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APA Style (7th Edition)

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APA Citation Guide (7th Edition): Websites and Webpages

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  • Figures and Tables
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  • Journal, Magazine and Newspaper Articles
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  • Presentations and Class Notes
  • Social Media
  • Websites and Webpages
  • In-Text Citation
  • Reference List and Sample Papers
  • Annotated Bibliography
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Website or Webpage?

A website is a collection of webpages that are under one domain. One website will have several webpages like Home, About Us, Contact Us, Services, Products, etc. All of these pages together make up a website. In other words, a webpage is an independent page of a website. 

If you simply mention a whole website it is not necessary to create a reference list entry. Name the website in the text of your paper and provide the URL in parentheses.

  • Use the webpage and website category for your source  only if there is no better category for it . Do not use it if a source is simply available online, e.g., if a journal article is available from an online database, use a journal article format for your reference.
  • Some information, (e.g., author, date), might not always be obvious on websites or webpages. Sometimes it may be necessary to check places such as the "About Us", the "Copyright" or the "Acknowledgements" page(s).
  • Do not use any punctuation at the end of URLs as punctuation could interfere with the link.
  • If the author of the website is the same as the name of the website, omit the website name.
  • Retrieval date is normally not necessary unless the content is likely to change and the page is not archived, e.g., a Wikipedia entry. The format is: Retrieved February 1, 2020 from https://xxxxxxx

Webpage on a Website with an Individual Author

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date). Title of work . Site Name. URL

Picheta, R. (2020, July 1). This new high-tech glove translates sign language into speech in real time . CNN. https://www.cnn.com/2020/06/30/health/sign-langage-glove-ucla-scn-scli-intl/index.html

Webpage on a Website with a Group Author

Name of Corporation/Group/Organization. (Date).  Title of work . Site Name. URL

World Health Organization. (2020, June 29). Timeline of WHO's response to COVID-19 . https://www.who.int/news-room/detail/29-06-2020-covidtimeline 

Note : When the author and site name are the same, omit the site name from the source element.

Webpage on a Website with No Date

Author or Group Name. (n.d.). Title of page . Site name. URL

National Alliance on Mental Illness. (n.d.). Mental health conditions . https://www.nami.org/Learn-More/Mental-Health-Conditions

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APA 7th Edition Citation Guide

  • Introduction
  • Formatting Your Paper
  • In-Text Citations
  • Books and eBooks
  • Business Reports
  • Conference Presentations and Publications
  • Dissertations and Theses
  • Government Documents, Statutes, and Court Cases
  • Images and Advertisements
  • Missing Information
  • Multiple Authors
  • Personal Communications (E-mails, Interviews, etc.)
  • Previous Coursework
  • Religious Works
  • Secondary Source/Indirect Citation (as cited in)
  • Social Media
  • Video and Audio
  • Avoiding Plagiarism
  • Annotated Bibliographies
  • Get Help Now

Webpage with an Individual Author

If the webpage is likely to change over time, add "Retrieved (Month Day, Year)" between the Website Name and Hyperlink.

Reference Page Format:

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of the page . Name of the website. URL

Reference Page Example:

Prather, S. (2021, May 6). Job training program restores historic St. Paul home. The Star Tribune. Retrieved January 6, 2022.  https://www.startribune.com/job-training-program-restores-historic-st-paul-home/600170958 /  

In-text Citation Examples:

Prather (2022) shares that ... ...( Prather,  2022 ). ...(Prather ,  2022 , para. 5).

Webpage with a Group or Organizational Author

Webpage article citations list the author, date, page title, site name, and hyperlink. 

If there is no specific author listed, use the name of the organization or website name. If the author is the same as the website name, you do not need to list it the second time.

If the webpage is likely to change over time, add "Retrieved [Month Day, Year]" between the Website Name and Hyperlink.

Group or Organization. (Year, Month Day). Title of webpage . Website name. Hyperlink
Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE). (n.d.). COVID-19 Map.  Johns Hopkins University. Retrieved July 13, 2022, from  https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/map.html
According to the Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) (n.d.) ... ...( Center for Systems Science and Engineering ,  n.d. ). ...(CCE, n.d., para. 15).

Wikipedia Articles

Wikipedia articles are treated differently from other websites because they are constantly being updated. For this reason, you should link to the most recent archived version of the page and use the archived date in your citation. To find archived versions of Wikipedia articles click on the "View History" tab at the top of the page.

Wikipedia articles are often organized by sections. Use a section name for in-text citations to indicate where you found the information.

Title of article. (Year, Month Day). In  Wikipedia . https://www.en.wikipedia.org...
Non-Euclidean geometry. (2022, February 9). In Wikipedia.  https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Non-Euclidean_geometry&oldid=1070738619 
According to "Non-Euclidean Geometry" (2022) ... ...( "Non-Euclidean Geometry,"   2022 ). ...( "Non-Euclidean Geometry,"   2022 , Importance section).

Image from a Webpage

For images found through Google, navigate to the original website to create the citation for your reference list. 

If there is no date, author, title, etc. use the rules from our Missing Information page .

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day).  Title  [Format]. Website name. Hyperlink
Denali National Park and Preserve. (2013).  Lava  [Photograph]. Flickr.  https://www.flickr.com/photos/denalinps/8639280606/
Denali National Park and Preserve (2013) ... ...(Denali National Park and Preserve, 2013).

Lippincott Advisor

Since Lippincott Advisor articles do not list specific authors, use the organization name as the Author. 

Lippincott Advisor articles are updated frequently, so add "Retrieved [Month Day, Year]" between the Website Name and Hyperlink to indicate when you accessed the article.

Group or Organization. (Year, Month Day).  Title of entry . Retrieved [Month Day, Year], from Hyperlink
Lippincott Advisor. (2022, July 8).  Alopecia . Retrieved October 3, 2022, from  https://advisor.lww.com/lna/document.do?bid=4&did=909550  
According to Lippincott Advisor (2022) ... ...(Lippincott Advisor, 2022).
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APA Style 7th Edition: Citing Your Sources

  • Basics of APA Formatting
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Standard Format

Formatting rules, various examples.

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Adapted from American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed).  https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000

  • Use when there is no other reference category that fits the source type and the work has no overarching publication (e.g., journal, blog, conference proceedings, etc.) other than the website itself
  • If you refer to a website in general in you text, do not create a reference or in-text citation, instead refer to the websites name in the text followed by the URL in parentheses
  • Provide the most specific date possible
  • When site name is the designated author, omit including the site name from the reference
  • Include a retrieval date when content is designed to change and the page is not archived

Website Examples

See Ch. 10 pp. 313-352 of APA Manual for more examples and formatting rules

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APA Citation Guide (7th edition) : Websites

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On This Page

Page or section from a website created by a corporate or group author, page or section from a website created by an individual author, page or section from a website with an unknown author, report or document from a website – corporate or group author, government document from a website, in-text citation for two or more authors/editors, on the web but not a website.

Be careful! Just because you found something on the web, it doesn’t mean you are citing a website.

Look at the material closely – is it a journal article? A newspaper article? An encyclopedia? An eBook? Use the format that best describes the item. APA treats a source as a website only when it does not fit another category. 

Identifying the Elements of a Website

Citing source from websites can be challenging because they are not standardized in the same way as journal articles or books. This video from Valencia East Library walks you through the process with an example from the Centre for Disease Control website. 

How to Cite Webpages: APA 7th ed. from Valencia East Library on Vimeo .

It can sometimes be difficult to find out who the author of a website is. Remember that an author can be a corporation or group, not only a specific person. Author information can sometimes be found under an "About" section on a website.

If there is no known author, you can start the citation with the title of the website instead. However, APA tends to reserve this type of citation for a very small set of sources: for example, The Bible and some dictionaries and encyclopedias such as Wikipedia (which should not form a central part of your research). 

The best date to use for a website is the date that the content was last updated. Otherwise look for a copyright or original publication date. Unfortunately this information may not be provided or may be hard to find. Often date information is put on the bottom of the pages of a website.

If you do not know the complete date, put as much information as you can find. For example you may have a year but no month or day.

If there is no date provided, put the letters (n.d.) in round brackets where you'd normally put the date.

Titles of websites should be in plain text but use italics for webpages, articles, etc.

Retrieval Date

Most website citations in APA 7th Edition do not require a retrieval date. Unfortunately, however, determining which situations require this date can be challenging. If you use a stable, archived version of a web page, no retrieval date is needed. But if you use a web page that is continually updated, providing a retrieval date can help clarify inconsistencies between the page when you viewed it and when it was viewed by your reader. 

If a URL is too long to fit onto one line, try to break it at a slash (/).

Note : All citations should be double spaced and have a hanging indent in a Reference List.

A "hanging indent" means that each subsequent line after the first line of your citation should be indented by 0.5 inches.

Corporation/Group/Organization's Name. (Year webpage was last updated/published, Month Day if given). Title of page: Subtitle (if any) . URL

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year webpage was last updated/published, Month Day if given). Title of page: Subtitle (if any) . Website name. URL

Title of page: Subtitle (if any) . (Year webpage was last updated/published, Month Day if given). Name of Website. URL

Corporation/Group/Organization's Name. (Year report was last updated/published, Month Day if given). Title of report: Subtitle if given  (Pub. No. Publication Number if given). Website Name if different from author. URL

Name of Government Department, Agency or Committee. (Year of Publication, Month Day). Title of document: Subtitle if given (edition if given and is not first edition). Publisher if different from author. URL

Author's Last Name, First intial. Second Initial if Given or Username if real name not provided. (Year blog post was published, Month Day). Title of blog post. Title of Blog . URL

Title of entry. (Year article was edited, Month Day). In Wikipedia . URL

Note : Cite the archived version of the page you used.  To access this information on Wikipedia  select "View history," choose the version you used, and copy its URL.

Wikipedia may not be considered an acceptable source for a college or university assignment. Be sure to evaluate the content carefully and check your assignment.

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Formatted citations created by a generator can be copied into the bibliography of an academic paper as a way to give credit to the sources referenced in the main body of the paper.

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In academia, bibliographies are graded on their accuracy against the official APA rulebook, so it is important for students to ensure their citations are formatted correctly. Special attention should also be given to ensure the entire document (including main body) is structured according to the APA guidelines. Our complete APA format guide has everything you need know to make sure you get it right (including examples and diagrams).

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Our APA generator was built with a focus on simplicity and speed. To generate a formatted reference list or bibliography just follow these steps:

  • Start by searching for the source you want to cite in the search box at the top of the page.
  • MyBib will automatically locate all the required information. If any is missing you can add it yourself.
  • Your citation will be generated correctly with the information provided and added to your bibliography.
  • Repeat for each citation, then download the formatted list and append it to the end of your paper.

MyBib supports the following for APA style:

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Daniel is a qualified librarian, former teacher, and citation expert. He has been contributing to MyBib since 2018.

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APA In-Text Citations (7th Ed.) | Multiple Authors & Missing Info

Published on November 4, 2020 by Raimo Streefkerk . Revised on September 30, 2022.

In-text citations briefly identify the source of information in the body text. They correspond to a full reference entry at the end of your paper.

APA in-text citations consist of the author’s last name and publication year. When citing a specific part of a source, also include a page number or range, for example (Parker, 2020, p. 67) or (Johnson, 2017, pp. 39–41) .

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Table of contents

Apa in-text citations explained in 4 minutes, parenthetical vs. narrative citations, apa in-text citations with multiple authors, no author, date or page number, multiple sources in one parenthesis, avoiding ambiguity in apa in-text citations, citing indirect sources (“as cited in”), citing personal communication, general mentions of websites and software, example paragraph with in-text citations, frequently asked questions.

The in-text citation can be placed in parentheses or naturally integrated into a sentence.

  • Parenthetical : There is a correlation between social media usage and anxiety symptoms in teenagers (Parker, 2019) .
  • Narrative: Parker (2019) found a correlation between social media usage and anxiety symptoms in teenagers.

The publication year appears directly after the author’s name when using the narrative format. The parenthetical citation can be placed within or at the end of a sentence, just before the period. Check out a full example paragraph with in-text citations .

If a work has two authors, separate their names with an ampersand (&) in a parenthetical citation or “and” in a narrative citation. If there are three or more authors, only include the first author’s last name followed by “et al.”, meaning “and others”.

Group authors known by their abbreviations (e.g., CDC) are written in full the first time and are abbreviated in subsequent citations.

If the author of a source is unknown, try to determine if there is an organization or government responsible for creating the content. If so, include its name in the in-text citation (and reference entry).

Alternatively, use the source title in place of the author. Italicize the title if it’s italicized in the reference entry (except for court cases , which are italicized in the in-text citation but not the reference entry). Otherwise, enclose it in double quotation marks.

Apply title case capitalization, and shorten long titles. The first word of the title should always be included so readers can easily locate the corresponding reference entry.

  • (“U.S. Flood Risk,” 2015)
  • ( Thinking, Fast and Slow , 2017)

No publication date

If the publication date is unknown, write “n.d.” (no date) in the in-text citation.

No page number (alternative locators)

Page numbers are only required with direct quotes in APA . If you are quoting from a work that does not have page numbers (e.g., webpages or YouTube videos ), you can use an alternative locator, such as:

  • (Liu, 2020, 03:26 )
  • (Johnson, 2019, Chapter 3 )
  • (McCombes, 2016, para. 4 )
  • (Davis, 2016, Slide 15 )
  • (Flores, 2020, Table 5 )
  • (Streefkerk, 2020, “No page number” section )

Note that Bible citations always use chapter and verse numbers, even when page numbers are available:

If a statement is supported by multiple sources, the in-text citations can be combined in one parenthesis. Order the sources alphabetically, and separate them with a semicolon.

When citing multiple works from the same author, list the years of publication separated by a comma.

When in-text citations are ambiguous because they correspond to multiple reference entries, apply the solutions outlined in the table below.

If you want to refer to a source that you have found in another source, you should always try to access the original or primary source .

However, if you cannot find the original source , you should cite it through the secondary source that led you to it, using the phrase “as cited in”.

If the publication date of the primary source is unknown, include only the year of publication of the secondary source.

Only include a reference entry for the secondary source, not the primary source.

Personal communications , such as phone calls, emails, and interviews, are not included in the reference list because readers can’t access them. The in-text citation is also formatted slightly differently.

Include the initials and last name of the person you communicated with, the words “personal communication,” and the exact date in parentheses.

General mentions of a website or software don’t have to be cited with an in-text citation or entry in the reference list. Instead, incorporate relevant information into the running text.

  • The website of Scribbr (www.scribbr.com) contains various useful resources.
  • Statistical software SPSS (version 25) was used to analyze the data.

When citing a webpage or online article , the APA in-text citation consists of the author’s last name and year of publication. For example: (Worland & Williams, 2015). Note that the author can also be an organization. For example: (American Psychological Association, 2019).

If you’re quoting you should also include a locator. Since web pages don’t have page numbers, you can use one of the following options:

  • Paragraph number: (Smith, 2018, para. 15).
  • Heading or section name: ( CDC, 2020, Flu Season section)
  • Abbreviated heading:  ( CDC, 2020, “Key Facts” section)

Instead of the author’s name, include the first few words of the work’s title in the in-text citation. Enclose the title in double quotation marks when citing an article, web page or book chapter. Italicize the title of periodicals, books, and reports.

If the publication date is unknown , use “n.d.” (no date) instead. For example: (Johnson, n.d.).

The abbreviation “ et al. ” (meaning “and others”) is used to shorten APA in-text citations with three or more authors . Here’s how it works:

Only include the first author’s last name, followed by “et al.”, a comma and the year of publication, for example (Taylor et al., 2018).

Always include page numbers in the APA in-text citation when quoting a source . Don’t include page numbers when referring to a work as a whole – for example, an entire book or journal article.

If your source does not have page numbers, you can use an alternative locator such as a timestamp, chapter heading or paragraph number.

If you cite several sources by the same author or group of authors, you’ll distinguish between them in your APA in-text citations using the year of publication.

If you cite multiple sources by the same author(s) at the same point , you can just write the author name(s) once and separate the different years with commas, e.g., (Smith, 2020, 2021).

To distinguish between sources with the same author(s) and  the same publication year, add a different lowercase letter after the year for each source, e.g., (Smith, 2020, 2021a, 2021b). Add the same letters to the corresponding reference entries .

In an APA in-text citation , you use the phrase “ as cited in ” if you want to cite a source indirectly (i.e., if you cannot find the original source).

Parenthetical citation: (Brown, 1829, as cited in Mahone, 2018) Narrative citation: Brown (1829, as cited in Mahone, 2018) states that…

On the reference page , you only include the secondary source (Mahone, 2018).

An APA in-text citation is placed before the final punctuation mark in a sentence.

  • The company invested over 40,000 hours in optimizing its algorithm (Davis, 2011) .
  • A recent poll suggests that EU membership “would be backed by 55 percent of Danish voters” in a referendum (Levring, 2018) .

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.

Streefkerk, R. (2022, September 30). APA In-Text Citations (7th Ed.) | Multiple Authors & Missing Info. Scribbr. Retrieved December 11, 2023, from https://www.scribbr.com/apa-style/in-text-citation/

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A comprehensive guide to apa citations and format, overview of this guide:.

This page provides you with an overview of APA format, 7th edition. Included is information about referencing, various citation formats with examples for each source type, and other helpful information.

If you’re looking for MLA format , check out the Citation Machine MLA Guide. Also, visit the Citation Machine homepage to use the APA formatter, which is an APA citation generator, and to see more styles .

Being responsible while researching

When you’re writing a research paper or creating a research project, you will probably use another individual’s work to help develop your own assignment. A good researcher or scholar uses another individual’s work in a responsible way. This involves indicating that the work of other individuals is included in your project (i.e., citing), which is one way to prevent plagiarism.

Plagiarism? What is it?

The word plagiarism is derived from the Latin word, plagiare , which means “to kidnap.” The term has evolved over the years to now mean the act of taking another individual’s work and using it as your own, without acknowledging the original author (American Psychological Association, 2020 p. 21). Plagiarism can be illegal and there can be serious ramifications for plagiarizing someone else’s work. Thankfully, plagiarism can be prevented. One way it can be prevented is by including citations and references in your research project. Want to make them quickly and easily? Try the Citation Machine citation generator, which is found on our homepage.

All about citations & references

Citations and references should be included anytime you use another individual’s work in your own assignment. When including a quote, paraphrased information, images, or any other piece of information from another’s work, you need to show where you found it by including a citation and a reference. This guide explains how to make them.

APA style citations are added in the body of a research paper or project and references are added to the last page.

Citations , which are called in-text citations, are included when you’re adding information from another individual’s work into your own project. When you add text word-for-word from another source into your project, or take information from another source and place it in your own words and writing style (known as paraphrasing), you create an in-text citation. These citations are short in length and are placed in the main part of your project, directly after the borrowed information.

References are found at the end of your research project, usually on the last page. Included on this reference list page is the full information for any in-text citations found in the body of the project. These references are listed in alphabetical order by the author's last name.

An APA in-text citation includes only three items: the last name(s) of the author(s), the year the source was published, and sometimes the page or location of the information. References include more information such as the name of the author(s), the year the source was published, the full title of the source, and the URL or page range.

Two example in-text citations.

Why is it important to include citations & references

Including APA citations and references in your research projects is a very important component of the research process. When you include citations, you’re being a responsible researcher. You’re showing readers that you were able to find valuable, high-quality information from other sources, place them into your project where appropriate, all while acknowledging the original authors and their work.

Common ways students and scholars accidentally plagiarize

Believe it or not, there are instances when you could attempt to include in-text and full references in the appropriate places, but still accidentally plagiarize. Here are some common mistakes to be aware of:

Mistake #1 - Misquoting sources: If you plan to use a direct quote, make sure you copy it exactly as is. Sure, you can use part of the full quote or sentence, but if you decide to put quotation marks around any words, those words should match exactly what was found in the original source. Here’s a line from The Little Prince , by Antoine de Saint-Exupéry:

“Grown-ups never understand anything by themselves, and it is tiresome for children to be always and forever explaining things to them.”

Here’s an acceptable option:

“Grown-ups never understand anything by themselves,” stated de Saint-Exupéry (1943, p. 3).

Here’s a misquote:

“Grown-ups barely ever understand anything by themselves,” stated de Saint-Exupéry (1943, p. 3).

Notice the slight change in the words. The incorrect phrasing is an instance of accidental plagiarism.

Mistake #2 - Problems with paraphrasing: When we paraphrase, we restate information using our own words and writing style. It’s not acceptable to substitute words from the original source with synonyms.

Let’s use the same sentence from The Little Prince .

A correct paraphrase could be:

de Saint-Exupéry (1943) shares various ways adults frustrate children. One of the biggest being that kids have to explain everything. It’s too bad adults are unable to comprehend anything on their own (p. 3).

An incorrect paraphrase would be:

de Saint-Exupéry (1943) shares that adults never understand anything by themselves, and it is exhausting for kids to be always and forever clarifying things to them (p.3).

Notice how close the incorrect paraphrase is from the original. This is an instance of accidental plagiarism.

Make sure you quote and paraphrase properly in order to prevent accidental plagiarism.

If you’re having a difficult time paraphrasing properly, it is acceptable to paraphrase part of the text AND use a direct quote. Here’s an example:

de Saint-Exupery (1943) shares various ways adults frustrate children. One of the biggest being that kids have to explain everything, and “it is tiresome for children to be always and forever explaining things to them” (p. 3).

Information About APA

Who created it.

The American Psychological Association is an organization created for individuals in the psychology field. With close to 121,000 members, they provide educational opportunities, funding, guidance, and research information for everything psychology-related. They also have numerous high-quality databases, peer-reviewed journals, and books that revolve around mental health.

The American Psychological Association is also credited with creating their own specific citation and reference style. Today, this format is used by individuals not only in the psychology field, but many other subject areas as well. Education, economics, business, and social sciences also use APA style quite frequently. Click here for more information . This guide covers general information about the style, but is not affiliated with the American Psychological Association.

Why was this style created?

This format was first developed in 1929 to form a standardized way for researchers in science fields to document their sources. Prior to the inception of these standards and guidelines, individuals were recognizing the work of other authors by including bits and pieces of information in random order. There wasn’t a set way to format citations and references. You can probably imagine how difficult it was to understand the sources that were used for research projects!

Having a standard format for citing sources allows readers to glance at a citation or APA reference and easily locate the title, author, year published, and other critical pieces of information needed to understand a source.

The evolution of this style

The guide below is based on APA style 7th edition, which was released in 2020. In previous versions of APA format, researchers and scholars were required to include the publisher location for books and the date that an electronic resource was accessed. Both are no longer required to be included.

Details on the differences between the 6th and 7th editions is addressed later in this guide.

Citations & References

The appearance of citations & references.

The format for references varies, but most use this general format:

%%Author’s Last name, First initial. (Date published). Title . URL

Researchers and scholars must look up the proper format for the source that they’re attempting to cite. Books have a certain format, websites have a different format, periodicals have a different format, and so on. Scroll down to find the proper format for the source you’re citing or referencing.

If you would like help citing your sources, CitationMachine.com has a citation generator that will help make the APA citation process much easier for you. To start, simply click on the source type you're citing:

  • Journal articles

In-text citations

An APA in-text citation is included in research projects in three instances: When using a direct quote, paraphrasing information, or simply referring to a piece of information from another source.

Quite often, researchers and scholars use a small amount of text, word for word, from another source and include it in their own research projects. This is done for many reasons. Sometimes, another author’s words are so eloquently written that there isn’t a better way to rephrase it yourself. Other times, the author’s words can help prove a point or establish an understanding for something in your research project. When using another author’s exact words in your research project, include an APA in-text citation directly following it.

In addition to using the exact words from another source and placing them into your project, these citations are also added anytime you paraphrase information. Paraphrasing is when you take information from another source and rephrase it, in your own words.

When simply referring to another piece of information from another source, also include a citation directly following it.

Citations in the text are found near a direct quote, paraphrased information, or next to a mention of another source. To see examples of some narrative/ parenthetical citations in action, look at the image above, under “All About Citations & References.”

Note: *Only include the page or paragraph number when using a direct quote or paraphrase. Page numbers have a p. before the number, pp. before the page range, and para. before the paragraph number. This information is included to help the reader locate the exact portion of text themselves. It is unnecessary to include this information when you’re simply referring to another source.

Examples of APA in-text citations:

“Well, you’re about to enter the land of the free and the brave. And I don’t know how you got that stamp on your passport. The priest must know someone” (Tóibín, 2009, p. 52).
Student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers (Kent & Giles, 2017, p. 12).

If including the author’s name in the sentence, place the year in the parentheses directly next to his or her name. Add the page number at the end, unless it’s a source without any pages or paragraph numbers (See Section 8.10 of the Publication manual for more details).

In-text citation APA example:

According to a study done by Kent and Giles (2017), student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers.

The full references, or citations, for these sources can be found on the last part of a research project, titled the “References.”

Here’s how to create in-text citations for specific amounts of authors:

APA citation with no author

When the source lacks an author’s name, place the title, year, and page number (if available) in the text. The title should be in italics if it sits alone (such as a movie, brochure, or report). If the source is part of a whole (as many web pages and articles are), place the title in quotation marks without italics (See Section 8.14 of the Publication manual ).

Structure of an APA format citation in the text narratively, with the author's name missing:

Title of Source (Year) or “Title of Source” (Year)

Structure of an APA style format citation, in parentheses at the end of the sentence, with the author’s name missing: (Title of Source, Year) or (“Title of Source,” Year)

Structure for one author

In the text, narratively: Last name of Author (Year)...(page number).

In parentheses, at the end of the sentence: (Last name of Author, Year, page number).

Structure for two authors

Place the authors in the order they appear on the source. Only use the ampersand in the parenthetical citations (see Section 8.17 of the Publication manual ). Use ‘and’ to separate the author names if they’re in the text of the sentence.

In the text, narratively: Last name of Author 1 and Last name of Author 2 (Year)....(page number).

In parentheses, at the end of the sentence: (Last name of Author 1 & Last name of Author 2, Year, page number).

Structure for three or more authors

Only include the first listed author’s name in the first and any subsequent citations. Follow it with et al.

(Last name Author 1 et al., Year, page number)

(Agbayani et al., 2020, p. 99)

Last name of Author 1 et al. (Year)...(page).

Agbayani et al. (2020)...(p. 99)

One author, multiple works, same year

What do you do when you want to cite multiple works by an author, and the sources all written in the same year?

Include the letters ‘a’ ‘b’ ‘c’ and so on after the year in the citation.

(Jackson, 2013a)

Jackson (2013a)

Writers can even lump dates together.

Example: Jackson often studied mammals while in Africa (2013a, 2013b).

On the APA reference page, include the same letters in the full references.

Groups and organizations

Write out the full name of the group or organization in the first citation and place the abbreviation next to it in brackets. If the group or organization is cited again, only include the abbreviation. If it doesn’t have an abbreviation associated with it, write out the entire organization’s name each and every time (see Section 8.21 of the Publication manual ).

First APA citation for an organization with an abbreviation: (World Health Organization [WHO], Year)

World Health Organization (WHO, Year)

Notice in the example directly above, the name of the organization is written out in full in the text of the sentence, and the abbreviation is placed in parentheses next to it.

Subsequent APA citations in the text for an organization with an abbreviation: (WHO, Year) OR WHO (Year)

All citations in the text for an organization without an abbreviation: (Citation Machine, Year) or Citation Machine (Year)

One in-text citation, multiple works

Sometimes you’ll need to cite more than one work within an in-text citation. Follow the same format (author, year) format but place semicolons between works (p. 263).

(Obama, 2016; Monroe et al., 1820; Hoover & Coolidge, 1928)

Reminder: There are many citation tools available on CitationMachine.com. Head to our homepage to learn more, check out our APA citation website, and cite your sources easily! The most useful resource on our website? Our APA citation generator, which doesn’t just create full references, it’s also an APA in-text citation website! It’ll do both for you!

Click here to learn more about crediting work .

Reference list citation components

References display the full information for all the citations found in the body of a research project.

Some things to keep in mind when it comes to the references:

  • All references sit together on their own page, which is usually the last page(s) of a paper.
  • Title the page ‘References’
  • Place ‘References’ in the center of the page and bold it. Keep the title in the same font and size as the references. Do not italicize, underline, place the title in quotation marks, or increase the font size.
  • The entire page is double spaced.
  • All references are listed in alphabetical order by the first word in the reference, which is usually the author’s last name. If the source lacks an author, alphabetize the source by the title (ignore A, An, or The)
  • All references have a hanging indent, meaning that the second line of text is indented in half an inch. See examples throughout this guide.
  • Remember, each and every citation in the text of the paper MUST have a full reference displayed in the reference list. The citations in the text provide the reader with a quick glimpse about the sources used, but the references in the reference list provide the reader with all the information needed to seek out the source themselves.

Learn more about each component of the reference citation and how to format it in the sections that follow. See an APA sample paper reference list at the end of this entire section.

Author’s names

The names of authors are written in reverse order. Include the initials for the first and middle names. End this information with a period (see Section 9.8 of the Publication manual ).

Format: Last name, F. M.

  • Angelou, M.
  • Doyle, A. C.

Two or more authors

When two or more authors work together on a source, write them in the order in which they appear on the source. You can name up to 20 authors in the reference. For sources with 2 to 20 authors, place an ampersand (&) before the final author. Use this format:

Last name, F. M., & Last name, F. M.

Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., & Last name, F. M.

Kent, A. G., Giles, R. M., Thorpe, A., Lukes, R., Bever, D. J., & He, Y.

If there are 21 or more authors listed on a source, only include the first 19 authors, add three ellipses, and then add the last author’s name.

Roberts, A., Johnson, M. C., Klein, J., Cheng, E. V., Sherman, A., Levin, K. K. , ...Lopez, G. S.

If you plan on using a free APA citation tool, like the one at CitationMachine.com, the names of the authors will format properly for you.

###No authors

If the source lacks an author, place the title in the first position in the reference (Section 9.12 of the Publication manual ). When the source’s title begins with a number (Such as 101 Dalmatians ), place the reference alphabetically as if the number was spelled out. 101 Dalmatians would be placed in the spot where ‘One hundred’ would go, but keep the numbers in their place.

Additionally, if the title begins with the words ‘A’, ‘An,’ or ‘The,’ ignore these words and place the title alphabetically according to the next word.

See the “Titles” section below for more information on formatting the title of sources.

###Corporate/Organization authors

On an APA reference page, corporate authors are always written out in full. In the text of your paper, you may have some abbreviations (such as UN for United Nations), but in the full references, always include the full names of the corporation or organization (following Section 9.11 of the official Publication manual ).

%%United Nations. (2019). Libya: $202 million needed to bring life-saving aid to half a million people hit by humanitarian crisis. https://news.un.org/en/story/2019/02/1031981

Publication date & retrieval date

Directly after the author’s name is the date the source was published. Include the full date for newspapers and magazine articles, and only the year for journals and all other sources. If no date is found on the source, include the initials, n.d. for “no date.”

%% Narducci, M. (2017, May 19). City renames part of 11th Street Ed Snider Way to honor Flyers founder. The Philadelphia Inquirer . http://www.philly.com/

If using our APA Citation Machine, our citation generator will add the correct format for you automatically.

Giving a retrieval date is not needed unless the online content is likely to be frequently updated and changed (e.g., encyclopedia article, dictionary entry, Twitter profile, etc.).

%%Citation Machine [@CiteMachine]. (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Twitter. Retrieved October 10, 2019, from https://twitter.com/CiteMachine

When writing out titles for books, articles, chapters, or other non-periodical sources, only capitalize the first word of the title and the first word of the subtitle. Names of people, places, organizations, and other proper nouns also have the first letter capitalized. For books and reports, italicize the title in the APA citation.

Strange case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde.

Roots: The saga of an American family.

For articles and chapters in APA referencing, do not italicize the title.

Wake up the nation: Public libraries, policy making, and political discourse.

For newspapers, magazines, journals, newsletters, and other periodicals, capitalize the first letter in each word and italicize the title.

The Seattle Times.

A common question is whether to underline your title or place it in italics or quotation marks in the reference list. Here’s a good general rule: When a source sits alone and is not part of a larger whole, place the title in italics. If the source does not sit alone and is part of a larger whole, do not place it in italics.

Books, movies, journals, and television shows are placed in italics since they stand alone. Songs on an album, episodes of television shows, chapters in books, and articles in journals are not placed in italics since they are smaller pieces of larger wholes.

The Citation Machine citation generator will format the title in your citations automatically.

Additional information about the title

If you feel it would be helpful to include additional information about the source type, include a descriptive noun or two in brackets immediately following the title. Capitalize the first letter.

%%Kennedy, K., & Molen, G. R. (Producers), & Spielberg, S. (Director). (1993). Jurassic Park [Film]. USA: Universal.

Besides [Film], other common notations include:

  • [Audio podcast]
  • [Letter to the editor]
  • [Television series episode]
  • [Facebook page]
  • [Blog post]
  • [Lecture notes]
  • [PowerPoint presentation]
  • [Video file]

If you are using Citation Machine citing tools, additional information about the title is automatically added for you.

Publisher information

For books and reports, include the publisher name but not the location (see Section 9.29 of the Publication manual ). Older editions of the style required the city, state and/or country, but this hasn't been the case since the 7th edition was released.

It is not necessary to include the entire name of the publisher. It is acceptable to use a brief, intelligible form. However, if Books or Press are part of the publisher’s names, keep these words in the reference. Other common terms, such as Inc., Co., Publishers, and others can be omitted.

For newspapers, journals, magazines, and other periodicals, include the volume and issue number after the title. The volume number is listed first, by itself, in italics. The issue number is in parentheses immediately after it, not italicized. There is no space after the closing parenthesis and before the volume number.

%%Giannoukos, G., Besas, G., Hictour, V., & Georgas, T. (2016). A study on the role of computers in adult education. Educational Research and Reviews , 11 (9), 907-923. https://doi.org/10.5897/ERR2016.2688

After including the publisher information, end this section with a period.

Perseus Books.

Electronic source information:

For online sources, the URL or DOI (Direct Object Identifier) are included at the end of an APA citation.

DOI numbers are often created by publishers for journal articles and other periodical sources. They were created in response to the problem of broken or outdated links and URLs. When a journal article is assigned a DOI number, it is static and will never change. Because of its permanent characteristic, DOIs are the preferred type of electronic information to include in APA citations. When a DOI number is not available, include the source’s URL (see Section 9.34 in the Publication manual ).

For DOIs, include the number in this format:

http://doi.org/xxxx

For URLs, type them in this format:

http:// or https://

Other information about electronic sources:

  • If the URL is longer than a line, break it up before a punctuation mark.
  • Do not place a period at the end of the citation/URL.
  • It is unnecessary to include retrieval dates, unless the source changes often over time (like in a Wikipedia article).
  • It is not necessary to include the names of databases

If using the Citation Machine APA citation website autocite features, the online publication information will be automatically replaced by the DOI. The Citation Machine APA template will properly cite your online sources for you.

The image shows an example APA student page that is formatted using the guidelines described under the heading Paper Formatting.

Make sure you run your completed paper through the Citation Machine Plus smart proofreader, which scans for grammar, spelling, and plagiarism. Whether it’s an adjective , verb , or pronoun out-of-place, our technology helps edits your paper for you!

Annotated bibliographies:

An APA annotated bibliography is a full bibliography that includes a small note for each reference citation. Each note should be short (1-2 paragraphs) and contain a summary or your evaluation about each source. When creating your citations on CitationMachine.net, there is a field at the bottom of each form to add your own annotations.

Follow the publication manual guidelines on paper format and writing style. Let your instructor guide other details about your annotations. Still confused? Read our guide on annotated bibliographies .

These types of projects look different depending on the style you’re using. Use the link at the top of the page to access resources related to the Modern Language Association’s style. Here’s information related to Chicago citation style .

Page formatting

Need help with the design and formatting of your paper? Look no further! This section provides the ins and outs of properly displaying the information in your APA essay.

  • Times New Roman, 12-point size.
  • Calibri, Arial, or Georgia, 11-point size
  • Lucida, Sans Unicode, or Computer Modern, 10-point size
  • Indents = Every paragraph should start with an indent.
  • Margins = 1 inch around the entire document
  • Spacing = Double space everything!

Arrange your pages in this order:

  • Page 1 - APA Title Page (see below for information on the title page)
  • Page 2 - Abstract (If your professor requests one)
  • Page 3 - First page of text
  • References begin on their own page. Include the list of references on the page after the text.
  • Tables and figures

Keep in mind that the order above is the recommendation for papers being submitted for peer review. If you’re writing an APA style paper for a class, your professor may be more lenient about the requirements. Also, if you’re submitting your paper for a specific journal, check the requirements on the journal’s website. Each journal has different rules and procedures.

Just a little nudge to remind you about the Citation Machine Plus smart proofreader. Whether it’s a conjunction or interjection out of place, a misspelled word, or an out of place citation, we’ll offer suggestions for improvement! Don’t forget to check out our APA citation maker while you’re at it!

Running heads

In older editions of APA, running heads were required for all papers. Since the 7th edition, that’s changed.

  • Student paper: No running head
  • Professional paper: Include a running head

The running head displays the title of the paper and the page number on all pages of the paper. This header is found on every page of a professional paper (not a student paper), even on the title page (sometimes called an APA cover page) and reference list (taken from Section 2.8 of the Publication manual ).

It's displayed all in capital letters at the top of the page. Across from the running head, along the right margin, is the page number.

  • Use the header feature in your word processor. Both Google Docs and Word have these features available.
  • Use one for the recommended fonts mentioned under "Page formatting."

Title pages

A title page, sometimes called an APA cover page, graces the cover of an essay or paper. An APA title page should follow rules from Section 2.3 of the official Publication manual and include:

  • Page number, which is page 1
  • Use title case and bold font
  • The title should be under 12 words in length
  • The title should be a direct explanation of the focus of the paper. Do not include any unnecessary descriptors such as “An Analysis of…” or “A Study of…”
  • Exclude any labels such as Mr., Ms., Dr, PhD...
  • Name of the school or institution
  • Course number and/or class name
  • Name of your instructor, including their preferred honorifics (e.g., PhD, Dr., etc.)
  • Paper’s due date
  • If this is a professional paper, also include a running head. If this is a student paper, do not include one.

Follow the directions for the running head and page number in the section above. Below the running head, a few lines beneath, and centered in the middle of the page, should be the title. The next line below is the author’s name(s), followed by the name of the school or institution, the class or course name, your instructor’s name, and the paper’s due date.

All components on this page should be written in the same font and size as the rest of your paper. Double space the title, names, name of school or institution, and all other information on the page (except for the running head and page number).

Example - Student Title Page APA:

The image shows an example APA student title page that is formatted using the guidelines described above under the heading Title Pages.

Example - Professional Title Page APA:

The image shows an example APA professional title page that is formatted using the guidelines described above under the heading Title Pages.

If you’re submitting your paper to a journal for publication, check the journal’s website for exact requirements. Each journal is different and some may request a different type of APA format cover page.

Looking to create an APA format title page? Head to CitationMachine.com’s homepage and choose “Title Page” at the top of the screen.

An abstract briefly but thoroughly summarizes dissertation contents. It’s found in the beginning of a professional paper, right after the title page. Abstracts are meant to help readers determine whether to continue reading the entire document. With that in mind, try to craft the lead sentence to entice the reader to continue reading.

Here are a few tips:

  • Be factual and keep your opinions out. An abstract should accurately reflect the paper or dissertation and should not involve information or commentary not in the thesis.
  • Communicate your main thesis. What was the examined problem or hypothesis? A reader should know this from reading your abstract.
  • Keep it brief. Stick to the main points and don’t add unnecessary words or facts. It should not exceed 250 words.
  • Consider your paper’s purpose. It’s important to cater your abstract to your paper type and think about what information the target audience for that paper type would want. For example, an empirical article may mention methodology or participant description. A quantitative or qualitative meta-analysis would mention the different variables considered and how information was synthesized.
  • Use verbs over noun equivalents, and active voice. Example: “There was research into…” becomes “We researched…”

Formatting guidelines:

  • The abstract goes after the title page.
  • It should have the same font (size and type) as the rest of the paper.
  • It should stick to one page.
  • Double-space all page text.
  • Center and bold the word “Abstract” at the top of the paper.
  • Don’t indent the first line of the abstract body. The body should also be in plain text.
  • For the keywords, place it on the line after the abstract and indent the first line (but not subsequent lines). The word “Keywords:” is capitalized, italicized, and followed by a colon. The actual keywords are sentence case and in plan font.
  • List each keyword one after the other, and separate them by a comma.
  • After the last keyword, no ending punctuation is needed.

The image shows an example APA abstract page that is formatted using the guidelines described above under the heading Abstracts.

Tables & Figures

If your paper includes a lot of numerical information or data, you may want to consider placing it into a table or a figure, rather than typing it all out. A visual figure or simple, organized table filled with numerical data is often easier for readers to digest and comprehend than tons of paragraphs filled with numbers. Chapter 7 of the Publication manual outlines formatting for tables and figures. Let's cover the basics below.

If you’d like to include a table or figure in your paper, here are a few key pieces of information to keep in mind:

  • At the end of the paper after the APA reference page
  • In the text after it is first mentioned
  • The table first mentioned in the text should be titled ‘Table 1.’ The next table mentioned in the text is ‘Table 2,’ and so on. For figures, it would be 'Figure 1,' 'Figure 2,' and so forth.

The image shows that an APA paper with tables can be organized as follows – 1. Title page, 2. Text of paper, 3. References, 4. Table 1, 5. Table 2.

  • Even though every table and figure is numbered, also create a title for each that describes the information it contains. Capitalize all important words in the title.
  • For tables, do not use any vertical lines, only use horizontal to break up information and headings.
  • Single spacing is acceptable to use in tables and figures. If you prefer double spacing your information, that is okay too.
  • Do not include extra information or “fluff.” Keep it simple!
  • Do not include the same exact information in the paper. Only include the complete information in one area—the table or the text.
  • All tables and figures must be referenced in the text. It is unacceptable to throw a table or figure into the back of the paper without first providing a brief summary or explanation of its relevance.

Example of formatting a table in APA style.

Publication Manual 6th Edition vs 7th Edition

The 6th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association was released in 2009. The current 7th edition came out in the fall of 2019 and was designed to be more student focused, provide more guidance on accessibility, and address changes that have developed over the last 10 years.

Below, we’ve listed what we feel are the most relevant changes related to APA format.

Journals and DOIs

DOI stands for “digital object identifier.” Many journal articles use and have a unique DOI that should be included in a full citation.

When including a DOI in a citation, format it as a URL. Do not label it “DOI.” Articles without DOIs from databases are treated as print works. For example:

6th edition:

%%Gänsicke, B. T., Schreiber, M. R., Toloza, O., Fusillo, N. P. G., Koester, D., & Manser, C. J. (2019). Accretion of a giant planet onto a white dwarf star. Nature, 576 (7785), 61–64. doi: 10.1038/s41586-019-1789-8

7th edition:

%%Gänsicke, B. T., Schreiber, M. R., Toloza, O., Fusillo, N. P. G., Koester, D., & Manser, C. J. (2019). Accretion of a giant planet onto a white dwarf star. Nature, 576 (7785), 61–64. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1789-8

Citing Books

There are few new guidelines when you are citing a book. First, the publisher location no longer needs to be indicated.

%%Zack, P. O. (2001). The shoals of time. Bloomington, IN: First Books Library.

%%Zack, P. O. (2001). The shoals of time. First Books Library.

Second, the format of an ebook (e.g., Kindle, etc.) no longer needs to be indicated.

%%Niven, J. (2012). Ada Blackjack: A true story of survival in the Arctic [Kindle].

%%Niven, J. (2012). Ada Blackjack: A true story of survival in the Arctic .

Lastly, books from research databases without DOIs are treated the same as print works.

When using a URL in a citation, you no longer need to include the term “Retrieved from” before URLs (except with retrieval dates). The font should be blue and underlined, or black and not underlined.

6th Edition:

%%Flood, A. (2019, December 6). Britain has closed almost 800 libraries since 2010, figures show. The Guardian . Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/books/2019/dec/06/britain-has-closed-almost-800-libraries-since-2010-figures-show

7th Edition:

%%Flood, A. (2019, December 6). Britain has closed almost 800 libraries since 2010, figures show. The Guardian . https://www.theguardian.com/books/2019/dec/06/britain-has-closed-almost-800-libraries-since-2010-figures-show

Within a full APA citation, you may spell out up to 20 author names. For two to 20 authors, include an ampersand (&) before the name of the last author. For sources with 21 or more authors, structure it as follows:

Structure: First 19 authors’ names, . . . Last author’s name.

7th edition example: Washington, G., Adams, J., Jefferson, T., Madison, J., Monroe, J., Adams, J. Q., Jackson, A., Van Buren, M., Harrison, W. H., Tyler, J., Polk, J. K., Taylor, Z., Filmore, M., Pierce, F., Buchanan, J., Lincoln, A., Johnson, A., Grant, U. S., Hayes, R. B., Garfield, . . . Trump, D.

When creating an in-text citation for a source with 3 or more authors, use “et al.” after the first author’s name. This helps abbreviate the mention.

6th Edition: (Honda, Johnson, Prosser, Rossi, 2019)

7th Edition: (Honda et al., 2019)

Tables and Figures

Instead of having different formats for tables and figures, both use one standardized format. Now both tables and figures have a number, a title, name of the table/figure, and a note at the bottom.

If you’re still typing into Google “how to cite a website APA” among other related questions and keywords, click here for further reading on the style .

When you’re through with your writing, toss your entire paper into the Citation Machine Plus plagiarism checker , which will scan your paper for grammar edits and give you up to 5 suggestions cards for free! Worry less about a determiner , preposition , or adverb out of place and focus on your research!

American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.) (2020). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000

Updated March 3, 2020

Written and edited by Michele Kirschenbaum and Wendy Ikemoto. Michele Kirschenbaum has been an awesome school librarian since 2006 and is an expert in citing sources. Wendy Ikemoto has a master’s degree in library and information science and has been working for Citation Machine since 2012.

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Format Your Paper & Cite Your Sources

  • APA Style, 7th Edition
  • Citing Sources
  • MLA Style (8th/9th ed.)

APA Tutorial

Formatting your paper, headings organize your paper (2.27), video tutorials, reference list format (9.43).

  • Elements of a Reference

Reference Examples (Chapter 10)

Dois and urls (9.34-9.36), in-text citations.

  • In-Text Citations Format
  • In-Text Citations for Specific Source Types

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What is APA Style?

Cover Art

APA style was created by social and behavioral scientists to standardize scientific writing. APA style is most often used in:

  • psychology,
  • social sciences (sociology, business), and

If you're taking courses in any of these areas, be prepared to use APA style.

For in-depth guidance on using this citation style, refer to Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , 7th ed. We have several copies available at the MJC Library at the call number  BF 76.7 .P83 2020 .

APA Style, 7th ed.

In October 2019, the American Psychological Association made radical changes its style, especially with regard to the format and citation rules for students writing academic papers. Use this guide to learn how to format and cite your papers using APA Style, 7th edition.

You can start by viewing the  video tutorial .

For help on all aspects of formatting your paper in APA Style, see   The Essentials  page on the APA Style website.

  • sans serif fonts such as 11-point Calibri, 11-point Arial, or 10-point Lucida Sans Unicode, or
  • serif fonts such as 12-point Times New Roman, 11-point Georgia, or normal (10-point) Computer Modern (the default font for LaTeX)
  • There are exceptions for the  title page ,  tables ,  figures ,  footnotes , and  displayed equations .
  • Margins :  Use 1-in. margins on every side of the page.
  • Align the text of an APA Style  paper to the left margin . Leave the right margin uneven, or “ragged.”
  • Do not use full justification for student papers.
  • Do not insert hyphens (manual breaks) in words at the end of line. However, it is acceptable if your word-processing program automatically inserts breaks in long hyperlinks (such as in a DOI or URL in a reference list entry).
  • Indent the first line of each paragraph of text 0.5 in . from the left margin. Use the tab key or the automatic paragraph-formatting function of your word-processing program to achieve the indentation (the default setting is likely already 0.5 in.). Do not use the space bar to create indentation. 
  • There are exceptions for the  title page ,  section labels ,  abstract ,  block quotations ,  headings ,  tables and figures ,  reference list , and  appendices .

Paper Elements

Student papers generally include, at a minimum: 

  • Title Page (2.3)
  • Text (2.11)
  • References  (2.12)

Student papers may include additional elements such as tables and figures depending on the assignment. So, please check with your teacher!

Student papers generally  DO NOT  include the following unless your teacher specifically requests it:

  • Running head
  • Author note

For complete information on the  order of pages , see the APA Style website.

Number your pages consecutively starting with page 1. Each section begins on a new page. Put the pages in the following order:

  • Page 1: Title page
  • Page 2: Abstract (if your teacher requires an abstract)
  • Page 3: Text 
  • References begin on a new page after the last page of text
  • Footnotes begin on a new page after the references (if your teacher requires footnotes)
  • Tables begin each on a new page after the footnotes (if your teacher requires tables) 
  • Figures begin on a new page after the tables (if your teacher requires figures)
  • Appendices begin on a new page after the tables and/or figures (if your teacher requires appendices)

Sample Papers With Built-In Instructions

To see what your paper should look like, check out these sample papers with built-in instructions.

APA Style uses five (5) levels of headings to help you organize your paper and allow your audience to identify its key points easily. Levels of headings establish the hierarchy of your sections just like you did in your paper outline.

APA tells us to use "only the number of headings necessary to differentiate distinct section in your paper." Therefore, the number of heading levels you create depends on the length and complexity of your paper.

See the chart below for instructions on formatting your headings:

Levels of Headings

Use Word to Format Your Paper:

Use Google Docs to Format Your Paper:

Placement:  The reference list  appears at the end of the paper, on its own page(s). If your research paper ends on page 8, your References begin on page 9.

Heading:  Place the section label References  in bold at the top of the page, centered.

Arrangement:  Alphabetize entries by author's last name. If source has no named author, alphabetize by the title, ignoring A, An, or The. (9.44-9.48)

Spacing:  Like the rest of the APA paper, the reference list is double-spaced throughout. Be sure NOT to add extra spaces between citations.

Indentation:  To make citations easier to scan, add a  hanging indent  of 0.5 in. to any citation that runs more than one line. Use the paragraph-formatting function of your word processing program to create your hanging indent.  

See Sample References Page (from APA Sample Student Paper):

Sample References page

Elements of Reference List Entries: (Chapter 9)

Where to find reference information for a journal article

References generally have four elements, each of which has a corresponding question for you to answer:

  • Author:   Who is responsible for this work? (9.7-9.12)
  • Date:   When was this work published? (9.13-9.17)
  • Title:   What is this work called? (9.18-9.22)
  • Source:   Where can I retrieve this work? (9.23-9.37)

By using these four elements and answering these four questions, you should be able to create a citation for any type of source.

For complete information on all of these elements, checkout the APA Style website.

This infographic shows the first page of a journal article. The locations of the reference elements are highlighted with different colors and callouts, and the same colors are used in the reference list entry to show how the entry corresponds to the source.

To create your references, you'll simple look for these elements in your source and put them together in your reference list entry.

American Psychological Association.  Example of where to find reference information for a journal article  [Infographic]. APA Style Center. https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/references/basic-principles

Below you'll find two printable handouts showing APA citation examples. The first is an abbreviated list created by MJC Librarians. The second, which is more comprehensive, is from the APA Style website. Feel free to print these for your convenience or use the links to reference examples below:

  • APA Citation Examples Created by MJC Librarians for you.
  • Common References Examples (APA Handout) Printable handout from the American Psychological Association.
  • APA Style Quick Reference Guide See how to format three typical types of references.
  • Journal Article
  • Magazine Article
  • Newspaper Article
  • Edited Book Chapter
  • Webpage on a Website

Classroom or Intranet Sources

  • Classroom Course Pack Materials
  • How to cite ChatGPT
  • Dictionary Entry
  • Government Report
  • Legal References (Laws & Cases)
  • TED Talk References
  • Religious Works
  • Open Educational Resources (OER)
  • Archival Documents and Collections

You can view the entire Reference Examples website below and view a helpful guide to finding useful APA style topics easily:

  • APA Style: Reference Examples
  • Navigating the not-so-hidden treasures of the APA Style website
  • Missing Reference Information

Sometimes you won't be able to find all the elements required for your reference. In that case, see the  instructions in Table 9.1 of the APA style manual in section 9.4 or the APA Style website below:

  • Direct Quotation of Material Without Page Numbers

The DOI or URL is the final component of a reference list entry. Because so much scholarship is available and/or retrieved online, most reference list entries end with either a DOI or a URL.

  • A  DOI  is a unique alphanumeric string that identifies content and provides a persistent link to its location on the internet. DOIs can be found in database records and the reference lists of published works.
  • A  URL  specifies the location of digital information on the internet and can be found in the address bar of your internet browser. URLs in references should link directly to the cited work when possible.

When to Include DOIs and URLs:

  • Include a DOI for all works that have a DOI, regardless of whether you used the online version or the print version.
  • If an online work has both a DOI and a URL, include only the DOI.
  • For works without DOIs from websites (not including academic research databases), provide a URL in the reference (as long as the URL will work for readers).
  • For works without DOIs from most academic research databases, do not include a URL or database information in the reference because these works are widely available. The reference should be the same as the reference for a print version of the work.
  • For works from databases that publish original, proprietary material available only in that database (such as the UpToDate database) or for works of limited circulation in databases (such as monographs in the ERIC database), include the name of the database or archive and the URL of the work. If the URL requires a login or is session-specific (meaning it will not resolve for readers), provide the URL of the database or archive home page or login page instead of the URL for the work. (See APA Section 9.30 for more information). 
  • If the URL is no longer working or no longer provides readers access to the content you intend to cite, try to find an archived version using the Internet Archive , then use the archived URL. If there is no archived URL, do not use that resource.

Format of DOIs and URLs:

Your DOI should look like this: 

https://doi.org/10.1037/a0040251

Follow these guidelines from the APA Style website.

APA Style uses the  author–date citation system , in which a brief in-text citation points your reader to the full reference list entry at the end of your paper. The in-text citation appears within the body of the paper and briefly identifies the cited work by its author and date of publication. This method enables your reader to locate the corresponding entry in the alphabetical reference list at the end of your paper.

Each work you cite  must  appear in the reference list, and each work in the reference list must be cited in the text (or in a table, figure, footnote, or appendix) except for the following (See APA, 8.4):

  • Personal communications (8.9)
  • General mentions of entire websites, whole periodicals (8.22), and common software and apps (10.10) in the text do not require a citation or reference list entry.
  • The source of an epigraph does not usually appear in the reference list (8.35)
  • Quotations from your research participants do not need citations or reference list entries (8.36)
  • References included in a statistical meta-analysis, which are marked with an asterisk in the reference list, may be cited in the text (or not) at the author’s discretion. This exception is relevant only to authors who are conducting a meta-analysis (9.52).

Formatting Your In-Text Citations

Parenthetical and Narrative Citations: ( See APA Section  8.11)

In APA style you use the author-date citation system for citing references within your paper. You incorporate these references using either a  parenthetical   or a  narrative  style.

Parenthetical Citations

  • In parenthetical citations, the author name and publication date appear in parentheses, separated by a comma. (Jones, 2018)
  • A parenthetical citation can appear within or at the end of a sentence.
  • When the parenthetical citation is at the end of the sentence, put the period or other end punctuation after the closing parenthesis.
  • If there is no author, use the first few words of the reference list entry, usually the "Title" of the source: ("Autism," 2008) See APA 8.14
  • When quoting, always provide the author, year, and specific page citation or paragraph number for nonpaginated materials in the text (Santa Barbara, 2010, p. 243).  See APA 8.13
  • For most citations, the parenthetical reference is placed BEFORE the punctuation: Magnesium can be effective in treating PMS (Haggerty, 2012).

Narrative Citations 

In narrative citations, the author name or title of your source appears within your text and the publication date appears in parentheses immediately after the author name. 

  • Santa Barbara (2010) noted a decline in the approval of disciplinary spanking of 26 percentage points from 1968 to 1994.

In-Text Citation Checklist

  • In-Text Citation Checklist Use this useful checklist from the American Psychological Association to ensure that you've created your in-text citations correctly.

In-Text Citations for Specific Types of Sources

Quotations from Research Participants

Personal Communications

Secondary Sources  

Use NoodleTools to Cite Your Sources  

NoodleTools can help you create your references and your in-text citations.

  • NoodleTools Express No sign in required . When you need one or two quick citations in MLA, APA, or Chicago style, simply generate them in NoodleTools Express then copy and paste what you need into your document. Note: Citations are not saved and cannot be exported to a word processor using NoodleTools Express.
  • NoodleTools (Login Full Database) This link opens in a new window Create and organize your research notes, share and collaborate on research projects, compose and error check citations, and complete your list of works cited in MLA, APA, or Chicago style using the full version of NoodleTools. You'll need to Create a Personal ID and password the first time you use NoodleTools.

See How to Use NoodleTools Express to Create a Citation in APA Format

Additional NoodleTools Help

  • NoodleTools Help Desk Look up questions and answers on the NoodleTools Web site
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APA Style (7th Edition) Citation Guide: Journal Articles

  • Introduction
  • Journal Articles
  • Magazine/Newspaper Articles
  • Books & Ebooks
  • Government & Legal Documents
  • Biblical Sources
  • Secondary Sources
  • Films/Videos/TV Shows
  • How to Cite: Other
  • Additional Help

Table of Contents

Journal article from library database with doi - one author, journal article from library database with doi - multiple authors, journal article from a website - one author.

Journal Article- No DOI

Note: All citations should be double spaced and have a hanging indent in a Reference List.

A "hanging indent" means that each subsequent line after the first line of your citation should be indented by 0.5 inches.

This Microsoft support page contains instructions about how to format a hanging indent in a paper.

  • APA 7th. ed. Journal Article Reference Checklist

If an item has no author, start the citation with the article title.

When an article has one to twenty authors, all authors' names are cited in the References List entry. When an article has twenty-one or more authors list the first nineteen authors followed by three spaced ellipse points (. . .) , and then the last author's name. Rules are different for in-text citations; please see the examples provided.

Cite author names in the order in which they appear on the source, not in alphabetical order (the first author is usually the person who contributed the most work to the publication).

Italicize titles of journals, magazines and newspapers. Do not italicize or use quotation marks for the titles of articles.

Capitalize only the first letter of the first word of the article title. If there is a colon in the article title, also capitalize the first letter of the first word after the colon.

If an item has no date, use the short form n.d. where you would normally put the date.

Volume and Issue Numbers

Italicize volume numbers but not issue numbers.

Retrieval Dates

Most articles will not need these in the citation. Only use them for online articles from places where content may change often, like a free website or a wiki.

Page Numbers

If an article doesn't appear on continuous pages, list all the page numbers the article is on, separated by commas. For example (4, 6, 12-14)

Library Database

Do not include the name of a database for works obtained from most academic research databases (e.g. APA PsycInfo, CINAHL) because works in these resources are widely available. Exceptions are Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, ERIC, ProQuest Dissertations, and UpToDate.

Include the DOI (formatted as a URL: https://doi.org/...) if it is available. If you do not have a DOI, include a URL if the full text of the article is available online (not as part of a library database). If the full text is from a library database, do not include a DOI, URL, or database name.

In the Body of a Paper

Books, Journals, Reports, Webpages, etc.: When you refer to titles of a “stand-alone work,” as the APA calls them on their APA Style website, such as books, journals, reports, and webpages, you should italicize them. Capitalize words as you would for an article title in a reference, e.g., In the book Crying in H Mart: A memoir , author Michelle Zauner (2021) describes her biracial origin and its impact on her identity.

Article or Chapter: When you refer to the title of a part of a work, such as an article or a chapter, put quotation marks around the title and capitalize it as you would for a journal title in a reference, e.g., In the chapter “Where’s the Wine,” Zauner (2021) describes how she decided to become a musician.

The APA Sample Paper below has more information about formatting your paper.

  • APA 7th ed. Sample Paper

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number (Issue Number), first page number-last page number. https://doi.org/doi number

Smith, K. F. (2022). The public and private dialogue about the American family on television: A second look. Journal of Media Communication, 50 (4), 79-110. https://doi.org/10.1152/j.1460-2466.2000.tb02864.x

Note: The DOI number is formatted as a URL: https://doi.org/10.1152/j.1460-2466.2000.tb02864.xIf. 

In-Text Paraphrase:

(Author's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Smith, 2000)

In-Text Quote:

(Author's Last Name, Year, p. Page Number)

Example: (Smith, 2000, p. 80)

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given., & Last Name of Second Author, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number (Issue Number), first page number-last page number. https://doi.org/doi number

Note: Separate the authors' names by putting a comma between them. For the final author listed add an ampersand (&) after the comma and before the final author's last name.

Note: In the reference list invert all authors' names; give last names and initials for only up to and including 20 authors. When a source has 21 or more authors, include the first 19 authors’ names, then three ellipses (…), and add the last author’s name. Don't include an ampersand (&) between the ellipsis and final author.

Note : For works with three or more authors, the first in-text citation is shortened to include the first author's surname followed by "et al."

Reference List Examples

Two to 20 Authors

Case, T. A., Daristotle, Y. A., Hayek, S. L., Smith, R. R., & Raash, L. I. (2011). College students' social networking experiences on Facebook. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 3 (2), 227-238. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2008.12.010

21 or more authors

Kalnay, E., Kanamitsu, M., Kistler, R., Collins, W., Deaven, D., Gandin, L., Iredell, M., Saha, J., Mo, K. C., Ropelewski, C., Wang, J., Leetma, A., . . . Joseph, D. (1996). The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society , 77 (3), 437-471. https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477(1996)077<0437:TNYRP>2.0.CO;2

In-Text Citations

Two Authors/Editors

(Case & Daristotle, 2011)

Direct Quote: (Case & Daristotle, 2011, p. 57)

Three or more Authors/Editors

(Case et al., 2011)

Direct Quote: (Case et al., 2011, p. 57)

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any.  Name of Journal, Volume Number (Issue Number if given). URL

Flachs, A. (2010). Food for thought: The social impact of community gardens in the Greater Cleveland Area.  Electronic Green Journal, 1 (30). http://escholarship.org/uc/item/6bh7j4z4

Example: (Flachs, 2010)

Example: (Flachs, 2010, Conclusion section, para. 3)

Note: In this example there were no visible page numbers or paragraph numbers, in this case you can cite the section heading and the number of the paragraph in that section to identify where your quote came from. If there are no page or paragraph numbers and no marked section, leave this information out.

Journal Article - No DOI

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any.  Name of Journal, Volume Number (Issue Number), first page number-last page number. URL [if article is available online, not as part of a library database]

Full-Text Available Online (Not as Part of a Library Database):

Steinberg, M. P., & Lacoe, J. (2017). What do we know about school discipline reform? Assessing the alternatives to suspensions and expulsions.  Education Next, 17 (1), 44–52.  https://www.educationnext.org/what-do-we-know-about-school-discipline-reform-suspensions-expulsions/

Example: (Steinberg & Lacoe, 2017)

(Author's Last Name, Year, p. Page number)

Example: (Steinberg & Lacoe, 2017, p. 47)

Full-Text Available in Library Database:

Jungers, W. L. (2010). Biomechanics: Barefoot running strikes back.  Nature, 463 (2), 433-434.

Example: (Jungers, 2010)

Example: (Jungers, 2010, p. 433)

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APA Citation Style, 7th Edition: Government Websites & Publications, & Gray Literature

  • APA 6/7 Comparison Guide
  • New & Notable Changes
  • Student Paper Layout
  • Journal Article with One Author
  • Journal Article with Two Authors
  • Journal Article with Three or more Authors
  • Help?! I can't find the DOI
  • One Author/Editor
  • Two Authors/Editors
  • Chapter in a Book
  • Electronic Books
  • Social Media Posts
  • YouTube or other streaming video
  • Podcast or other audio works
  • Infographic, Powerpoint, or other visual works
  • Government Websites & Publications, & Gray Literature
  • Legislative (US & State House & Senate) Bills
  • StatPearls, UpToDate, DynaMedex
  • Dissertations & Thesis
  • Interviews & Emails
  • Magazine Articles
  • Newspaper Articles
  • Datasets, Software, & Tests
  • Posters & Conference Sessions
  • Photographs, Tables, & PDF's
  • Canvas Posts & Class Discussion Boards
  • In-Text Citations & Paraphrasing
  • References Page
  • Free APA 7th edition Resources, Handouts, & Tutorials

Government Websites, Government Publications, & Gray Literature

Tips on citing APA 7th edition references for Government reports and Gray (or Grey) Literature (p. 329-331): 

  • Gray literature (or grey literature: either spelling is correct), is generally unpublished research that can include government reports, research reports, theses, dissertations, poster sessions, conference sessions or proceedings, etc... While gray literature is not considered scholarly (or technically peer-reviewed) it is still an important source of information because it is produced by researchers and practitioners in the field. It is often data, summaries, facts, statistics, or other information from current and ongoing research (Weintraub, 2000). (Paraphrased from Weintraub, I. (2000). The role of grey literature in the sciences .  https://web.archive.org/web/20080212130534/https://library.brooklyn.cuny.edu/access/greyliter.htm ) 
  • Government reports often contain a publication number or report number. Make sure to add this information after the title of the document in parenthesis.
  •  As in all other APA 7th edition citations, if the publisher is the same as the author (which can often be the case for government reports and gray literature), you do not include the publisher in the source area of the reference. 
  • If an agency or corporation is the author, the names can be abbreviated after the first in-text citation. For example, a first citation from the National Institute of Mental Health would be (National Institute of Mental Health, 2018), and all remaining citations would be (NIMH, 2018). 

Reference Example 1:

National Heart, Lung, & Blood Institute. (2016).  The heart truth for African American women: Take action to protect your heart fact sheet (NIH Publication No. 16-5066). US Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health .  https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/all-publications-and-resources/heart-truth-african-american-women-take-action-protect

In-text Citation (Paraphrase):

(National Heart, Lung, & Blood Institute [NHLBI], 2016) - first citation

(NHLBI, 2016) - all subsequent citations

In-text Citation (Direct Quote):

(National Heart, Lung, & Blood Institute [NHLBI], 2016, p.8) - first citation

(NHLBI, 2016, p. 8) - all subsequent citations

Reference Example 2:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2017, June 16). Clinical growth charts .  https://www.cdc.gov/growthcharts/clinical_charts.htm

(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2017) - first citation

(CDC, 2017) - all subsequent citations

(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2016, para.3) - first citation

(CDC, 2016, para.3)  - all subsequent citations

  • APA 7 Government Website Examples A PDF with three examples of different types of government websites and how to correctly add reference entries for them in your paper.

Carrie Forbes, MLS

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Page References

Citation information has been adapted from the APA Manual (7th Edition). Please refer to Chapter 10: Reference Examples, pp. 329-331 for more information. 

Helpful Tips

If you are citing a report, issue brief, or any other type of document issued with a number, include the type of document and number of publication in parenthesis directly after the title.

Example from page 329 of APA Manual:

National Cancer Institute. (2018).  Facing forward: Life after cancer treatment  [NIH Publication No. 18-2424]. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health. https://www.cancer.gov/publications/patient-education/life-after-treatment.pdf

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APA 7th Edition Style Guide: In-text citations

  • Formatting Your Paper

In-text citations

  • Annotated Bibliography
  • Archival Documents
  • Social media
  • Audiovisual
  • Personal Communication
  • Dissertation/Thesis
  • Encyclopedia
  • Conferences
  • Generative AI
  • Tables and Figures
  • Useful Links
  • Guides and Handouts
  • Parenthetical citations
  • Narrative citations
  • Direct quote
  • Secondary sources
  • Block quotations
  • The author’s name and publication date, separated by a comma, appear in parentheses
  • Usually appears at the end of the sentence but can also be within the sentence
  • When citation ends the sentence, a period is placed at the end of the closing parenthesis

Here are some examples of a parenthetical citation:

Data from recent surveys show a decline in approval of lesser gun control legislation from 86% to 49%" (Springer & Ellis, 2021).

Data from recent surveys show a decline in approval of lesser gun control legislation from 86% to 49%" (Springer et al., 2021).

  • The author appears within the text
  • The date appears in parentheses after the author’s name

Here is an example of a narrative citation:

  • Springer & Ellis (2019) noted a decline in approval of lesser gun control legislation from 86% to 49%.
  • Direct quotes should be used sparingly
  • Should include author, date, page number(s), whether it be parenthetical or narrative
  • Short quotations (40 words or less) are within the text and enclosed in quotations
  • For parenthetical citations, it can be placed at the beginning o the end of the quote
  • For narrative citations, author and year are within the sentence and page number is in parentheses at the end of the quote

Here are a few examples (2 authors, 1 author, more than 3 authors) of a direct quote:

  • Springer & Ellis (2019) noted “a decline in approval of lesser gun control legislation from 86% to 49%” (p. 38).
  • In 2019, Springer argued that “a decline in approval of lesser gun control legislation from 86% to 49%” (p. 62) was enough evidence for legislation.
  • “A decline in approval of lesser gun control legislation from 86% to 49%”, wrote Springer et al. (2019, p. 301) was enough evidence.
  • “A decline in approval of lesser gun control legislation from 86% to 49%” (Springer et al., 2019, p. 301).
  • Secondary sources should be used sparingly
  • The reference list entry should be for the secondary source used

A source cited in another source or a secondary source. To cite a secondary source use the phrase ”as cited in” after the primary source and before the secondary source. The primary source is the source not read or used and the secondary source is the source used or read

Here is an example of citing a secondary source

  • High schools are pressured to act as ''social service centers, and they don't do that well” (Harrison, 2001, as cited in Peterson, 2016)
  • Block quotations are 40 words or more
  • do not enclose in quotations
  • starts in a new line and is indented .5 in.
  • entire block quotation is double-spaced
  • block quotation does not have period at the end

Here is an example block quotation with parenthetical citation

Researchers have studied how people talk to themselves:

Inner speech is a paradoxical phenomenon. It is an experience that is central to many people’s everyday lives, and yet it presents considerable challenges to any effort to study it scientifically. Nevertheless, a wide range of methodologies and approaches have combined to shed light on the subjective experience of inner speech and its cognitive and neural underpinnings. (Alderson-Day & Fernyhough, 2015, p. 957)

Here is an example block quotation with narrative citatio n                                  

Perez et al. (2018) described how they addressed potential researcher bias when working with an intersectional community of transgender people of color:

Everyone on the research team belonged to a stigmatized group but also held privileged identities. Throughout the research process, we attended to the ways in which our privileged and oppressed identities may have influenced the research process, findings, and presentation of results. (p. 311)

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APA 7th Edition

  • Elements of an APA Citation
  • Basic Citation to a Journal Article
  • Basic Citation to a Book
  • Basic Citation to a Website
  • Database Citation Generators
  • Microsoft Word Tips for Reference Page Formatting
  • Formatting Differences from 6th Edition

Sherman Library Video--APA 7th Citing Sources

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  • Last Updated: Oct 13, 2023 1:21 PM
  • URL: https://libguides.nova.edu/apa

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APA guidelines (7th) ENG : APA guidelines

  • APA guidelines
  • Basic Principles of Citations
  • Paraphrasing
  • Secondary Sources
  • Personal Communications
  • Elements of Reference List Entries
  • Textual Works reference examples
  • Audiovisual Media reference examples
  • Online Media reference examples
  • Data Sets reference examples
  • Tables & Figures
  • Support & Tools

How to Use This Guide?

This Library Guide is useful as a learning resource for:

  • the beginner - introduction to the APA guidelines;
  • the advanced - quick overview of rule changes compared to the previous APA edition.

At the end of each page you can test your knowledge.

The examples of citations in this guide represent the 'ideal' situation, for all exceptions we refer you to  Publication manual of the American Psychological Association: The official guide to the APA style  (2020).

The guidelines in the new edition have been simplified on a number of points and more attention has been paid to online sources.

apa citation website article 7th edition

What is APA?

The APA style is a comprehensive guide to writing scientific texts. APA stands for the American Psychological Association, but the guidelines are also applied in other fields.

An important part of the APA style are the guidelines for literature reference and citations. These are used worldwide by students, teachers and researchers of many colleges and universities, including in the Netherlands. In 2020 the 7th edition of the Publication Manual has been published (APA 7th).

There are also other styles of writing a scientific text. In addition to APA, these are, for example, MLA, Chicago, Harvard and Vancouver.

In this guide, we only focus on the APA reference and citation guidelines.

The APA style uses the so-called author-date method for referencing sources.

Why refer to sources?

When you write a report, you don't just make something up.

You explore your subject, get inspired, and substantiate your choices. You build on ideas, theories, and research of others. It should always be clear what you have come up with yourself and where you use the work of others to support your own arguments.

That's why you should reference every text resource you've used in your work. This includes also images, videos, audio, statistics, diagrams, etc.

If you don't, it's plagiarism .

Plagiarism is an infringement of copyright and can have serious consequences, such as material and reputation damage.

By citing your sources you:

  • you are aware of previous and ongoing research;
  • you have studied the subject in-depth, and have consulted reliable and authoritative sources;
  • support your argument by referring to 'authorities': respected authors, scientific works;
  • enable others to find the sources you have based your work on, for deepening or confirming your interpretation;
  • make clear what your own thoughts are and what someone else's (academic integrity);
  • respect the intellectual property of the creator.

By using and correctly citing relevant sources, you increase your credibility and thus the quality of your report.

APA 7th vs. APA 6th - main differences

In-text citations:

1. Mutiple authors :

From three authors onwards, only the first author is mentioned in the text, followed by et al. This applies from the first reference.

Reference list:

2. Multiple authors :

Up to 20 authors: all names are included in the citation.

For more than 20 authors, the citation is shortened: the first 19 authors are mentioned, followed by an ellipsis with spaces . . . and then the last name.

3. Book / ebook :  

  • Only the publisher is mentioned.
  • The publisher is also mentioned in a reference of an ebook. The publisher is mentioned before the retrieval date and URL or https://doi.org/xxxx.
  • If there are multiple publishers, list all names, separated by semicolons.
  • If the organization is the same as the publisher, the publisher's name will be omitted.

4 . Journal article:

  • The DOI (Digital Object Identifier), a unique code to identify online journal articles and ebooks, is always stated in the format  https://doi.org/xxxx
  • The issue number of the journal is always mentioned (if available).

5. Webpage :

  • Provide the name of the website in the source element of the reference (after the title), unless author/organization is the same as the name of the website.

6. Tables and Figures : 

  • Above each table and figure provide the number in bold font. The title appears in italics one double-spaced line below the number.

7. Dissertation or thesis : 

  • For assignments, theses, dissertations and internship reports, the description of the document is placed between square brackets after the title.
  • The location of the educational institution will not be provided.

Note: Retrieval Dates

Although according to the 7th edition of APA style the retrieval date for online sources is only mentioned if it is likely that the content of the webpage will be changed (e.g. dictionary entry, Facebook page or map generated by Google Maps), in this guide we strongly recommend to include a retrieval date for all online sources without DOI link.

Therefore all examples of references in this guide contain retrieval dates.

  • Book reference
  • Chapter in a book reference
  • Journal article reference
  • Newspaper article reference
  • Webpage reference
  • Dissertations and theses references
  • Figure/Image reference
  • Secondary sources in-text citation  

Think you know everything about APA Style?

Take the quiz.

The information specialists of the HAN Study Centres have put together three quizzes about the APA guidelines: Basic, Advanced and Expert.

Each quiz consists of multiple choice questions:

   

  • Basics (12 questions)  
  • Advanced (13 questions)  
  • Expert (13 questions)

How to use this guide 

  • Next: In-Text Citations >>
  • Last Updated: Dec 6, 2023 11:35 AM
  • URL: https://avans.libguides.com/APA-Guidelines
  • Plagiarism and grammar
  • School access

Cite a Custom Citation in APA

- powered by chegg, don't let plagiarism errors spoil your paper, consider your source's credibility. ask these questions:, contributor/author.

  • Has the author written several articles on the topic, and do they have the credentials to be an expert in their field?
  • Can you contact them? Do they have social media profiles?
  • Have other credible individuals referenced this source or author?
  • Book: What have reviews said about it?
  • What do you know about the publisher/sponsor? Are they well-respected?
  • Do they take responsibility for the content? Are they selective about what they publish?
  • Take a look at their other content. Do these other articles generally appear credible?
  • Does the author or the organization have a bias? Does bias make sense in relation to your argument?
  • Is the purpose of the content to inform, entertain, or to spread an agenda? Is there commercial intent?
  • Are there ads?
  • When was the source published or updated? Is there a date shown?
  • Does the publication date make sense in relation to the information presented to your argument?
  • Does the source even have a date?
  • Was it reproduced? If so, from where?
  • If it was reproduced, was it done so with permission? Copyright/disclaimer included?
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IMAGES

  1. Example Of 7th Edition APA Reference Style

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  2. The 7th edition of APA style has arrived!

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  3. Online Article Citation Apa 7th Edition

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  4. APA (7th edition)

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  5. Free APA 7th Edition Citation Generator

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  6. The 7th edition of APA style has arrived!

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VIDEO

  1. APA Citation Style 7th edition

  2. APA Citation Style & Format

  3. APA Style Citation

  4. MASTER APA 7 || 3 or More AUTHORS || Reference Page & In-Text Citation || Academic Writing

  5. Citation and Referencing in APA 7th Edition

  6. How to add APA style reference in MS WORD

COMMENTS

  1. APA Formatting and Style Guide (7th Edition)

    APA Formatting and Style Guide (7th Edition) Start Here General Format Guidelines on writing an APA style paper In-Text Citations Resources on using in-text citations in APA style The Basics General guidelines for referring to the works of others in your essay Author/Authors

  2. Research Guides: APA 7th Edition : Citing Websites

    Citing Websites - APA 7th Edition - Research Guides at University of Alabama Piece of Online Content Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of online content: Subtitle. Website Name. URL. Note: Review this source carefully!

  3. How to Cite a Website in APA Style

    Revised on December 1, 2023. APA website citations usually include the author, the publication date, the title of the page or article, the website name, and the URL. If there is no author, start the citation with the title of the article. If the page is likely to change over time, add a retrieval date.

  4. Webpage on a Website References

    Provide the title of the news story in italic sentence case. List the name of the news website in the source element of the reference. End the reference with the URL. 2. Comment on a webpage on a news website Owens, L. (2020, October 7).

  5. APA Style (7th Edition) Citation Guide: Websites

    APA Style (7th Edition) Citation Guide: Websites Table of Contents Entire Website - No Separate Pages or Sections Page or Section from a Website Formatting Entire Website Note: If you are quoting or paraphrasing part of a website, you should create a reference for a Page or Section.

  6. APA Style (7th Edition)

    APA PowerPoint Slide Presentation; APA Sample Paper; Tables and Figures; Abbreviations APA Classroom Poster; Changes in the 7th Edition; General APA FAQs; APA Formatting and Style Guide (7th Edition) Suggested Resources Style Guide Overview MLA Guide APA Guide Chicago Guide OWL Exercises. Purdue OWL; Research and Citation; APA Style (7th ...

  7. Citing Articles

    Citing Articles - APA 7th Edition - Research Guides at University of Alabama APA 7th Edition Journal Articles Journal article with a DOI Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Title of article. Name of Journal, Volume Number (Issue Number), page numbers. DOI Journal article with no DOI Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year).

  8. PDF APA Style Reference Guide for Journal Articles, Books, and Edited Book

    7th Edition Reference Guide for Journal Articles, Books, and Edited Book Chapters Invert names so that the last name comes first, followed by a comma and the initials. Leave a space between initials. Retain the order of authors' names. Place the year in parentheses. End with a period. Capitalize only the first letter of the first word.

  9. PDF 7th edition Common Reference Examples Guide

    This guide contains examples of common types of APA Style references. Section numbers indicate where to find the examples in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.).

  10. APA Citation Guide (7th Edition): Websites and Webpages

    Name the website in the text of your paper and provide the URL in parentheses. Notes: Use the webpage and website category for your source only if there is no better category for it. Do not use it if a source is simply available online, e.g., if a journal article is available from an online database, use a journal article format for your reference.

  11. APA Formatting and Citation (7th Ed.)

    The 7th edition of the APA Publication Manual provides guidelines for clear communication, citing sources, and formatting documents. This article focuses on paper formatting. Generate accurate APA citations with Scribbr Throughout your paper, you need to apply the following APA format guidelines: Set page margins to 1 inch on all sides.

  12. LibGuides: APA 7th Edition Citation Guide: Websites

    Find Resources. Services. About. Contact Us. Library and Academic Support Services Concordia University, St. Paul 1282 Concordia Aveneu Saint Paul, MN 55104. 651-641-823. [email protected]. Report a problem. Connect with us.

  13. Websites

    Websites - APA Style 7th Edition: Citing Your Sources - Research Guides at University of Southern California Standard Format Adapted from American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed). https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000 Formatting Rules

  14. APA 7th ed. : Citing Sources: In-Text Citation & Reference List

    APA has updated the APA manual in the new 7th ed. This guide aims to highlight major changes regarding citations in the new edition, and include citations specifically focused toward students using APA.

  15. How to Cite in APA Format (7th edition)

    Knowledge Base APA Style 7th edition How to Cite in APA Format (7th edition) | Guide & Generator APA Style is widely used by students, researchers, and professionals in the social and behavioral sciences. Scribbr's APA Citation Generator automatically generates accurate references and in-text citations for free.

  16. LibGuides: APA Citation Guide (7th edition) : Websites

    In-Text Quote. (Author Last Name, Year, Section Name section, para. Paragraph Number if more than one paragraph in section) Example: (Kmec, 2012, para. 1) Note: When there are no visible page numbers or paragraph numbers, you may cite the section heading and the paragraph number to identify where your quote came from.

  17. Free APA Citation Generator [Updated for 2023]

    To generate a formatted reference list or bibliography just follow these steps: Start by searching for the source you want to cite in the search box at the top of the page. MyBib will automatically locate all the required information. If any is missing you can add it yourself.

  18. APA In-Text Citations (7th Ed.)

    In-text citations briefly identify the source of information in the body text. They correspond to a full reference entry at the end of your paper. APA in-text citations consist of the author's last name and publication year. When citing a specific part of a source, also include a page number or range, for example (Parker, 2020, p.

  19. Citation Machine®: APA Format & APA Citation Generator

    This page provides you with an overview of APA format, 7th edition. Included is information about referencing, various citation formats with examples for each source type, and other helpful information. If you're looking for MLA format, check out the Citation Machine MLA Guide.

  20. APA Style, 7th Edition

    APA Style, 7th Edition. APA Style; APA Tutorial; Formatting Your Paper; Headings Organize Your Paper (2.27) Video Tutorials; Reference List Format (9.43) Elements of a Reference; Reference Examples (Chapter 10) DOIs and URLs (9.34-9.36) In-Text Citations; In-Text Citations Format; In-Text Citations for Specific Source Types; NoodleTools ...

  21. APA Style (7th Edition) Citation Guide: Journal Articles

    When a source has 21 or more authors, include the first 19 authors' names, then three ellipses (…), and add the last author's name. Don't include an ampersand (&) between the ellipsis and final author. Note: For works with three or more authors, the first in-text citation is shortened to include the first author's surname followed by "et al."

  22. Journal article references

    Narrative citation: Grady et al. (2019) If a journal article has a DOI, include the DOI in the reference. Always include the issue number for a journal article. If the journal article does not have a DOI and is from an academic research database, end the reference after the page range (for an explanation of why, see the database information ...

  23. APA Citation Style, 7th Edition: Government Websites & Publications

    As in all other APA 7th edition citations, if the publisher is the same as the author (which can often be the case for government reports and gray literature), you do not include the publisher in the source area of the reference. If an agency or corporation is the author, the names can be abbreviated after the first in-text citation.

  24. PDF APA Reference Page 7th Edition

    citation formats not included here, refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th edition) or the APA's website. The Writing Center has copies you can come look at or you can find copies at Lied Library under the call number BF76.7 .P83 2020. Remember that your References page must be double-spaced and include ...

  25. LibGuides UPRM: APA 7th Edition Style Guide: In-text citations

    This guide will help you cite your documents in using the APA 7th ed. publication manula. Skip to Main Content. Recinto Universitario de Mayagüez, Call Box 9000 Mayagüez, PR 00681 (787) 832-4040 ext. 3810, 2151, 2155 [email protected] ... APA 7th Edition Style Guide: In-text citations. This guide will help you cite your documents in using the ...

  26. Sherman Library Video--APA 7th Citing Sources

    Elements of an APA Citation; Basic Citation to a Journal Article; Basic Citation to a Book; Basic Citation to a Website; Database Citation Generators; Microsoft Word Tips for Reference Page Formatting; Formatting Differences from 6th Edition; Resources; Sherman Library Video--APA 7th Citing Sources

  27. APA guidelines

    These are used worldwide by students, teachers and researchers of many colleges and universities, including in the Netherlands. In 2020 the 7th edition of the Publication Manual has been published (APA 7th). There are also other styles of writing a scientific text. In addition to APA, these are, for example, MLA, Chicago, Harvard and Vancouver.

  28. LibGuides: COH 100

    APA 7th Edition Quick Links. The following links from the APA Style website will help you quickly format your paper and references using APA 7th edition style rules:. Annotated Student Sample Paper (example paper with helpful notes on formatting and citation style); Reference Quick Guide (for articles and books); Reference Examples (covers a wider range of sources)

  29. APA Write/paste citation Citation Generator

    Cite a Custom Citation in APA - powered by Chegg. Source type. Write/paste citation. Website. Book. Journal. Newspaper. Film/Online Video. Online Database. Advertisement. Bible. Blog. Brochure. Cartoon. Chapter. Conference. ... We cite according to the 9th edition of MLA, 7th edition of APA, and 16th edition of Chicago (8th edition Turabian). ...