they:

  • Improve flow and coherence
  • Help establish relationships between ideas
  • Make writing smoother to read
  • Create clear transitions between paragraphs
  • Enhance reader comprehension and understanding
  • Linking words can help to emphasize and clarify important points

How to use Linking Words

Here are some basic rules for the placement and usage of linking words:

  • Before using linking words, make sure you understand what they mean and how they are used. For example,

Some words are used to add new ideas such as, ( “furthermore” or “moreover” ) while others are used to show contrast or contradiction, ( “however” or “nevertheless” ) etc.

  • Choose the appropriate linking word based on the context, for example,

(“Additionally” for adding, “For example” for illustrating)

  • Place linking words at the beginning or middle of sentences for smooth transitions.
  • Use a comma after starting a sentence with a linking word, for example,

However , I decided to give it a try.

Add commas around the linking word if placed in the middle, for example,

In this case , however , the outcome was unexpected.

  • Coordinating Conjunctions (and, but, or, nor, for, so, yet) connect equal parts ( independent clauses ), use a comma before them. for example,

I like apples , but he prefers oranges.

  • Subordinating Conjunctions (although, because, since, while, when) introduce dependent clauses , use commas when dependent clause precedes the main clause. for example,

Although it was raining , we went for a walk. (Comma before main clause)

No comma if subordinate clause follows main clause. for example,

We went for a walk although it was raining. (No comma)

  • Maintain parallel structure (similar grammar) when using multiple linking words in a list. for example,

She likes reading, to cook, and watching movies. ❎

She likes reading, cooking, and watching movies. ✅

List of Linking Words

Functions of linking words

Different linking words serve different purposes/functions:

Linking words like “and,” “also,” “besides,” “furthermore,” and “moreover” are used to introduce additional information or ideas that are related to the previous point. Common linking words for addition include: and, also, as well as, additionally, furthermore, moreover, in addition, besides, not only…but also, etc.

Example: I love both chocolate and vanilla ice cream.

Contrasting Ideas

Words such as “but,” “however,” “although,” and “on the other hand” help introduce a contrasting idea or point that is different from what was previously mentioned. Examples of contrastive linking words are:  but, however, on the other hand, yet, and, although, nevertheless, in contrast, whereas, although, and even though, etc.

Example: He wanted to go out. However, it started raining heavily.

Cause and Effect

Linking words indicate the relationships between cause and effect. They help explain why something happened or the consequences of an action. Common cause-and-effect linking words are; because, so, therefore, due to, resulting in, consequently, therefore, thus, hence, etc.

Example: He missed the bus; consequently, he arrived late.

These words help you show similarities or likenesses between ideas. They allow you to compare and contrast different concepts. Examples include; like, similarly, in the same way, and compared to, likewise, just as, just like, in contrast, on the contrary, unlike, etc.

Example: The first book was good, but the second one was even better.

Time Sequence

Linking words help arrange ideas chronologically or in a specific order. They guide readers through a sequence of events or steps. Common time sequences linking words are; first, next, then, finally, meanwhile, after, before, afterward, subsequently, eventually, etc.

Example: First, we went shopping. Then, we had lunch at a cafe.

Example/Illustration

Linking words are used to provide examples that clarify or support the main point. They make your ideas more concrete and relatable. Examples of these words include “for example,” “such as,” “specifically,” and “in particular” etc.

Example: There are many outdoor activities you can try, such as hiking, biking, and camping.

Conclusion/Summary

Linking words are used to provide examples that clarify or support the main point. They make your ideas more concrete and relatable. Examples of these words include “for example,” “such as,” “specifically,” and “in particular.” etc.

Example: To sum up, regular exercise has numerous health benefits.

These words can be used to emphasize a point or to highlight its significance. They guide readers to pay attention to specific information. Examples are “especially,” “notably,” “indeed,” and “importantly.”

Example: The view from the top of the mountain was truly breathtaking.

Clarification

These words aid in clarifying or restating an idea to ensure readers understand it correctly. They help avoid confusion. Examples include “in other words,” “that is,” “to put it differently,” and “namely.”

Example: “The concept is a bit complex. In other words , it might take some time to fully understand.”

Expressing Purpose

Linking words like “in order to,” “so that,” and “for the purpose of” indicate the purpose or intention behind a certain action or statement.

Example: He worked overtime for extra money.

Sequence/Order

Words like “firstly,” “next,” “then,” “finally,” and “in conclusion” help to organize and sequence ideas in a logical order.

Example: First, we went to the park. Then, we had a picnic.

Linking words like “if,” “unless,” “provided that,” and “in case” introduce conditions or circumstances under which something else will happen. They show that one thing depends on another.

Example: If it rains, we will stay indoors.

List of Linking Words & Connecting Words

  • Additionally
  • Apart from this
  • As well as that
  • Coupled with
  • Furthermore
  • In addition
  • In addition to this
  • In the same fashion
  • Not only…but also
  • Not to mention
  • Together with
  • What’s more

Linking Words of ADDITION in English

  • Alternatively
  • By contrast
  • In spite of
  • As opposed to
  • Contrary to
  • Differing from
  • In contrast to
  • In opposition
  • Nevertheless
  • Nonetheless
  • Notwithstanding
  • On the other hand

Linking Words of CONTRAST in English

Showing Cause and Effect

  • As a result
  • Consequently
  • For this reason
  • On account of
  • Resulting from
  • Under the circumstances
  • In consequence of
  • As a consequence
  • The outcome is that
  • The effect of this
  • This has led to
  • Such is the case
  • Accordingly

Linking Words of Cause and Effect in English

  • In comparison
  • In the same way
  • Correspondingly
  • Compared to/with
  • In a similar fashion
  • On the contrary
  • At the same time

Linking Words of Comparison in English

Time sequence

  • First of all
  • In the beginning
  • To start with
  • Subsequently
  • Following that
  • Simultaneously
  • Concurrently
  • In the meantime

Linking Words of Time Sequence in English

  • For example
  • For instance
  • To illustrate
  • In particular
  • Specifically
  • As an illustration
  • To demonstrate
  • As shown by
  • In the case of
  • One example is
  • As evidence
  • In other words
  • As a case in point
  • To put it differently
  • As revealed by
  • A good example of this is
  • In a similar manner
  • This can be seen when
  • As a specific instance
  • To exemplify
  • As a sample
  • In one instance
  • Let’s consider
  • As an example of

Linking Words of Examples in English

  • All things considered
  • As demonstrated above
  • As shown above
  • As you can see
  • By and large
  • Given these points
  • In any event
  • In conclusion
  • Generally speaking
  • In the final analysis
  • On the whole
  • To conclude
  • To summarize

Linking Words of Conclusion in English

  • Clearly, then
  • Importantly
  • Most importantly
  • Significantly
  • Undoubtedly
  • Without a doubt
  • Unquestionably
  • It’s worth noting
  • It should be emphasized that
  • It’s important to highlight
  • A key point to remember
  • To highlight
  • It’s important to note
  • To draw attention to
  • It cannot be overstated

Linking Words of Emphasis in English

  • In explanation
  • To be clear
  • Let me explain
  • To put it clearly
  • Simply stated
  • That is to say
  • To break it down
  • More precisely
  • To clearly define
  • Allow me to clarify
  • To put it in another way
  • To simplify

Linking Words of Clarification in English

Expressing Purpose, Reason

  • For the purpose of
  • Granted that
  • With this purpose
  • Provided that
  • Seeing that
  • With this in mind
  • In order to
  • With this intention
  • With the aim of

Linking Words of Reason or Purpose in English

  • First/ firstly
  • Second/ secondly
  • Third/ thirdly

Linking Words of Sequence in English

  • Although this may be true
  • In that case
  • On the condition that

Linking Words of Condition in English

  • Option 1 or Option 2
  • Either… or…
  • Whether… or…
  • Preferably… or…
  • In either case…
  • While… In comparison…
  • Select between… or…
  • Choose either… or…

Linking Words of Choice in English

Restatement

  • Expressed simply
  • In a nutshell
  • Otherwise stated
  • Put in another way
  • In simple terms
  • What I mean by this is
  • To rephrase

Linking Words of Restatement in English

Generalize information

  • In most cases
  • In the majority of instances
  • For the most part
  • In a general sense
  • Without exception
  • Universally
  • Across the board
  • Without distinction
  • In a broader context
  • Without specific regard to
  • In a global perspective
  • Without pinpointing

Linking Words of Generalize Information in English

Q1. What are linking words?

Linking words, also known as transition words or connectors , are words or phrases that create a connection between ideas, sentences, or paragraphs in a text.

Q2. What is the importance of using linking words?

Connecting words help to create cohesion and coherence in writing, making it easier for readers to understand the relationships between different ideas.

Q3. Why are linking words important in writing?

Linking words help writers to make their writing coherent and logical. They allow the writer to smoothly transition from one idea to the next, which helps keep the reader engaged and ensures that the writing flows logically.

Q4. Can I use the same linking word more than once in a paragraph?

While it’s generally better to use a variety of linking words to create a sense of flow and variety, there may be instances where using the same linking word multiple times in a paragraph is appropriate.

Q5. What are some commonly used linking words?

Some commonly used linking words include and, but, or, because, since, therefore, however, furthermore, in addition, and despite.

Q6. What is the difference between conjunctions and linking words?

Conjunctions are a type of linking word that connects two clauses within a sentence. Linking words, on the other hand, connect different sentences or paragraphs within a text.

Linking Words List PDF

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English Study Online

Useful Linking Words for Writing Essay in English

By: Author English Study Online

Posted on Last updated: November 15, 2023

Sharing is caring!

Linking words are essential components of any language, and English is no exception. They are words or phrases that help connect ideas and sentences in a coherent and logical manner. In other words, they act as bridges between different parts of a text, making it easier for readers to follow the writer’s train of thought. In this article, we will explore the concept of linking words and their importance in the English language.

Table of Contents

What are Linking Words?

In English, linking words are words or phrases that help connect ideas and sentences when speaking or writing. They are also known as transition words or connecting words. Linking words are used to make communication smoother and more logical when moving from one idea to another.

Using linking words can make your writing more coherent and easier to follow. They help to create a sense of flow and guide the reader through your ideas. Without linking words, your writing can feel disjointed and confusing.

Some common examples of linking words include “however,” “therefore,” “in addition,” “moreover,” “nevertheless,” and “consequently.” These words can be used to show contrast, add information, provide examples, or indicate a cause and effect relationship, among other things.

linking words

List of Linking Words

Here is the list of linking words:

  • In addition
  • Furthermore
  • Not only … but also
  • Besides this
  • In the same way
  • In the first stage
  • To begin with
  • Another reason
  • Another advantage
  • At this point
  • Following this
  • A further reason
  • In the final stage
  • The final reason

Consequence

  • As a result
  • Consequently
  • It follows that
  • In that case
  • On the other hand
  • In spite of
  • On the contrary
  • Nonetheless
  • Even though
  • In contrast
  • Alternatively
  • Undoubtedly
  • The reason why
  • In other words
  • In order to
  • Provided that
  • Depending on

Types of Linking Words

In this section, we will discuss the three main types of linking words: coordinating conjunctions, subordinating conjunctions, and correlative conjunctions.

Coordinating Conjunctions

Coordinating conjunctions are used to connect two or more items of equal importance. They are also known as FANBOYS, which stands for For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, and So.

Here are some examples of coordinating conjunctions in use:

  • I want to go to the beach, but it’s raining outside.
  • She is studying hard, so she can get into a good university.
  • Do you want pizza or pasta for dinner tonight?

Subordinating Conjunctions

Subordinating conjunctions are used to connect a subordinate clause to a main clause. The subordinate clause is less important than the main clause and cannot stand alone as a sentence.

Here are some examples of subordinating conjunctions in use:

  • Although it was raining, we decided to go for a walk.
  • I will call you when I arrive at the airport.
  • Because she was feeling sick, she stayed home from work.

Correlative Conjunctions

Correlative conjunctions are used in pairs to connect two items of equal importance. They are used to show a relationship between two ideas.

Here are some examples of correlative conjunctions in use:

  • Either you can come with me, or I will go alone.
  • Not only did she finish her work, but she also helped her colleagues.
  • Whether you like it or not, you have to attend the meeting.

Linking Words for Addition

When writing in English, it is important to use a variety of linking words to connect your ideas and make your writing flow smoothly. In this section, we will cover some of the most commonly used linking words for addition.

The word “and” is one of the most basic linking words for addition. It is used to connect two ideas that are similar or related. For example:

  • We went to the store and bought some groceries.
  • The weather was warm and sunny.

“Also” is another common linking word for addition. It is used to add information that is similar or related to what has already been said. For example:

  • I enjoy playing basketball. Also, I like to watch it on TV.
  • She is a great singer. Also, she plays the guitar very well.

“Moreover” is a more formal linking word for addition. It is used to add information that is not only related but also emphasizes or strengthens the point being made. For example:

  • She is not only a great singer but moreover, she is an accomplished songwriter.
  • The company not only increased its profits this year but moreover, it also expanded its market share.

Using a variety of linking words for addition can make your writing more interesting and engaging. By connecting your ideas smoothly, you can help your readers follow your train of thought and better understand your message.

Linking Words for Contrast

When we want to show a contrast between two ideas, we can use linking words. These words help to connect two statements that are different from each other. Here are a few common linking words for contrast:

We use “but” when we want to show that two ideas are different or opposite. For example:

  • I wanted to go to the beach, but it started raining.
  • She’s a great cook, but she doesn’t like to bake.

We use “however” to introduce a contrasting idea. For example:

  • The movie was really long. However, it was also really interesting.
  • She’s not very tall. However, she’s a great basketball player.

On the Other Hand

We use “on the other hand” to introduce a contrasting idea that is different from the one we just mentioned. For example:

  • I don’t like coffee. On the other hand, I love tea.
  • He’s not very good at math. On the other hand, he’s a great writer.

Linking Words for Cause and Effect

In English, we use linking words to connect ideas and show the relationship between them. One common type of linking word is for cause and effect. In this section, we will cover some of the most commonly used linking words for cause and effect.

The word “because” is used to show the cause of something. It is often used to explain why something happened. For example, “I couldn’t go to the party because I was feeling sick.” In this sentence, “because” shows the reason why the person couldn’t go to the party.

The word “therefore” is used to show the effect of something. It is often used to indicate a logical conclusion based on the information presented. For example, “I studied hard for the exam, therefore I got a good grade.” In this sentence, “therefore” shows the logical conclusion that the person got a good grade because they studied hard.

The word “consequently” is used to show the result of something. It is often used to indicate a cause and effect relationship between two events. For example, “The weather was bad, consequently the game was cancelled.” In this sentence, “consequently” shows the result of the bad weather, which was the cancellation of the game.

Using Linking Words in Sentences

Linking words are an essential part of English writing and speaking. They help connect ideas and make your sentences flow smoothly. In this section, we will explore how to use linking words in sentences.

In the Beginning of a Sentence

Linking words can be used at the beginning of a sentence to introduce a new idea or to connect it to the previous one. Here are some examples:

  • Furthermore , we need to consider the environmental impact of our actions.
  • In addition , we should also take into account the economic implications of this decision.
  • On the other hand , some people argue that this policy will have negative consequences.

In the Middle of a Sentence

Linking words can also be used in the middle of a sentence to connect two ideas or to add more information. Here are some examples:

  • The government needs to invest in renewable energy sources,  such as  wind and solar power.
  • The company is expanding its operations,  therefore , it needs to hire more employees.
  • The new regulations will affect all businesses,  regardless of  their size or industry.

At the End of a Sentence

Linking words can also be used at the end of a sentence to summarize or to draw a conclusion. Here are some examples:

  • We need to take action to reduce our carbon footprint.  Otherwise , we will face dire consequences.
  • The company has implemented several cost-cutting measures.  As a result , it has been able to increase its profits.
  • The research shows that there is a strong correlation between exercise and mental health.  In conclusion , we should all make an effort to stay physically active.

In conclusion, linking words are an important tool for any English speaker or writer. They help make your sentences more coherent and easier to understand. By using them correctly, you can improve your communication skills and express your ideas more effectively.

Practice Exercises with Linking Words with answers

We understand that learning linking words can be challenging, but with practice, you can master them. In this section, we have provided practice exercises with answers to help you improve your understanding of linking words.

Fill in the Blanks

Fill in the blanks with the appropriate linking word from the list below:

  • She worked hard, __________ she failed the test.
  • I love chocolate __________ I know it’s not good for my health.
  • He is very intelligent, __________ he lacks common sense.
  • She is a great athlete, __________ she is also an excellent student.
  • He didn’t study for the exam, __________ he failed.

Matching Exercises

Match the sentences in column A with the appropriate linking word in column B.

Sentence Construction

Construct a sentence using the linking word provided.

  • He didn’t study for the exam; __________, he failed.
  • She loves to play soccer; __________, she also enjoys playing basketball.
  • He is an excellent student; __________, he is also a great athlete.
  • He is very busy; __________, he always finds time for his family.
  • She didn’t get enough sleep; __________, she was tired all day.

Practice makes perfect, so keep practicing until you feel confident using linking words.

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Formal Linking Words / Cohesive Devices

Linking words can also be referred to as connectors, conjunctions, and cohesive devices. This webpage includes a useful lesson on helping improve students’ knowledge of these linking words. It includes a lesson plan using a kinaesthetic matching activity and worksheet.

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Mastering the Art of Connecting Words to Write Phenomenal Essays

By: Author ESLBUZZ

Posted on Last updated: September 20, 2023

Sharing is caring!

Linking words, also known as connecting words, are essential in any form of writing. They help to connect ideas and sentences, making your writing flow smoothly and coherently. Whether you are writing an essay, a report, a letter, or even a social media post, using linking words can make a big difference in how your message is conveyed.

In this article, we will explore the different types of linking words and how they can be used to improve your writing skills. We will provide you with a comprehensive list of linking words, along with their meanings and examples of how they can be used in sentences. By the end of this article, you will have a better understanding of how to use linking words effectively and how they can enhance the clarity and coherence of your writing.

Connecting Words

Mastering the Art of Connecting Words to Write Phenomenal Essays

Understanding Connecting Words

Connecting words, also known as linking words or transitional words, are an essential part of the English language. They are used to link ideas, sentences, and paragraphs together, making the text more cohesive and easier to understand. In this section, we will explore the meaning of connecting words, their importance in the English language, and how to use them in writing.

What are Connecting Words?

Connecting words are words or phrases that are used to connect ideas, sentences, and paragraphs together. They help to create a smooth flow of information and make the text more coherent. Connecting words can be used to show contrast, cause and effect, addition, and many other relationships between ideas.

Why are Connecting Words Important?

Connecting words are crucial in the English language because they help to create a clear and concise message. They make it easier for the reader to understand the relationship between different ideas and follow the writer’s train of thought. Using connecting words also shows that the writer has a good command of the English language and understands how to use it effectively.

How to Use Connecting Words in Writing

Using connecting words in writing can be tricky, but with practice, it becomes easier. Here are some tips on how to use connecting words effectively:

  • Understand the meaning of the connecting words you are using.
  • Use connecting words sparingly and only when necessary.
  • Use connecting words that fit the context of your writing.
  • Make sure the connecting word you use is appropriate for the relationship between the ideas you are connecting.
  • Use a variety of connecting words to keep your writing interesting.

Here is a list of some common connecting words and phrases with their meanings:

Here are some examples of connecting words in use:

  • However, I do not agree with your opinion.
  • Therefore, it is important to study hard for exams.
  • In addition, I would like to thank everyone who helped me.
  • Furthermore, the research shows that this is a common problem.
  • In conclusion, I would like to summarize the main points.
  • On the other hand, some people prefer to work alone.
  • Likewise, my sister enjoys playing sports as well.
  • Nevertheless, I believe that we should still try.
  • As a result, the company was able to increase its profits.

Importance of Connecting Words in Writing

Connecting words play a vital role in creating a well-structured argument. They help to link different ideas and support your point of view with evidence and examples. By using connecting words, you can show the reader how different parts of your argument are related to each other and how they contribute to your overall thesis.

Connecting words are also important for creating a cohesive and coherent text. By using them, you can create a smooth transition between different parts of your writing and avoid abrupt changes in tone or style. This makes your writing more engaging and easier to read, which is important for keeping the reader’s attention.

Here are some examples of connecting words that you can use to create a cohesive text:

Types of Connecting Words

Cause and effect, using connecting words in sentences.

Let’s take a look at some examples:

  • First , I woke up early. Then , I went for a run.
  • In the same way, my sister loves to read. Similarly , I enjoy reading as well.
  • Instead of going to the gym, I decided to take a yoga class.
  • I worked hard all day. Finally , I finished my project.
  • In conclusion , the study showed that exercise is beneficial for mental health.
  • Even though it was raining, I went for a walk.
  • Therefore , I decided to stay home and study for my exam.
  • In fact , I have been to Paris three times.
  • I love to travel. Though , I hate packing.
  • For instance , I enjoy hiking, swimming, and playing tennis.

Practical Activities for Learning Connecting Words

One of the best ways to learn connecting words is through practical activities that engage learners and help them remember the words. Here are some activities that can help learners improve their connecting words skills:

Word Matching Game

This game involves matching connecting words with their meanings. The game can be played in groups or individually. The teacher can create a list of connecting words and their meanings and then cut them into individual pieces of paper. The students can then match the words with their meanings.

Sentence Completion

This activity involves completing sentences with the appropriate connecting words. The teacher can create a list of sentences with missing connecting words. The students can then fill in the blanks with the appropriate connecting words.

Word Association

This activity involves associating connecting words with other words. The teacher can create a list of connecting words and then ask the students to come up with other words that are associated with the connecting words.

Frequently Asked Questions

What are some common examples of linking words used in English writing?

Some common examples of linking words used in English writing include “and,” “but,” “or,” “because,” “however,” “therefore,” “moreover,” “in addition,” and “consequently.”

What is the importance of using connecting words in academic writing?

Using connecting words is important in academic writing because it helps to create a logical flow of ideas, making it easier for the reader to follow the argument. It also helps to show the relationship between different ideas and to make connections between them.

What are some exercises to practice using linking words effectively?

Some exercises to practice using linking words effectively include writing paragraphs using different linking words, identifying the linking words used in a text, and rewriting sentences using different linking words.

What are some common types of linking words and their functions?

There are several types of linking words, including coordinating conjunctions (e.g. “and,” “but,” “or”), subordinating conjunctions (e.g. “although,” “because,” “if”), and transitional words and phrases (e.g. “however,” “moreover,” “in addition”). Their functions vary, but they are generally used to connect ideas, show contrast, provide examples, or indicate a cause-and-effect relationship.

What are some useful linking words for writing cohesive and coherent paragraphs?

Some useful linking words for writing cohesive and coherent paragraphs include “furthermore,” “in addition,” “likewise,” “similarly,” “consequently,” “therefore,” “thus,” and “accordingly.” These words help to connect ideas and show the relationship between them.

Some common examples of linking words used in English writing include \"and,\" \"but,\" \"or,\" \"because,\" \"however,\" \"therefore,\" \"moreover,\" \"in addition,\" and \"consequently.\"

"}},{"@type":"Question","name":"What is the importance of using connecting words in academic writing?","acceptedAnswer":{"@type":"Answer","text":"

"}},{"@type":"Question","name":"What are some exercises to practice using linking words effectively?","acceptedAnswer":{"@type":"Answer","text":"

"}},{"@type":"Question","name":"What are some common types of linking words and their functions?","acceptedAnswer":{"@type":"Answer","text":"

There are several types of linking words, including coordinating conjunctions (e.g. \"and,\" \"but,\" \"or\"), subordinating conjunctions (e.g. \"although,\" \"because,\" \"if\"), and transitional words and phrases (e.g. \"however,\" \"moreover,\" \"in addition\"). Their functions vary, but they are generally used to connect ideas, show contrast, provide examples, or indicate a cause-and-effect relationship.

"}},{"@type":"Question","name":"Can you provide some examples of how to use linking words to start a paragraph?","acceptedAnswer":{"@type":"Answer","text":"

Sure, here are some examples:

  • To introduce a new idea: \"Moreover, it is important to consider the long-term effects of this policy.\"
  • To show contrast: \"Although some people believe that technology is making us more connected, in reality, it is driving us apart.\"
  • To provide an example: \"For instance, many studies have shown that exercise can improve mental health.\"
  • To indicate a cause-and-effect relationship: \"As a result of this trend, many businesses are struggling to stay afloat.\"

"}},{"@type":"Question","name":"What are some useful linking words for writing cohesive and coherent paragraphs?","acceptedAnswer":{"@type":"Answer","text":"

Some useful linking words for writing cohesive and coherent paragraphs include \"furthermore,\" \"in addition,\" \"likewise,\" \"similarly,\" \"consequently,\" \"therefore,\" \"thus,\" and \"accordingly.\" These words help to connect ideas and show the relationship between them.

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Exam Study Expert

70+ Connective Words To Power Up Your Essays [COMPREHENSIVE LIST]

by Kerri-Anne Edinburgh | Aug 5, 2021

When you’re writing an essay or assignment, you need to use every trick in the book to maximise your marks. And one of the best tools for radically improving your writing is the power of connective words .

Used correctly, connective words can give your writing new depth and meaning, improve readability (important for your examiner!) and demonstrate the logic of your arguments.

Luckily for you, we’ve got plenty of categories, definitions and connectives examples to help you get started…

Psst – this article uses loads of connectives. See if you can spot them in use: we’ve italicised the best examples!

What are connective words?

Simply put, connectives are words – or phrases – that link parts of your writing together.

You’re probably familiar with the most common connective words: and, as, because, but, if, or, so . In fact, I’ve used a few of them already – did you spot them?

Don’t limit your essay writing to the basics though, because there are hundreds of connectives that can help you to demonstrate different ideas, such as cause and effect , or the chronology of events .

We’re going to explore ten types of connectives below, but first , here’s a quick refresher on the grammar behind connective words:  

Definitions: The grammatical bit

Understanding the grammar behind your writing might not be your thing – but bear with me, because remembering these six definitions will help you know which connective to use when, and where to place them!

(If you’re just looking for examples of connectives, feel free to skip straight past this bit!)

Connectives fall into three grammatical categories: conjunctions, prepositions, and adverbs.

  • For example: and, but, for, or, yet .
  • Today , I finished my history assignment but forgot to workout .
  • Such as: at, in, of, on, under .
  • I need to finish the conclusion of my essay before I go to dinner.
  • For instance: upwards, quickly, fortunately .
  • My deadline is tomorrow. Fortunately , I proofread my thesis chapter already .

Using adverb and preposition connective words adds specific meaning – and thus clarity – to your writing. They are particularly useful for successful essay signposting .

connecting words in english writing

Definitions part 2: Connectives in sentences

When using connectives, it’s also important to remember that not all sentences are created equal in importance . And so , when connecting them into longer sentences, different types of connectives create different results:

  • For example: I find French tricky but I love learning Spanish.

On the other hand,

  • A subordinate clause relies on the main clause to make sense. Therefore, these connectives give information about the relationship between the clauses by specifying an order or place to events, or a cause and effect link.
  • Here’s an example: I need to do my homework if I want to get a good grade .

A useful type of subordinating connective for essay writing is the:

  • For instance: Firstly , I carried out the experiment, and secondly , I analysed the results.

And that’s your grammar refresh done!

If you’re struggling with essay-writing grammar, a great tool for checking your writing is Grammarly * – we use it at Exam Study Expert because it catches a broad range of mistakes. Their blog is also a great place to learn how to use conjunctions , prepositions , adverbs and more.

How to use connective words

So how do you go about using connectives?

In this section, we’re going to discuss the where, what and how …

connecting words in english writing

Where to add connectives:

As we’ve seen , connective words are often found in the middle of a sentence, joining two clauses. But don’t forget you can also use them at the beginning of a sentence to link two consecutive sentences – OR two ideas within your paragraphs (did you see what I did there?).

Some of your connectives will even be linking entire paragraphs and sections – these are often examples of signposting to guide the reader through your section or argument.

What’s more , many connectives are not just single words but phrases. These connectives are particularly useful for essay writing and academic vocabulary. For example: as well as, for an example of this, for instance, in addition to, on the other hand, such as .

What to use connectives for:

When you’re writing an essay or assignment there are plenty of tasks you need to achieve: presenting evidence, making arguments and more.

Happily, connectives can help you achieve all these tasks by clarifying your meaning. You can use connectives for:

  • Reinforcing or emphasising a point
  • Exemplifying and showing results
  • Comparing and discussing points of view
  • Constructing a timeline or sequence of events
  • Listing points (and signposting them)
  • Explaining your argument
  • Drawing together conclusions

It’s a long list! So master using connectives and you’ll drastically improve the readability of your writing across all sections of your essay.

How to add in useful connective words:

You’re probably already using basic connectives in your writing.

But if you want to get serious about the benefits to your grades, make sure you’re systematic about how you add them during your essay construction – and (later) proofreading to check they make sense on a large(r) scale!

From experience, I would suggest that the best method for choosing and adding effective connectives is to:

  • Sketch out a rough draft of your paragraph or essay section
  • Are they separate arguments for the same thing? Or opposite points of view? Do they follow on logically (cause and effect) or chronologically?
  • Mark where you want to add signposting connectives to indicate structure
  • Check your examples of connective word types and choose options that convey the meaning you need…

And for that purpose, we’ve compiled four lists of connective words for you – including the TOP 70 connectives for effective essay writing! So read on…

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Types of connective words

So let’s get down to the really useful stuff: examples of connectives you can use in different situations in your essays!

There are three main types of connectives that we’re going to explore in turn:

  • Comparative , Causal, and Temporal

Comparative connective words

These helpful words and phrases are perfect both for comparing similarities in data and arguments, and for pointing out their differences and oppositions. Use them to compare, discuss and argue.

When comparing points, you’ll often be adding to your argument, so these connectives are used for “ addition ”. The most common connectives for addition are: and, also, furthermore, moreover .

Here are some examples in practice:

  • Leonardo Da Vinci was an artist and inventor, and also an influential Renaissance humanist.
  • Exam Study Expert’s psychologist William offers expert one-on-one exam coaching . Furthermore , you can sign up for a free introductory session!
  • My empirical data demonstrates that … ; similarly , theoretical models projected …

On the other hand , you might need to demonstrate and contrast your argument with the opposing point of view with a connective for “ opposition ”. The most commonly used are: alternatively, except, however, unless .

connectives examples

These examples all demonstrate opposition:

  • Winston Churchill is best known for his wartime leadership of the United Kingdom, yet he was already in his 60’s when he took office.
  • Some students find great study motivation from starting the day with their hardest task. In contrast , others find getting the ball rolling with smaller tasks more effective.
  • Our first questionnaire was comprised of six questions. However , for our second questionnaire we …

Causal connective words

Causal connectives are effective for discussing cause and effect – relationships that have logical links that you want to point out and prove.

As such , academic writing is often full of causal connectives, and many of them demonstrate a very academic vocabulary (great for bonus points in your assignment!).

Most essays and assignments have a section (or several sections!) where you need to draw together your facts, ideas and arguments and point out the connections. These are the connectives to turn to at those moments!

The most commonly used are: as such, as a result (of), because, consequently, therefore, thus .

connective words

Here are some examples:

  • The brains of London taxi drivers have a larger than usual area that deals with memory because they are required to memorise and navigate thousands of streets.
  • Flashcards are a highly effective learning and memory tool, provided that you use them correctly.
  • This study surveyed over 3,000 students. As a result , we were able to …

Temporal connective words

Whether you’re explaining the sequence of events that led to a historical battle, or demonstrating the steps in your experiment, temporal connectives are a highly valuable tool.

They’re all about discussing time and the chronology of events – what happened before, during and after . Therefore , they make for great signposting words too!

temporal connective words

These examples explore each of the four sections in our temporal connectives lists:

  • The law of gravity was not widely understood until it was mathematically formulated by Sir Isaac Newton in 1687.
  • If you’re stressed about your exams, mindful meditation can be a great help. At the same time ,an inspirational quote might give you the boost you need!
  • Initially , the experiment was expected to demonstrate … Eventually , we came to the conclusion that …

The TOP 70 connective words for effective essay writing!

To make sure that you’ve got the tools you need to improve your grades, we’ve compiled this epic list of all the best connectives to use in academic writing.

This is just a selection from the hundreds of connective words and phrases available. So there’s no need to make your essay stale by over-using the same one or two!

If there’s nothing else you grab when you’re ticking off Step #4 from the connectives methodology above – make sure you grab this list!

It covers all the stages of essay structuring and writing, from introduction to conclusion . And includes lists of connectives for:

  • Signposting and listing
  • Comparing and contrasting
  • Illustrating your findings
  • Demonstrating cause and effect
  • Emphasising points
  • Qualifying your arguments

We’ve highlighted the best and most commonly used connectives for each section to ensure you’ve got THE best resource to improve the quality of your essay immediately.

connective words list

To finish off , here are some examples to get your essay-writing inspiration flowing:

  • Firstly , it is well-known that retrieval practice is an effective learning method as compared with re-reading study texts and notes.
  • I’m feeling tired tonight. Nevertheless , I must finish my homework and I want to take the dog for a walk.
  • When it comes to …, however , there are several effective methods to …, in particular , …

Good luck with your essay!

Now you’ve mastered adding effective connective words to your essay you’re ready for the next step. Be sure to check out our guide on proofreading your assignment before you hand it in. Good luck!

And for more expert, science-backed study resources, sign up to the Exam Study Expert newsletter right here:

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connecting words in english writing

100 Examples of Connecting Words

The Connecting Words also known as connectors are words or expressions that would note a relationship between two sentences . For example: but, and, although, also.

Depending on the type of connector, a different meaning is given to the connection that is established. It is important to know the function of each connector to use it properly and link the different ideas of a text.

The use of connectors allows a more fluent writing, favoring the reading and comprehension of the texts. In addition to correct spelling and grammar, it is one of the elements that give quality to a text.

The connectors can be simple (if they are made up of a single word) or compound (if they are made up of two or more words).

Comparison Connecting Words

  • better than
  • analogously
  • smaller than
  • in the same way
  • the same as
  • greater than

Order connecting Words:

  • first of all
  • In conclusion
  • On one side
  • after which
  • to get started
  • on the one hand
  • to end first
  • in the last place
  • on the other hand

Exemplification Connecting Words:

  • in other words
  • for instance
  • that is to say

Causal Connecting Words:

Add-on connecting words:.

  • what’s more
  • in addition

Conditional Connecting Words:

  • provided that
  • assuming that
  • supposing that
  • with the condition of
  • Taking into account that

Purpose Connecting Words:

  • for the purpose of
  • with the intention of
  • in such a way that
  • with the purpose of
  • with the objective of

Consequence Connecting Words:

  • as a result of
  • Consequently
  • for that reason

Opposing or contrast Connecting Words

  • on the contrary
  • Nevertheless

Time Connecting Words:

  • at that time
  • in the meantime
  • in our days
  • in another time

Spatial Connecting Words:

  • in front of
  • to the left
  • in the middle

Synthesis Connecting Words:

  • in conclusion
  • in a nutshell
  • to synthesize
  • synthesizing

Conclusive Connecting Words:

  • by way of closing
  • to close the idea
  • as a result
  • consequently
  • summarizing
  • of this it is necessary to say
  • from which it is concluded that
  • from which it follows that
  • it follows that

Emphasis Connecting Words:

  • What is worse
  • it should be noted that
  • it is important to highlight
  • it should be highlighted
  • it is necessary to highlight
  • it should be emphasized
  • it is necessary to underline
  • that it is obvious that
  • without a doubt
  • of utmost importance
  • we underline

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COMMENTS

  1. Linking Words

    Linking words, transition words, or connecting words in the English language help connect ideas and sentences when speaking or writing. Linking words and phrases are connectors or transitional phrases.

  2. All About Linking Words, With Examples

    Linking words, also known as transition words, are words and phrases like however or on the other hand that connect clauses, sentences, paragraphs, or other words. The purpose of linking words (which are different from linking verbs) is to make communication smoother and more logical when moving from one idea to another.

  3. Transition Words & Phrases

    Transition words and phrases (also called linking words, connecting words, or transitional words) are used to link together different ideas in your text. They help the reader to follow your arguments by expressing the relationships between different sentences or parts of a sentence. Transition words example

  4. Linking Words, Connecting Words: Full List and Useful Examples

    SHARES Linking words (connecting words) are something we need to know in any style of writing, because it helps the reader to follow the flow of what you are saying. Whether it's an argument in an essay, or an epic scene in a fantasy novel, your reader needs to be able to follow what you are saying.

  5. Linking Words: List of Sentence Connectors in English [UPDATED]

    Quiz Linking Words: List of Sentence Connectors in English with Examples! By Melinda Makkos - September 9, 2023 28 1097114 Struggling to connect ideas? 'Connectors in English' have your back. Connect, express, and impress - all with Connectors in English! Connectors Definition

  6. Linking/transition words

    Linking / transition words and phrases join ideas, sentences and paragraphs together. They should be used within sentences and to move from one idea to another (between sentences). These words and phrases indicate the direction, order and flow of ideas. Significantly, they strengthen the quality and structure of your work.

  7. Linking Words And Phrases In English (List With Examples)

    a. on the whole b. in general c. as a result d. generally Which statement is correct? a. Linking words can be positioned at the start, middle or end of a sentence. b. Linking words can be positioned at the start or end of a sentence. c. There are no rules about where linking words can be positioned in a sentence. d.

  8. Connectors in English: How to Use Them to Make Your English Flow

    English connectors are little words and phrases that help you connect sentences, paragraphs and ideas. Used both in spoken and written English, they help make your English sound more logical and structured. You can think of connectors as like the thread that holds a necklace's beads (i.e. sentences, paragraphs and ideas) together.

  9. Transition Words & Phrases

    A List of Transition Words — With Examples on how to use these transitional devices in writing to connect one idea with another. Start - Smart Words ... This structured list of commonly used English transition words — approximately 200, can be considered as quasi complete. It can be used (by students and teachers alike) to find the right ...

  10. Linking Words & Phrases in English

    Most of the connectives, words that form the connection, are used to join two clauses together or start a new sentence expanding on the previous statement. Linking Clauses Within A Sentence The words included here are used when you want to join two parts of the sentence together. Although/even though Although she is old, she can still run far.

  11. Linking Words in English: What Are They and Why Do They Matter?

    Linking words can connect two parts of one sentence. They go at the beginning of a sentence or in between the two parts: Example 1: Although it was summer, George was wearing a thick coat. Example 2: George was wearing a thick coat although it was summer.

  12. How to Use Linking Words in English

    Possible answers to the quiz: Answers: (1) however; (2) Similarly; (3) Subsequently; (4) Meanwhile. Linking words are a crucial component of fluent and cohesive English communication. They help to connect ideas, show relationships between sentences, and create a logical flow of thought.

  13. Transition Words and Phrases Examples

    These are the transition words that bring paragraphs, arguments, and pieces of writing to a close. They can also be used to summarize and restate ideas. These transition phrases and words include: in summary. in conclusion. to conclude. in any event. in either case. overall.

  14. 75 linking words for academic writing (+examples)

    Linking words play an important role in academic writing: They connect different paragraphs, sections or ideas in a text. Therefore, they considerably improve the readability and argumentation of academic texts such as a thesis, dissertation, essay or journal publication.

  15. Linking Words in English with Examples • Englishan

    Linking words make it easier for readers to understand the flow of information and how one idea leads to another. Linking words can be used to indicate contrast, similarity, cause and effect, time, addition, conclusion, and more. Examples of linking words include "and," "but," "because," "however," "also," "for example ...

  16. Useful Linking Words for Writing Essay in English

    Useful Linking Words for Writing Essay in English By: English Study Online Last updated: November 15, 2023 5 Comments Sharing is caring! Linking words are essential components of any language, and English is no exception. They are words or phrases that help connect ideas and sentences in a coherent and logical manner.

  17. Linking words in academic writing / AEUK

    Linking: Cohesion & Coherence Worksheet. This worksheet helps to consolidate what is 'cohesion' with a focus on pronouns, word forms and summary nouns. It also includes a coherence sheet on key connections and two practice activities. Example Level: ***** [B2/C1] / Webpage Link / TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP.

  18. Mastering the Art of Connecting Words to Write Phenomenal Essays

    Word Association Frequently Asked Questions Understanding Connecting Words Connecting words, also known as linking words or transitional words, are an essential part of the English language. They are used to link ideas, sentences, and paragraphs together, making the text more cohesive and easier to understand.

  19. How to Connect Sentences

    One of the easiest and most effective ways to connect sentences is by using transition words. These words are designed to help you make the transition from one idea to the next as you write.

  20. 70+ Connective Words To Power Up Your Essays [COMPREHENSIVE LIST]

    Simply put, connectives are words - or phrases - that link parts of your writing together. You're probably familiar with the most common connective words: and, as, because, but, if, or, so. In fact, I've used a few of them already - did you spot them?

  21. 50 linking words to use in academic writing

    50 linking words to use in academic writing. academic writing. linkers. essay writing. thesis. ESL. English. It's very common for students to use long words they don't understand very well in their essays and theses because they have a certain idea of what academic writing should be. Many students believe that academic writing is wordy and ...

  22. 100 Examples of Connecting Words

    The Connecting Words also known as connectors are words or expressions that would note a relationship between two sentences . For example: but, and, although, also. Depending on the type of connector, a different meaning is given to the connection that is established.

  23. How To Connect Ideas In English [with Linking Words]

    Learn How to connect your ideas in English conversations with 14 important linking words! Check out Hey Lady! https://mmm.heylady.io/join an incredible onli...