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American Style of Writing

What is an “American” style of writing? Students naturally use their own cultural backgrounds and expectations when composing in English. Some professors will expect you to use an American style of writing. Others will encourage you to write with a style you are comfortable. Talk with your professor about the style of writing they expect from you.

Below are some ideas to show you what the American style of writing is like:

  • Directness — HOW do you discuss your topic? WHAT is your main point? The Western style of writing is usually very direct, while other cultures may be more indirect in writing. The problem or issue is stated at the beginning of the paper and then specific examples or evidence for this idea is written to support the issue.
  • Audience — WHO will be the audience of your paper? Professors may ask you to pretend that your classmates are your audience, or that those in your field are your audience. This will affect your language and how much you explain certain aspects of your paper.
  • Clear Examples — CAN you show/prove your main point? After you have stated a problem or opinion, it is important to give examples to PROVE or SUPPORT your point.
  • Citing Sources — WHERE did your ideas come from? Be certain to give reference in your papers to any ideas or direct quotes taken from someone else's writing. You may be asked to write in APA or MLA style. There are specific guidelines for referencing other author's works.
  • Writing in Different Fields — Are you writing for an English class? Psychology? Science? Business, etc.? In general, most English professors will be EXPLICIT with what they expect in your writing. As you enter your major classes, you may find that the style of writing is slightly different than an English class. Pay attention to articles and journals in your field and talk to your professors about what writing in your field looks like!
  • Modes of Writing — How formal or informal should your language be? These are “typical” modes of American writing. See examples of an essay, journal, descriptive, and compare and contrast examples .

More Writing Help

The Kathleen Jones White Writing Center provides tutoring services, workshops, and writing resources.

  • In-Person : 203 Stabley Library
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  • Instructors: Request a workshop for your class .
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Essay Writing Guide

Essay Format

Nova A.

Essay Format: A Basic Guide With Examples

10 min read

Published on: Sep 24, 2017

Last updated on: Dec 30, 2023

essay format

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Are you having trouble making your essay look just right? Lots of students find formatting tricky, so you're not alone. 

This guide is here to help you figure out how to format your essay. We've got examples of essays in APA, MLA, Chicago, and other styles to make it easier for you to learn.

So, keep reading – we've got you covered!

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What is an Essay Format?

An essay format refers to a set of guidelines that decides how the elements of your paper should be arranged. No matter what type of essay you’re writing, formatting is an essential step in the essay writing process.

The format guidelines cover the essay structure, title, citations, and the basic outline of the essay. 

When formatting a paper, there are certain things that you need to pay attention to. These include the structure of an essay, title page, works cited page, and citation styles . 

Here is a basic essay format template:

How To Format Essay in MLA Style

Formatting an essay in MLA style is a common requirement in many academic settings, particularly in the humanities. 

MLA provides guidelines for various aspects of your essay, from font and margins to citations and bibliography. Here’s an essay format MLA you can use as a reference:

MLA Essay Format Template

  • Title Page: MLA does not typically require a separate title page. Instead, place your title at the top of the first page, centered, and do not use bold, italics, or underline for the title. Below the title, include your name, the instructor's name, the course name and number, and the due date, each on a separate line, left-aligned.
  • Header and Page Numbers: Create a header with your last name and page number in the upper right corner of every page, half an inch from the top, and flush with the right margin. For example: Smith 1.
  • Margins and Spacing: Set all margins to 1 inch, and use double-spacing throughout the essay.
  • Font and Size: Use a legible font like Times New Roman or Arial, size 12.
  • Indentation: Indent the first line of each paragraph by 0.5 inches, which can be done automatically using the "Tab" key.
  • Paragraphs: Leave only one space after periods or other punctuation marks within sentences.
  • Title: Place the title of your essay (centered) at the top of the first page. Do not use bold, italics, or underlining for the title. Capitalize major words.
  • Citations: MLA uses in-text citations to acknowledge sources. When quoting or paraphrasing, include the author's last name and the page number (e.g., Smith 45).
  • Works Cited Page: At the end of your essay, include a separate page titled "Works Cited." List all sources alphabetically by the author's last name. Follow the specific MLA citation style for different types of sources (books, articles, websites, etc.).

Sample MLA Essay

MLA Format Paper - MyPerfectWords.com

How to Format Essay in APA

Formatting an essay in APA style is commonly used in the social sciences and psychology. 

APA provides a set of guidelines for various elements of your essay, including formatting, citations, and references. Here’s how to format essay in apa:

APA Essay Format Template

  • Title Page: The title page in APA includes: Title of the Essay (centered, bold, and in title case) Your Name (centered) Institutional Affiliation (centered) Running head: [Shortened Title] (flush left, in uppercase) Page Number (flush right)
  • Header and Page Numbers: Create a header with the title of your essay in all capital letters, followed by a colon and a shortened version of the title (up to 50 characters), in the upper left corner of every page. The page number should be in the upper right corner.
  • Font and Size: Use a clear and readable font like Times New Roman or Arial, size 12.
  • Paragraphs: Indent the first line of each paragraph by 0.5 inches. Use a hanging indent for references on the reference page.
  • Citations: Use in-text citations to acknowledge sources. Include the author's last name and the publication year (e.g., Smith, 2023) when quoting or paraphrasing.
  • Title: Use bold and title case for the title of your essay on the title page. On subsequent pages, use a shortened version of the title (in uppercase) as the header.
  • References Page: At the end of your essay, create a separate page titled "References." List all sources alphabetically by the author's last name. Follow the specific APA citation style for different types of sources (books, articles, websites, etc.).

Sample APA Essay

APA Format Paper - MyPerfectWords.com

How to Format Essay in Chicago Style

Formatting an essay in Chicago style, often used in history and some other humanities disciplines, requires specific guidelines for citations and formatting. Here are the guidelines to format your essay in Chicago style:

Chicago Essay Format Template

  • Title Page: The title page in Chicago style includes: Title of the Essay (centered, in headline-style capitalization) Your Name (centered) Course Name and Number (centered) Instructor's Name (centered) Date (centered)
  • Margins and Spacing: Set all margins to 1 inch. Use double-spacing throughout the essay.
  • Page Numbers: Number pages in the upper right corner of each page, beginning with the first page of the main text (usually page 1). Page numbers should be in Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, etc.).
  • Paragraphs: Indent the first line of each paragraph by 0.5 inches. Use a block paragraph style with no extra space between paragraphs.
  • Citations: In Chicago style, you have two citation options: footnotes and endnotes. In your text, place a superscript number (e.g., ^1) at the end of the sentence containing the cited information. Corresponding footnotes or endnotes should provide full citation details.
  • Title: Use headline-style capitalization for the title of your essay (e.g., "The History of Ancient Civilizations").
  • Bibliography: At the end of your essay, include a separate page titled "Bibliography." List all sources alphabetically by the author's last name. Follow the specific Chicago citation style for different types of sources (books, articles, websites, etc.).

Sample Chicago Essay

Chicago Format Paper - MyPerfectWords.com

Formatting In-Text Citations: APA, MLA, and Chicago Styles

An in-text citation is a brief reference within the body of your essay or research paper that indicates the source of information you have incorporated into your writing.

Each of the formatting style have a unique way for adding in-text citations:

In APA style, remember to include the author's last name, the publication date, and the page number (if applicable) within parentheses.

Example: "The impact of climate change on biodiversity is a growing concern (Smith, 2020, p. 27)."

In MLA style, provide the author's last name and the page number without any punctuation between them.

Example: "The impact of climate change on biodiversity is a growing concern (Jones 42)."

Chicago Style Format

The Chicago Manual of Style offers two distinct options for in-text citations:

  • Author-Date Style: In this approach, you place your citations within parentheses directly within the text. This style involves citing the author's last name and the publication date within the body of your text. Example: (Smith 2021) or "According to Smith (2021),..."
  • Notes and Bibliography Style: This style utilizes numbered footnotes or endnotes to provide citations. Instead of placing citations within the text, you include a superscript number at the end of the relevant sentence, which corresponds to a full citation located in a footnote at the bottom of the page (or endnotes at the end of the document). Example: Johnson argues that "the data is unconvincing."¹ Nevertheless, Smith contends that the study makes "a compelling case" for this plan of action.²

Each of these Chicago citation styles has its unique advantages and is chosen based on the requirements of the assignment or the preferences of the writer.

How to Determine What Format to Follow

Selecting the appropriate citation format for your academic writing is essential to ensure that your work meets the expected standards. To make an informed decision, consider the following factors:

Subject and Discipline

  • APA Style: Primarily used in the social sciences, such as psychology, sociology, and education. It is also common in business and nursing disciplines.
  • MLA Style: Commonly employed in humanities disciplines, including literature, languages, and cultural studies. It's widely used for papers related to literature and the arts.
  • Chicago Style: Used in history, some social sciences, and certain humanities disciplines. Chicago offers both author-date and notes and bibliography styles, making it versatile for various subjects.

Professor's Instructions

Always adhere to your professor's specific instructions regarding citation style and writing convention . Professors may have preferences or requirements based on the nature of the course or assignment.

For instance, an English professor might prefer MLA for literary analysis, while a psychology professor may opt for APA to encourage familiarity with research norms. However, when formatting styles are not specified by the instructor, you can follow whatever is appropriate for your subject.

Institutional Guidelines

Your educational institution may have established guidelines or standards for citation formats. 

Check your institution's style guide or consult with academic advisors to ensure compliance with their specific requirements.

By considering the subject matter, your professor's preferences, and your institution's guidelines, you can confidently choose the appropriate citation style to enhance the clarity and professionalism of your academic writing.

Now that you've gained a solid understanding of the basics for three major formatting styles, you're well-prepared to tackle your essay formatting with confidence. 

Whether you're crafting an essay, a research paper, or any academic document, these formatting principles will help you present your ideas professionally.

If you find yourself in a time crunch, our expert writers are here to help you tackle your academic challenges in no time. 

With our essay writing service , you get reliable help with any type of assignment, even with tight deadlines. Our writers are sure to deliver you 100% original papers that meet your requirements. 

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How to Write an Outstanding College Essay

Jennifer Xue

Jennifer Xue

text

Many college courses require a lot of writing. That's probably why so many students find writing daunting. 

The thing is, like any other skill, writing is learnable. All it takes is a little practice, patience, and focus. Today, let's explore a few ways to learn how to be better academic writers.

We'll start with the the differences between two classic types of academic writing: "American" and "European." Then we'll discuss the elements of excellent essays that could earn you an A+ in school.

Understand the difference between an American essay and a European essay

Understand the question and the issue, state the problem and the thesis statement, craft a compelling introductory paragraph, develop the body of the essay, end with a meaningful concluding paragraph, include citations and references, check for errors, inefficiency, and plagiarism, looking for more solutions to improve your writing.

When writing a European essay, you're expected to describe and explain the various perspectives of an issue. When writing an American essay, you're required to choose a side of the multiple viewpoints. In other words, a European essay sounds neutral and objective without having to choose a specific position, while an American essay is more opinionated and argumentative , despite being objective in the overall approach and using reputable references.

You can only write what you know—there is no way around it. If you're writing about something you don't quite understand, it will definitely show. Writing essays involves analyses and syntheses, which must be presented with clarity. Thus, make sure to read the question several times to better comprehend what's asked and the issue(s) to cover. 

Most likely, you're expected to recognize the dependent and the independent variables of the problem first. Equipped with this information, you should be able to develop a strong thesis statement . 

A problem is developed based on existing information, which is explicitly or implicitly presented in the background issue. A thesis statement is derived from the new information that you bring into the essay. In a nutshell, a thesis statement is a single sentence that ties together the main idea of arguments in the body of the composition.

Your thesis can be either be informative or persuasive. In an informative thesis, describe your purpose and guide your reader to the conclusion with a descriptive or a compare-and-contrast narration. In a persuasive thesis, you present your opinion on an issue and support it with evidence.

In proving your points, you can use any means necessary as long as the stance and arguments are logically valid. Consider reading about logical fallacies to ensure your statements ring true.

Include the thesis statement in the introductory paragraph along with a hook that draws the reader into the substance of the essay. This paragraph sets the tone and informs the readers of what it's all about. 

This introduction provides a background of the essay, which may include statistical figures, history, and other preliminary information about the problem. It also explains the problem being investigated. This part is necessary to limit the issue and frame the problem, so the discussion is presented within the proper scope. 

An American essay should consist of at least three pointers and arguments. A European essay should present a variety of viewpoints.

No matter which style you're writing, each paragraph must support the thesis statement and include a topic sentence. Be clear on each point and support them with correctly cited references. 

When the arguments seem to wander, remember to return to the thesis statement from time to time, so they remain within the framework. This is where the thesis statement serves as the skeleton of the essay, with which you can place each argument in its place.

The final paragraph can include specific findings, conclusions, takeaways, recommendations, or further actions, such as more advanced research needed to be performed to find some answer. 

How the closing part is developed would depend on the purpose of the essay. Generally, an objective and valid conclusion based on the actual findings is expected. 

Some statements require citations and some do not. In general, four types of statements that don't need any citation are your own ideas or findings, common knowledge, historical overviews, and your own conclusions. 

Common knowledge is information that can be found in many sources and is popularly accepted by the public, which includes undisputable facts, customs, traditions, and cultural phenomena. Historical overviews include events that are accepted as the truth and can be found in many references. However, in some instances, there are several versions of historical events, each of which requires its own citation.

This being said, if the information is only located in one source, make sure to cite it. Moreover, if you're unsure whether information or a phenomenon is common knowledge or not, be on the safe side and quote appropriately. 

When using facts and lesser-known information to support your argument, always quote. You can either paraphrase them for indirect citations or use quotation marks for direct citations. 

How you format your citation will depend on the style guide your school requires you to follow. An APA citation looks different to an MLA citation , looks different to a Chicago citation, etc. Always check your style handbook for its specific rules.

Popular wordprocessing software like Microsoft Word , OpenOffice Writer , and LibreOffice Writer come with basic spelling and grammar checking functionalities, which is better than not using any. However, they aren't as advanced as a powerful app like ProWritingAid . 

This editing app offers much more than basic checks. With 25 types of reports, you have peace of mind that your work is polished professionally and plagiarism-free. These are the issues checked by ProWritingAid's algorithm:

  • Writing style
  • Overused words (wishy-washy, telling rather than showing, weak words dependent on intensifiers, nonspecific words, and awkward sentence constructions)
  • Cliches and redundancies
  • Sticky sentence
  • Sentence length
  • Consistency
  • Dialogue tags
  • Readability
  • Vague and abstract words
  • Alliteration
  • Corporate wording
  • Complex words
  • Combo (multiple reports run simultaneously)
  • House style

One caution about plagiarism. Despite your best effort in paraphrasing , sometimes "great minds think alike," where two or more writers use identical sentences. ProWritingAid's plagiarism check will find them among public websites and private databases so you can attest that your work is 100% unique and, hopefully, worthy of an A+.

Lastly, writing a school essay in this digital era involves much more than unique ideas and strong analytical skills. You're competing with students who utilize machine learning algorithms in the editing process. ProWritingAid is one of the most comprehensive editing apps out there, with which you can find errors and stylistic issues before the professor catches them. 

Enjoy writing A+ essays!

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Jennifer Xue is an award-winning e-book author with 2,500+ articles and 100+ e-books/reports published under her belt. She also taught 50+ college-level essay and paper writing classes. Her byline has appeared in Forbes, Fortune, Cosmopolitan, Esquire, Business.com, Business2Community, Addicted2Success, Good Men Project, and others. Her blog is JenniferXue.com. Follow her on Twitter @jenxuewrites].

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How to Write an Essay in APA Format

Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the "Everything Psychology Book."

american style essay writing

Emily is a board-certified science editor who has worked with top digital publishing brands like Voices for Biodiversity, Study.com, GoodTherapy, Vox, and Verywell.

american style essay writing

What Is APA Format?

Apa essay format basics.

  • Steps to Follow

Frequently Asked Questions

If your instructor has asked you to write an APA format essay, it might at first seem like a daunting task, especially if you are accustomed to using another style such as MLA or Chicago. But you can master the rules of APA essay format, too.

An essay is one type of paper that can be written in APA format; others include lab reports, experimental reports, and case studies. Before you begin, familiarize yourself with some of the basic guidelines for writing a paper in APA format. Of course, it will also be important to follow any other formatting instructions that are part of your assignment.

How do you write an essay in APA format? The basic elements you need to include are:

  • A title page
  • An abstract
  • An introduction, main body, and conclusion
  • A reference section
  • Proper APA formatting with regard to margins, layout, spacing, titles, and indentations

This article discusses how to write an essay in APA format, including the basic steps you should follow and tips for how to get started.

Whether you’re taking an introductory or graduate-level psychology class, chances are strong that you will have to write at least one paper during the course of the semester. In almost every case, you will need to write your paper in APA format, the official publication style of the American Psychological Association . It is also used for academic journals.

Such rules are generally the same whether you are writing a high school essay, college essay, or professional essay for publication.

APA format is used in a range of disciplines including psychology , education, and other social sciences. The format dictates presentation elements of your paper including spacing, margins, and how the content is structured.

Most instructors and publication editors have strict guidelines when it comes to how your format your writing. Not only does adhering to APA format allow readers to know what to expect from your paper, but it also means that your work will not lose critical points over minor formatting errors. 

While the formatting requirements for your paper might vary depending on your instructor's directions, writing APA essay format means you will most likely need to include a title page, abstract, introduction, body, conclusion, and reference sections.

Your APA format essay should have a title page . This title page should include the title of your paper, your name, and your school affiliation. In some instances, your teacher might require additional information such as the course title, instructor name, and the date.

  • The title of your paper should be concise and clearly describe what your paper is about.
  • Your title can extend to two lines, but it should be no longer than 12 words.

An abstract is a brief summary of your paper that immediately follows the title page. It is not required for student papers, according to APA style. However, your instructor may request one.

If you include an abstract , it should be no more than 100 to 200 words, although this may vary depending upon the instructor requirements.

Your essay should also include a reference list with all of the sources that were cited in your essay,

  • The reference section is located at the end of your paper.
  • References should be listed alphabetically by the last name of the author.
  • References should be double-spaced.
  • Any source that is cited in your paper should be included in your reference section.

When writing in APA essay format, the text will include the actual essay itself: The introduction, body, and conclusion.

  • There should be uniform margins of at least one inch at the top, bottom, left, and right sides of your essay.
  • The text should be in Times New Roman size 12 font or another serif typeface that is easily readable.
  • Your paper should be double-spaced.
  • Every page should include a page number in the top right corner.
  • The first word of each paragraph in your paper should be indented one-half inch.

For professional papers (usually not student papers), every page of the essay also includes a running head at the top left. The running head is a shortened form of the title, often the first few words, and should be no more than 50 characters (including spaces).

Steps to a Successful APA Format Essay

In addition to ensuring that you cite your sources properly and present information according to the rules of APA style, there are a number of things you can do to make the writing process a little bit easier.

Choose a Topic

Start by choosing a good topic to write about. Ideally, you want to select a subject that is specific enough to let you fully research and explore the topic, but not so specific that you have a hard time finding sources of information.

If you choose something too specific, you may find yourself with not enough to write about. If you choose something too general, you might find yourself overwhelmed with information.

Research Your Topic

Start doing research as early as possible. Begin by looking at some basic books and articles on your topic to help develop it further. What is the question you are going to answer with your essay? What approach will you take to the topic?

Once you are more familiar with the subject, create a preliminary source list of potential books, articles, essays, and studies that you may end up using in your essay.

Remember, any source used in your essay must be included in your reference section. Conversely, any source listed in your references must be cited somewhere in the body of your paper.

Write Your Rough Draft

With research in hand, you are ready to begin. Some people like to create an outline to organize their argument prior to drafting. You may want to start with a very rough outline, and then add details.

Once you have a detailed outline, the next step is to translate it from notes to complete sentences and paragraphs. Remember, this is a first draft. It doesn't have to be perfect.

As you write your paper in APA essay format, be sure to keep careful track of the sources that you cite.

How do you start an APA paper? Your paper should begin with an introduction that includes a thesis statement that presents your main ideas, points, or arguments. Your introduction should start on the third page of your paper (after the title page and abstract). The title of your paper should be centered, bolded, and typed in title case at the top of the page.

Review and Revise

After you have prepared a rough draft of your essay, it's time to revise, review, and prepare your final draft. In addition to making sure that your writing is cohesive and supported by your sources, you should also check carefully for typos, grammar errors, and possible formatting mistakes.

When citing information or quotations taken from an interview, APA format requires that you cite the source, how the information was collected, and the date of the interview. They should not be included in the reference section, however, because they are not something that can be located by a reader in any published source or searchable database.

Instead, the information should be cited parenthetically in the main body of the text. For example: “There was an increase in the number of college students who screened positive for depression/anxiety” (R. Heathfield, personal communication, May 9, 2021).

If the essay is in a chapter of a book, edited collection, or anthology, APA format states that you should cite the last name, first name, title of essay, title of collection, publisher, year, and page range. For example: Smith, John, "The Light House," A Book of Poems , editing by Peter Roberts, Allworth Press, 2005, pp. 20-25.

According to APA format, a two-part essay is formatted the same as an essay, however, you'll need to create two title pages.

If you're including a short direct quote in your APA-format essay, you will need to cite the author, year of publication, and page number (p.) or page number span (pp.). Quotations longer than 40 words should omit the quotation marks and be put in the text using block quotation formatting, on its own line and indented 1/2 inch from the left margin.

The cover page or "title page" in APA essay format should always include the title of your paper, your name, and school affiliation as well as the course title, instructor name, and date, if requested by your teacher.

Nagda S.  How to write a scientific abstract.   J Indian Prosthodont Soc.  2013;13(3):382-383. doi:10.1007/s13191-013-0299-x

American Psychological Association.  Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association  (7th ed.). Washington DC: The American Psychological Association; 2019.

By Kendra Cherry, MSEd Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the "Everything Psychology Book."

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Purdue Online Writing Lab Purdue OWL® College of Liberal Arts

Writing for a North American Academic Audience

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The resources in this section are designed to help the reader better understand the concept of Audience when writing in English for North American, academic audiences.

Most of your writing assignments in college will consist of academic papers that you will write for your classes. Therefore, your primary audience in college is your professors. While each of your professors will require a set of his or her own expectations that you will need to follow as you work on your papers, there are also a number of common characteristics of American academic writing that you need to be aware of. These characteristics are most likely different from the writing conventions in your native language; therefore, they may be somewhat difficult to grasp. Academic writing in an American fashion is usually defined as linear and thesis-­‐driven. This part of the resource will help you become familiar with these basic features.

American academic essays have a linear structure

Writing in academic settings in North America, you are expected to clearly indicate the most important points of your essay in the introduction of your paper, as well as explain how these ideas are going to be developed (e.g., comparing and contrasting, classifying, describing cause and effect relationships). Then, the rest of your paper will basically provide support for these main points, forming what is called body paragraphs of your essay. This support may include: facts, statistics, personal experiences, examples from literary sources, quotes, and so forth. Whereas this main part of your paper will vary based on the rhetorical organization, its primary goal always stays the same: to explain and support the main ideas indicated in the introduction. Finally, the last section of your paper, called conclusion, needs to summarize the main points developed in the body paragraphs and provide a logical closure to your paper. In the conclusion, some authors also like to express their personal opinion on the topic, provide a solution (if appropriate), and give some advice to the reader.

This three-­‐section essay structure constitutes what is called linear organization of American academic writing. As mentioned earlier, it may be very different from the writing approaches that you utilized in your native language back home. In fact, some of your instructors will be familiar with the organizational patterns that you used in your native language. But even in that case, they will still require that you follow the conventions of American academic writing.

North American academic writing is thesis-­driven

The introduction of your paper needs to contain the main ideas that you will later develop in the body of your essay. The main ideas are normally summarized in one sentence that is called thesis statement. Think of thesis statement as a one-­‐sentence summary of your whole paper, or sort of a snapshot. American audience always expects to see this snapshot at the beginning of the paper (they don’t like to be surprised, nor do they like to guess what it is that the author is going to talk about); therefore, you will do them a huge favor and save them from unnecessary frustration by placing your thesis statement in the introduction of your paper.

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What Makes a Great American Essay?

Talking to phillip lopate about thwarted expectations, emerson, and the 21st-century essay boom.

Phillip Lopate spoke to Literary Hub about the new anthology he has edited, The Glorious American Essay . He recounts his own development from an “unpatriotic” young man to someone, later in life, who would embrace such writers as Ralph Waldo Emerson, who personified the simultaneous darkness and optimism underlying the history of the United States. Lopate looks back to the Puritans and forward to writers like Wesley Yang and Jia Tolentino. What is the next face of the essay form?

Literary Hub: We’re at a point, politically speaking, when disagreements about the meaning of the word “American” are particularly vehement. What does the term mean to you in 2020? How has your understanding of the word evolved?

Phillip Lopate : First of all, I am fully aware that even using the word “American” to refer only to the United States is something of an insult to Latin American countries, and if I had said “North American” to signify the US, that might have offended Canadians. Still, I went ahead and put “American” in the title as a synonym for the United States, because I wanted to invoke that powerful positive myth of America as an idea, a democratic aspiration for the world, as well as an imperialist juggernaut replete with many unresolved social inequities, in negative terms.

I will admit that when I was younger, I tended to be very unpatriotic and critical of my country, although once I started to travel abroad and witness authoritarian regimes like Spain under Franco, I could never sign on to the fear that a fascist US was just around the corner.  I came to the conclusion that we have our faults, but our virtues as well.

The more I’ve become interested in American history, the more I’ve seen how today’s problems and possible solutions are nothing new, but keep returning in cycles: economic booms and recessions, anti-immigrant sentiment, regional competition, racist Jim Crow policies followed by human rights advances, vigorous federal regulations and pendulum swings away from governmental intervention.

Part of the thrill in putting together this anthology was to see it operating simultaneously on two tracks: first, it would record the development of a literary form that I loved, the essay, as it evolved over 400 years in this country. At the same time, it would be a running account of the history of the United States, in the hands of these essayists who were contending, directly or indirectly, with the pressing problems of their day. The promise of America was always being weighed against its failure to live up to that standard.

For instance, we have the educator John Dewey arguing for a more democratic schoolhouse, the founder of the settlement house movement Jane Addams analyzing the alienation of young people in big cities, the progressive writer Randolph Bourne describing his own harsh experiences as a disabled person, the feminist Elizabeth Cady Stanton advocating for women’s rights, and W. E. B. Dubois and James Weldon Johnson eloquently addressing racial injustice.

Issues of identity, gender and intersectionality were explored by writers such as Richard Rodriguez, Audre Lorde, Leonard Michaels and N. Scott Momaday, sometimes with touches of irony and self-scrutiny, which have always been assets of the essay form.

LH : If a publisher had asked us to compile an anthology of 100 representative American essays, we wouldn’t know where to start. How did you? What were your criteria?

PL : I thought I knew the field fairly well to begin with, having edited the best-selling Art of the Personal Essay in 1994, taught the form for decades, served on book award juries and so on. But once I started researching and collecting material, I discovered that I had lots of gaps, partly because the mandate I had set for myself was so sweeping.

This time I would not restrict myself to personal essays but would include critical essays, impersonal essays, speeches that were in essence essays (such as George Washington’s Farewell Address or Martin Luther King, Jr’s sermon on Vietnam), letters that functioned as essays (Frederick Douglass’s Letter to His Master).

I wanted to expand the notion of what is  an essay, to include, for instance, polemics such as Thomas Paine’s Common Sense , or one of the Federalist Papers; newspaper columnists (Fanny Fern, Christopher Morley); humorists (James Thurber, Finley Peter Dunne, Dorothy Parker).

But it also occurred to me that fine essayists must exist in every discipline, not only literature, which sent me on a hunt that took me to cultural criticism (Clement Greenberg, Kenneth Burke), theology (Paul Tillich), food writing (M.F. K. Fisher), geography (John Brinkerhoff Jackson), nature writing (John Muir, John Burroughs, Edward Abbey), science writing (Loren Eiseley, Lewis Thomas), philosophy (George Santayana). My one consistent criterion was that the essay be lively, engaging and intelligently written. In short, I had to like it myself.

Of course I would need to include the best-known practitioners of the American essay—Emerson, Thoreau, Mencken, Baldwin, Sontag, etc.—and was happy to do so.  As it turned out, most of the masters of American fiction and poetry also tried their hand successfully at essay-writing, which meant including Nathaniel Hawthorne, Walt Whitman, Theodore Dreiser, Willa Cather, Flannery O’Connor, Ralph Ellison. . .

But I was also eager to uncover powerful if almost forgotten voices such as John Jay Chapman, Agnes Repplier, Randolph Bourne, Mary Austin, or buried treasures such as William Dean Howells’ memoir essay of his days working in his father’s printing shop.

Finally, I wanted to show a wide variety of formal approaches, since the essay is by its very nature and nomenclature an experiment, which brought me to Gertrude Stein and Wayne Koestenbaum. Equally important, I was aided in all these searches by colleagues and friends who kept suggesting other names. For every fertile lead, probably four resulted in dead ends.  Meanwhile, I was having a real learning adventure.

LH: Do you have a personal favorite among American essayists? If so, what appeals to you the most about them?

PL : I do. It’s Ralph Waldo Emerson. He was the one who cleared the ground for US essayists, in his famous piece, “The American Scholar,” which called on us to free ourselves from slavish imitation of European models and to think for ourselves.  So much American thought grows out of Emerson, or is in contention with Emerson, even if that debt is sometimes unacknowledged or unconscious.

What I love about Emerson is his density of thought, and the surprising twists and turns that result from it. I can read an essay of his like “Experience” (the one I included in this anthology) a hundred times and never know where it’s going next.  If it was said of Emily Dickenson that her poems made you feel like the top of your head was spinning, that’s what I feel in reading Emerson. He has a playful skepticism, a knack for thinking against himself.  Each sentence starts a new rabbit of thought scampering off. He’s difficult but worth the trouble.

I once asked Susan Sontag who her favorite American essayist was, and she replied “Emerson, of course.” It’s no surprise that Nietzsche revered Emerson, as did Carlyle, and in our own time, Harold Bloom, Stanley Cavell, Richard Poirier. But here’s a confession: it took me awhile to come around to him.

I found his preacher’s manner and abstractions initially off-putting, I wasn’t sure about the character of the man who was speaking to me. Then I read his Notebooks and the mystery was cracked: suddenly I was able to follow essays such as “Circles” with pure pleasure, seeing as I could the darkness and complexity underneath the optimism.

LH: You make the interesting decision to open the anthology with an essay written in 1726, 50 years before the founding of the republic. Why?

PL : I wanted to start the anthology with the first fully-formed essayistic voices in this land, which turned out to belong to the Puritans. Regardless of the negative associations of zealous prudishness that have come to attach to the adjective “puritanical,” those American colonies founded as religious settlements were spearheaded by some remarkably learned and articulate spokespersons, whose robust prose enriched the American literary canon.

Cotton Mather and Jonathan Edwards were highly cultivated readers, familiar with the traditions of essay-writing, Montaigne and the English, and with the latest science, even as they inveighed against witchcraft. I will admit that it also amused me to open the book with Cotton Mather, a prescriptive, strait-is-the-gate character, and end it with Zadie Smith, who is not only bi-racial but bi-national, dividing her year between London and New York, and whose openness to self-doubt is signaled by her essay collection title, Changing My Mind .

The next group of writers I focused on were the Founding Fathers, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Paine, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson and George Washington, and a foundational feminist, Judith Sargent Murray, who wrote the 1790 essay “On the Equality of the Sexes.” These authors, whose essays preceded, occurred during or immediately followed the founding of the republic, were in some ways the opposite of the Puritans, being for the most part Deists or secular followers of the Enlightenment.

Their attraction to reasoned argument and willingness to entertain possible objections to their points of view inspired a vigorous strand of American essay-writing. So, while we may fix the founding of the United States to a specific year, the actual culture and literature of the country book-ended that date.

LH: You end with Zadie Smith’s “Speaking in Tongues,” published in 2008. Which essay in the last 12 years would be your 101st selection?

PL : Funny you should ask. As it happens, I am currently putting the finishing touches on another anthology, this one entirely devoted to the Contemporary (i.e., 21st century) American Essay. I have been immersed in reading younger, up-and-coming writers, established mid-career writers, and some oldsters who are still going strong (Janet Malcolm, Vivian Gornick, Barry Lopez, John McPhee, for example).

It would be impossible for me to single out any one contemporary essayist, as they are all in different ways contributing to the stew, but just to name some I’ve been tracking recently: Meghan Daum, Maggie Nelson, Sloane Crosley, Eula Biss, Charles D’Ambrosio, Teju Cole, Lia Purpura, John D’Agata, Samantha Irby, Anne Carson, Alexander Chee, Aleksander Hemon, Hilton Als, Mary Cappello, Bernard Cooper, Leslie Jamison, Laura Kipnis, Rivka Galchen, Emily Fox Gordon, Darryl Pinckney, Yiyun Li, David Lazar, Lynn Freed, Ander Monson, David Shields, Rebecca Solnit, John Jeremiah Sullivan, Eileen Myles, Amy Tan, Jonathan Lethem, Chelsea Hodson, Ross Gay, Jia Tolentino, Jenny Boully, Durga Chew-Bose, Brian Blanchfield, Thomas Beller, Terry Castle, Wesley Yang, Floyd Skloot, David Sedaris. . .

Such a banquet of names speaks to the intergenerational appeal of the form. We’re going through a particularly rich time for American essays: especially compared to, 20 years ago, when editors wouldn’t even dare put the word “essays” on the cover, but kept trying to package these variegated assortments as single-theme discourses, we’ve seen many collections that have been commercially successful and attracted considerable critical attention.

It has something to do with the current moment, which has everyone more than a little confused and therefore trusting more than ever those strong individual voices that are willing to cop to their subjective fears, anxieties, doubts and ecstasies.

__________________________________

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The Glorious American Essay , edited by Phillip Lopate, is available now.

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21.22 American Writing Styles, Argument, and Structure

Your original language has its own structures, formats, and cultural assumptions that are likely natural to you but perhaps different from those of English. The following broad guidelines underlie basic American English and US academic writing.

  • Citing sources: Some languages and cultures do not consider citing sources of ideas to be of paramount importance. In US academic situations, however, failing to cite sources of ideas and text is referred to as plagiarism and can result in serious ramifications, including failing grades, damaged reputations, school expulsions, and job loss.
  • Introducing the topic early: Unlike some languages, American English typically presents the topic early in a paper.
  • Staying on topic: Although some languages view diversions from the topic as adding interest and depth, American English is focused and on topic.
  • Writing concisely: Some languages hold eloquent, flowing language in high esteem. Consequently, texts in these languages are often long and elaborate. American English, on the other hand, prefers concise, to-the-point wording.
  • Constructing arguments: US academic writing often involves argument building. To this end, writers use transitions to link ideas, evidence to support claims, and relatively formal writing to ensure clarity.
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What Is Academic Writing? | Dos and Don’ts for Students

Academic writing is a formal style of writing used in universities and scholarly publications. You’ll encounter it in journal articles and books on academic topics, and you’ll be expected to write your essays , research papers , and dissertation in academic style.

Academic writing follows the same writing process as other types of texts, but it has specific conventions in terms of content, structure and style.

Table of contents

Types of academic writing, academic writing is…, academic writing is not…, useful tools for academic writing, academic writing checklist.

Academics mostly write texts intended for publication, such as journal articles, reports, books, and chapters in edited collections. For students, the most common types of academic writing assignments are listed below.

Different fields of study have different priorities in terms of the writing they produce. For example, in scientific writing it’s crucial to clearly and accurately report methods and results; in the humanities, the focus is on constructing convincing arguments through the use of textual evidence. However, most academic writing shares certain key principles intended to help convey information as effectively as possible.

Whether your goal is to pass your degree, apply to graduate school , or build an academic career, effective writing is an essential skill.

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Formal and unbiased

Academic writing aims to convey information in an impartial way. The goal is to base arguments on the evidence under consideration, not the author’s preconceptions. All claims should be supported with relevant evidence, not just asserted.

To avoid bias, it’s important to represent the work of other researchers and the results of your own research fairly and accurately. This means clearly outlining your methodology  and being honest about the limitations of your research.

The formal style used in academic writing ensures that research is presented consistently across different texts, so that studies can be objectively assessed and compared with other research.

Because of this, it’s important to strike the right tone with your language choices. Avoid informal language , including slang, contractions , clichés, and conversational phrases:

  • Also , a lot of the findings are a little unreliable.
  • Moreover , many of the findings are somewhat unreliable.

Clear and precise

It’s important to use clear and precise language to ensure that your reader knows exactly what you mean. This means being as specific as possible and avoiding vague language :

  • People have been interested in this thing for a long time .
  • Researchers have been interested in this phenomenon for at least 10 years .

Avoid hedging your claims with words like “perhaps,” as this can give the impression that you lack confidence in your arguments. Reflect on your word choice to ensure it accurately and directly conveys your meaning:

  • This could perhaps suggest that…
  • This suggests that…

Specialist language or jargon is common and often necessary in academic writing, which generally targets an audience of other academics in related fields.

However, jargon should be used to make your writing more concise and accurate, not to make it more complicated. A specialist term should be used when:

  • It conveys information more precisely than a comparable non-specialist term.
  • Your reader is likely to be familiar with the term.
  • The term is commonly used by other researchers in your field.

The best way to familiarize yourself with the kind of jargon used in your field is to read papers by other researchers and pay attention to their language.

Focused and well structured

An academic text is not just a collection of ideas about a topic—it needs to have a clear purpose. Start with a relevant research question or thesis statement , and use it to develop a focused argument. Only include information that is relevant to your overall purpose.

A coherent structure is crucial to organize your ideas. Pay attention to structure at three levels: the structure of the whole text, paragraph structure, and sentence structure.

Well sourced

Academic writing uses sources to support its claims. Sources are other texts (or media objects like photographs or films) that the author analyzes or uses as evidence. Many of your sources will be written by other academics; academic writing is collaborative and builds on previous research.

It’s important to consider which sources are credible and appropriate to use in academic writing. For example, citing Wikipedia is typically discouraged. Don’t rely on websites for information; instead, use academic databases and your university library to find credible sources.

You must always cite your sources in academic writing. This means acknowledging whenever you quote or paraphrase someone else’s work by including a citation in the text and a reference list at the end.

There are many different citation styles with different rules. The most common styles are APA , MLA , and Chicago . Make sure to consistently follow whatever style your institution requires. If you don’t cite correctly, you may get in trouble for plagiarism . A good plagiarism checker can help you catch any issues before it’s too late.

You can easily create accurate citations in APA or MLA style using our Citation Generators.

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Correct and consistent

As well as following the rules of grammar, punctuation, and citation, it’s important to consistently apply stylistic conventions regarding:

  • How to write numbers
  • Introducing abbreviations
  • Using verb tenses in different sections
  • Capitalization of terms and headings
  • Spelling and punctuation differences between UK and US English

In some cases there are several acceptable approaches that you can choose between—the most important thing is to apply the same rules consistently and to carefully proofread your text before you submit. If you don’t feel confident in your own proofreading abilities, you can get help from Scribbr’s professional proofreading services or Grammar Checker .

Academic writing generally tries to avoid being too personal. Information about the author may come in at some points—for example in the acknowledgements or in a personal reflection—but for the most part the text should focus on the research itself.

Always avoid addressing the reader directly with the second-person pronoun “you.” Use the impersonal pronoun “one” or an alternate phrasing instead for generalizations:

  • As a teacher, you must treat your students fairly.
  • As a teacher, one must treat one’s students fairly.
  • Teachers must treat their students fairly.

The use of the first-person pronoun “I” used to be similarly discouraged in academic writing, but it is increasingly accepted in many fields. If you’re unsure whether to use the first person, pay attention to conventions in your field or ask your instructor.

When you refer to yourself, it should be for good reason. You can position yourself and describe what you did during the research, but avoid arbitrarily inserting your personal thoughts and feelings:

  • In my opinion…
  • I think that…
  • I like/dislike…
  • I conducted interviews with…
  • I argue that…
  • I hope to achieve…

Long-winded

Many students think their writing isn’t academic unless it’s over-complicated and long-winded. This isn’t a good approach—instead, aim to be as concise and direct as possible.

If a term can be cut or replaced with a more straightforward one without affecting your meaning, it should be. Avoid redundant phrasings in your text, and try replacing phrasal verbs with their one-word equivalents where possible:

  • Interest in this phenomenon carried on in the year 2018 .
  • Interest in this phenomenon continued in 2018 .

Repetition is a part of academic writing—for example, summarizing earlier information in the conclusion—but it’s important to avoid unnecessary repetition. Make sure that none of your sentences are repeating a point you’ve already made in different words.

Emotive and grandiose

An academic text is not the same thing as a literary, journalistic, or marketing text. Though you’re still trying to be persuasive, a lot of techniques from these styles are not appropriate in an academic context. Specifically, you should avoid appeals to emotion and inflated claims.

Though you may be writing about a topic that’s sensitive or important to you, the point of academic writing is to clearly communicate ideas, information, and arguments, not to inspire an emotional response. Avoid using emotive or subjective language :

  • This horrible tragedy was obviously one of the worst catastrophes in construction history.
  • The injury and mortality rates of this accident were among the highest in construction history.

Students are sometimes tempted to make the case for their topic with exaggerated , unsupported claims and flowery language. Stick to specific, grounded arguments that you can support with evidence, and don’t overstate your point:

  • Charles Dickens is the greatest writer of the Victorian period, and his influence on all subsequent literature is enormous.
  • Charles Dickens is one of the best-known writers of the Victorian period and has had a significant influence on the development of the English novel.

There are a a lot of writing tools that will make your writing process faster and easier. We’ll highlight three of them below.

Paraphrasing tool

AI writing tools like ChatGPT and a paraphrasing tool can help you rewrite text so that your ideas are clearer, you don’t repeat yourself, and your writing has a consistent tone.

They can also help you write more clearly about sources without having to quote them directly. Be warned, though: it’s still crucial to give credit to all sources in the right way to prevent plagiarism .

Grammar checker

Writing tools that scan your text for punctuation, spelling, and grammar mistakes. When it detects a mistake the grammar checke r will give instant feedback and suggest corrections. Helping you write clearly and avoid common mistakes .

You can use a summarizer if you want to condense text into its most important and useful ideas. With a summarizer tool, you can make it easier to understand complicated sources. You can also use the tool to make your research question clearer and summarize your main argument.

Prevent plagiarism. Run a free check.

Use the checklist below to assess whether you have followed the rules of effective academic writing.

  • Checklist: Academic writing

I avoid informal terms and contractions .

I avoid second-person pronouns (“you”).

I avoid emotive or exaggerated language.

I avoid redundant words and phrases.

I avoid unnecessary jargon and define terms where needed.

I present information as precisely and accurately as possible.

I use appropriate transitions to show the connections between my ideas.

My text is logically organized using paragraphs .

Each paragraph is focused on a single idea, expressed in a clear topic sentence .

Every part of the text relates to my central thesis or research question .

I support my claims with evidence.

I use the appropriate verb tenses in each section.

I consistently use either UK or US English .

I format numbers consistently.

I cite my sources using a consistent citation style .

Your text follows the most important rules of academic style. Make sure it's perfect with the help of a Scribbr editor!

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American Style

Do quotation marks go inside or outside a period.

Although logic usually determines how we punctuate English, where we place quotation marks often defies that logic. At least in America. That’s why several of you have written to me lately to ask, “So what’s up with people putting periods outside the quotation mark?” The answer is: Either you are reading someone who made a mistake, or the writer is British. Or Canadian or Australian. Their system makes much more sense, but to keep a small piece of our sanity (and assuming we’re American) let’s continue to follow the American style. We don’t spell favor with a “u” just because the British do.

As The Chicago Manual of Style explains, “In defense of nearly a century and a half of the American style, however, it may be said that it seems to have been working fairly well and has not resulted in serious miscommunication.” I.e., no one has died yet. When people start dying, we will switch to the British style. In the meantime.

Back to Basics

We have two kinds of quotations, direct and indirect. An indirect quotation sounds like this and requires no quotation marks :

Bob Dylan said he now prefers electric over acoustic.

A direct quotation sounds like this and requires quotation marks :

Bob Dylan said, “I now prefer electric over acoustic.”

The Burning Questions:

When do we place a comma before the quotation.

If the word said or a similar word precedes the quotation:

When Victoria entered, the chambermaid exclaimed, “But I shan’t be ready for another quarter of an hour, Your Highness!”

If the quotation blends with the sentence, you do not need a comma.

Mark Twain once opined that the two most important days of your life are “the day you are born and the day you find out why.”

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How do we punctuate longer quotations?

Instead of enclosing longer quotations in quotation marks , we should indent them. Authorities differ slightly, but longer means poetry of three or more lines and prose of two or more sentences that run at least five lines. Introduce the offset quotation with a sentence ending in a colon:

According to his longtime producer, Woody Allen has written, produced, directed, and sometimes starred in a movie almost every year since the 1980s:

Where do we put the closing quotation mark?

In America, no matter how the material inside the quotation relates to the rest of a sentence (even if it’s only one word), the closing quotation mark always goes outside a comma or a period . It always goes inside a colon or a semicolon :

When Tamika said, “I’ll be all right , ” she did not know her cat had swallowed a hairball.

I was in the den reading Poe’s “The Telltale Heart ” ; I didn’t even hear the screams emanating from the microwave.

Whether a quotation mark goes inside or outside a question mark (or dash or exclamation point ) depends. If the sentence is not a question, but the quotation is a question, put the question mark inside, the quotation mark outside:

Georgina came running through the living room, yelling, “Where’s Jerome ? ”

If the sentence is a question and the quotation is also a question, again put the question mark inside, the quotation mark  outside, and do not follow it with another question mark .

Who do you think finally asked, “Could the problem be with the ignition ? ”

But if the sentence is a question, and the quotation is not, put the quotation mark inside, the question mark  outside:

Do you remember who said, “Give me liberty or promise me you’ll protect me and provide me with a lot of cash” ?

If the quotation appears first and is a question, the question mark goes inside , the quotation mark outside, and it is not followed by a period or comma :

“What can I do for my country ? ” Kennedy urged American youth to ask.

Parting Points

To include a quotation within a quotation, enclose it with single quotation marks :

Then the speaker added, “As many of you know, Einstein once said, ‘The only reason for time is so that everything doesn’t happen at once. ’ ”

Enclose the titles of the following in quotation marks :

songs, essays, short stories, television episodes, short poems, chapters in a book, magazine and newspaper articles

Last, if you want to highlight a word or short phrase for emphasis, instead of using quotation marks, I would italicize. It’s cleaner. But make sure you need to emphasize.

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The best New Statesman Ideas essays of 2023

Our pick of the finest writing from the past year.

By New Statesman

american style essay writing

The rise of the new tech right Quinn Slobodian A cult – one that worships a genetically determined meritocracy has Silicon Valley in a chokehold. Slobodian unpacks the racial science of IQ, and the growing far-right threat of a future shaped by high-tech-hierarchy.

The new politics of time Hettie O’Brien Jenny Odell’s  Saving Time  is concerned with bewildering disjunctions. A recursive, impressionistic discussion of clocks, capitalism and the climate crisis, her book is composed of anecdotes, cut-and-pasted histories and cultural criticism. How should we spend our hours in the age of burnout? Arguably not by reading Odell’s frustrating new book, Saving Time .

What it means to be Jewish now Various Writers With anti-Semitism rising and divisions on the left over the Hamas-Israel war, 17 writers reflect on being Jewish now.

Settling scores with God: Leszek Kolakowski at the end of history Madoc Cairns An orphan. A Marxist. A Catholic-conservative. Leszek Kolakowski holds a 50-year-career as one of Europe’s leading, and most controversial public intellectuals. In conversation, he unpacks a troubled history: of paradox, of collapse, and of transcendence; of finding belonging in belief, and being haunted by the absolute.

Why does no one write like Tom Wolfe any more?

Why does no one write like Tom Wolfe any more?

Inside the Ministry of Fear

Inside the Ministry of Fear

America after neoliberalism

America after neoliberalism

The realists were right about the war in Ukraine Lily Lynch Far from the flashy, hope filled “David vs Goliath” narratives of resistance and reclamation of its first months, the Ukraine-Russia war has slowed to a drivel – and alongside it domestic morale, foreign support and US funding. Initially ignored warnings of Ukrainian “false hope” were not so incorrect, Lynch suggests, as she questions what version (if any) of Ukraine’s future is actually attainable.

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Going Native Oliver Eagleton People who study cults sometimes end up joining them. Has this fate befallen Matthew Goodwin, one of Britain’s most visible scholars of the hard right? Eagleton looks at how Goodwin became part of the right-populist movement he once sought to explain.

Who is afraid of Martin Heidegger? Lyndsey Stonebridge In the rootless world of the 1920s, Heidegger’s ideas about Being (with a capital B, signifying the full meaning of human existence) ripped up the ground of philosophy. The truth exists only in our Being. “Being-there” – “ Dasein ”, in Heidegger’s distinctive terminology – is what matters; there in history, gliding on nothingness, with no other certain knowledge than that of our own death. There is no plot to follow, save the “hidden primordiality” of Being itself. This essay looks at why the most radioactive philosopher of the 20th century still speaks to us.

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Authors and artificial intelligence: what next?

Authors and artificial intelligence: what next?

The New Age of Tragedy Robert D Kaplan, John Gray and Helen Thompson For this wide-ranging exchange, we asked Kaplan, the  Cambridge  political economist Helen Thompson and the philosopher John Gray to explore what we are calling this new age of tragedy, and how societies might navigate and endure the gathering storms.

Gramsci in Florida Alberto Toscano While talk of a “Gramscian vanguard” is largely a conspiratorial fabrication of the right, it could also serve as a spur for a somewhat rudderless left to reflect on what hegemony might look like today, on what it would take to become the threat to capitalism, patriarchy and white nationalism that the right already takes it to be.

Arno J Mayer’s 20th Century Enzo Traverso The American historian Arno J Mayer belongs to an extraordinary generation of German-speaking Jewish scholars – George L Mosse, Raul Hilberg, Peter Gay and Fritz Stern among others – who were born in Europe between the end of the First World War and Hitler’s rise to power, reaching their maturity during the Second World War. The cataclysms of the 20th century forged their mental  habitus  and gave them a sharp sense of  history . Mayer helped transform the writing of history – and with it our understanding of the modern world.

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Essays on American Style

2 samples on this topic

To some learners, composing American Style papers comes easy; others need the help of various kinds. The WowEssays.com directory includes professionally crafted sample essays on American Style and related issues. Most definitely, among all those American Style essay examples, you will find a paper that get in line with what you imagine as a worthy paper. You can be sure that literally every American Style piece presented here can be used as a vivid example to follow in terms of overall structure and writing different chapters of a paper – introduction, main body, or conclusion.

If, however, you have a hard time coming up with a solid American Style essay or don't have even a minute of extra time to explore our sample database, our free essay writer company can still be of great help to you. The matter is, our experts can craft a model American Style paper to your personal needs and particular requirements within the pre-set period. Buy college essays today!

How Can I Learn American Writing Styles?

I am a newbie in this forum. I am a content writer and good at English writing, but I want to learn some american writing styles. Kindly give me some ideas.

Faizan Samiullah

:slight_smile:

One thing you could do is pick up a copy of one of the American style guides, such as the Chicago Manual of Style .

Read–a lot.

Fiction, non-fiction–it doesn’t matter. The only way to fully grasp how to write like a native English speaker is to completely immerse yourself in reading material. It can be the latest sci-fi/fantasy adventure, a magazine article on the latest discoveries in ancient Egypt, popular romance or mystery novels, biographies or books on world history…the list goes on.

Is there a particular subject area that you plan on writing about?

well! in my point of view, you may have some options below:

  • read a lot of US essay or US document to learn US style
  • take writing course that have US teacher/professor.
  • practice and then give your essay to US friend and ask them for checking.

You could also take some online courses at a community college or similar school. A lot of them offer creative writing courses and things like that.

This website offers writing workshops online,

Depends on what you mean by American style. Authors from America employ an endless variety of styles (for example, Fitzgerald and Hemmingway are almost opposites, yet both regarded as great American writers). I think your time would be better spent learning about style and voice in general, as opposed to trying to find a particularly “American” style.

If you want dialogue, then it’s best to live in the country if you can. If not, then try to read some modern authors, particularly with teenage characters

In short, read some American books, magazines and newspapers

Hi, Don’t worry about it. Just write. If your content is strong, it’ll be read. You might like to use American spellings, though. Just use an American English dictionary.

Daily you should read American new papers,Magazine,Story Books,and also watching American movies.If everyday you following these things,you should easily learn that styles.

First, you need to get the basics down. Read Strunk & White’s Elements of Style

Next, you need to read lots of American essays to get familiarized with American logical writing/argument presentation.

Finally, you need to hang out at many American forums and pay attention to phrases and idioms they use. This is key because ‘academic’ English is very different from conversational/casual English.

You should read the article in the U.S, and learn how to write,learn their style Watch more movies to be familiar with local languages

I agree with that, but above all - READ, READ, READ. Read magazines, books, essays, there is a lot of interesting material on the internet whatever your interests are.

Native persons are always native. Its true that you can get knowledge from books, magazines, TV shows. Reading of native books help you to get your goal. But You will not be native. You will be near to native. My friend Relpha hav shared with you Chicago Manual of Style . You can try it but keep in mind consistency is really important for this. YOu need to work more then one years. May be then you are able to achieve your goal

Try Udemy . Lots of free courses available and it gives certificate upon completion.

The truth is that there really isn’t a huge difference between an American writing style, a Canadian writing style, or a UK writing style.

The major difference that I would point out is that in the US and Canada we say “optimization” whereas in the UK they say “optimisation”.

In Canada and UK they say “labour” whereas in the US it is “labor”.

These are the most noticeable things which will tell a person which writing style you are using.

Just check EzineArticles if you want real-life examples.

Audio novels will express voice inflection and maybe comprehension.

Actually, there are quite a number of differences between American English and UK English. It goes beyond a few simple spelling differences. They use different words for different things, different phrases, different pronunciations, and different idioms.

Yes, folks can usually understand each other, but there are significant differences.

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  • What is the American style of writing?

What is the American style of writing?

What exactly is a "American" writing style? The Western writing style is often quite straightforward, but other cultures' writing styles may be more oblique. The problem or issue is presented at the beginning of the article, followed by specific instances or evidence to support the issue. This type of essay is known as an "argument essay."

Other terms used for argument essays include analytical essay , rebuttal essay, and response essay.

In conclusion, an argument essay requires you to provide examples of what you are arguing against as well as what would happen if your claim was true. You should also state your own position on the issue and provide arguments for it. This type of essay is found in most academic settings as part of their mandatory course work.

Examples: American writers use plain language , avoid complex sentence structure, and write about relevant issues today. They make simple sentences sound complex and overuse synonyms to create a rich vocabulary . This writing style is easy to understand yet difficult to master completely.

The American writing style is widely used in academia. Universities prefer students to submit articles that have been written according to certain guidelines. These guidelines include requiring students to use modern language, avoiding complex sentence structure , and presenting both sides of an argument.

Table of Contents

What is the difference between european and american writing, what is english and american literature, what is "style" in english writing.

American Writing Format I've been reading a lot of European literature recently, and it has a whole different ring to it than American writing . It's more experimental, less pragmatic in word choice, and sometimes less clichéd and more diversified in topic matter, in my opinion. Also, European writers tend to be longer-winded.

There are many factors that have led to the differences between American and European writing. The two main ones are language and culture. English as we know it today was born out of the language used by our ancestors when they traveled abroad - Latin. In addition, America is full of immigrants from all over the world who came here looking for a better life . These people brought with them their own languages and cultures which influenced how they wrote.

Language is a huge factor affecting the way we write. If you look at French and German writing styles for example, you'll see that they are very formal and descriptive, rather than colloquial and to the point, like American writing. This is because French and German use different words and phrases than English does - they're not synonyms! Even within English there are various accents and dialects which affect what words people use and how they write.

Culture also plays an important role in determining how we write. For example, in Europe it's common practice for authors to include their names at the beginning of their works - this is called "attribution".

English authors focus on culture and etiquette, whereas American writers tackle American history and social concerns. Early American works, like early British ones, deal with religious and political issues. As America develops independently from Britain, its writers begin to focus more on local topics and problems.

American writers are usually divided into three periods based on their relationship to the American Revolution : pre-Revolutionary (before 1775), Revolutionary (1775-83), and post-Revolutionary (after 1783). Pre-Revolutionary writers include John Milton , Samuel Johnson, and Daniel Defoe; those of the Revolutionary period include Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, Benjamin Franklin, and George Washington; and post-Revolutionary writers include Henry David Thoreau , Walt Whitman, and Ernest Hemingway.

Each period has traits that distinguish it. The pre-Revolutionary era is marked by its faith in reason and progress over religion and tradition. It also sees the emergence of democratic ideals as well as the beginning of American literature as a distinct discipline. The Revolutionary era is known for its activism and struggle for independence, as well as its creation of new government systems. Post-Revolutionary writers express disillusionment with democracy and its practical limitations. They also often criticize American society in general and attempt to find solutions for its problems.

A writer's writing style may be described as the manner he or she writes. It is a strategy used by a single author in his writing . It differs from author to author and is determined by syntax, word choice, and tone. It may also be characterized as a "voice" that readers hear when they read a writer's work.

Style can also refer to the overall appearance of a piece of written material . This includes such things as the use of punctuation, spelling, grammar, and layout. Style is an important part of writing instruction because it affects how we communicate information to our readers. For example, using correct grammar and proper spelling will help others understand what you want them to know. A well-written piece of text also uses effective vocabulary and sentence structure.

English teachers typically focus on three types of English language style: active, passive, and formal.

Active style is used when describing actions being taken by individuals. It is used often in business documents and articles because it gets the point across quickly and effectively. An example would be "We will no longer accept credit cards as payment for services." There is an action being taken by someone so it is best used in texts that need to make a quick decision or report an incident.

Passive style is used when something bad happens to individuals or when describing events that are not attributed to any one particular person.

About Article Author

James Schenk

James Schenk

James Schenk has been writing for over 10 years. His areas of expertise include poetry, prose, and poetry translation. He has translated poems from German into English and vice-versa. His favorite thing about his job is that it gives him the opportunity to learn new things every day!

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5 Best Essay Writing Services for Students to Achieve Higher Grades

Recently, as I was writing another essay, I was struck by an interesting thought. I realized that students are always required to turn in well-written papers to college. Often it feels like, in addition to becoming a professional in your chosen field, you also need to become a professional writer. However, not all students possess the natural talent you need to excel in writing.

Being a professional writer, I’m aware of how difficult it may be to put together a well-organized essay. Sometimes the inspiration isn’t there and the words just don’t flow easily. Yet, over time, I’ve developed my methods of dealing with a blank page. For students, it can be harder to find the techniques to overcome writer’s block.

One way to deal with this problem is to seek help from professional writers. They can guide all your writing assignments. From composing essays to giving feedback on your drafts, pro writers can offer insights and expertise to help you tackle college assignments with ease.

To find a wordsmith who will help you deal with academic projects, reach out to writing services that specialize in academic writing. They established their processes to quickly provide the necessary assistance. In this article, I’ll share my list of top online writing platforms to help you find the best essay writing service for your needs. Stay tuned!

5 Best essay writing services

The Internet is abundant with websites providing essay writing services. Yet, finding a worthwhile online platform that can turn in a high-quality paper within a short time frame can be quite challenging. Some websites hire unreliable writers who don’t have the necessary skills to produce an A-worthy essay. While others charge exorbitant prices for their services.

To make your selection process more manageable, I decided to use my expertise to find the best college paper writing service. One that combines affordable prices, skilled writers, an easy ordering process, practical features, helpful support, and a user-friendly interface.

Using my criteria, extensive experience in essay writing, and thorough research, I narrowed down the options to the top five paper writing services. These platforms provide well-written essays. Plus, they offer extra features such as plagiarism checks, unlimited revisions, and 24/7 customer support. Here is my list of the best essay writing companies:

  • EssayPro – the most popular writing company among students 🔎
  • EssayService – the best essay writing company for US students 🎓
  • EssayHub – the best service for affordable writing help💰
  • DoMyEssay – the fastest service for urgent orders 🚨
  • PaperWriter – the best choice of expert essay writers👩‍💻

american style essay writing

EssayPro goes above and beyond to ensure well-written papers that meet the specific requirements and deadlines set by students. Even if you set a minimal delivery time, their team will find a solution to deliver your essay on time without compromising its quality.

While working with EssayPro on my essay, a few features caught my eye. This company offers help with any assignment, writers from the US and Canada, free originality reports, and a money-back guarantee. What’s more, they have a 6-hour deadline option, making them an essay writing service with the fastest delivery time.

Pricing policy & discounts

Although EssayPro is a professional essay writing service with top writers and years of experience in academic writing, their prices are surprisingly affordable. In addition, they offer discounts for bulk orders.

EssayPro’s prices start at $10.8 per page. However, average essay writing services would cost you $11.4 per page if you place your order at least 5 days before the deadline. For urgent tasks, you are expected to pay $12.31 per page, which is still quite reasonable considering the quality and expertise provided by EssayPro.

  • Lightning-fast turnaround time
  • Plagiarism-free content
  • 24/7 friendly support
  • Unlimited free edits

Free features

  • Access to top writers
  • Originality report

Final verdict

Taking into consideration 23 thousand good reviews and 4.8 stars on Sitejabber, I can recommend EssayPro to anyone in need of quality writing assistance. However, I would say this cheap essay writing service is best for first-time orders and students who want to get familiar with websites providing academic writing services.

In addition to pocket-friendly rates, EssayPro offers many free perks and academically significant features such as wide topic selection, quick delivery, and a zero-plagiarism policy.

EssayService

american style essay writing

Firstly, I was impressed by the ordering process. It took me only a few minutes to place my order and provide all the necessary instructions. Also, the customer support team at EssayService was exceptional. They answered my questions instantly. Tight deadlines were another area where EssayService excelled. I opted for urgent delivery and received my well-written paper the same day.

Undoubtedly, lightning-fast delivery and 24/7 friendly customer support set EssayService apart from the competition. However, I also enjoyed their other useful features. For instance, EssayService’s user-friendly website features a handy price calculator. Additionally, they produce non-plagiarised papers and back them up with originality reports.

If you are looking for flexible pricing with discounts for students, EssayService is the perfect choice for you. Their prices start at $11.4/page for an essay,  $7.98/page for rewriting, and $5.7 for editing services. A research paper may range in price from $12.35/page to $15.44/page.

Also, if you want to save up, EssayService offers many free extras. They can write an outline and title page for your paper at no cost. Plus, you can choose a top author free of charge. The amount of money you’re paying doesn’t influence the quality of the writer you choose.

  • Affordable rates
  • Timely turnaround
  • Wide-ranging topics
  • Zero-plagiarism policy
  • No limits on revisions
  • Plagiarism check
  • Outline and title page

For those who want to not only save time on essay writing but also on essay ordering, I recommend turning to EssayService. Their easy 3-step ordering process will take less than 5 minutes to complete.

In addition, you don’t have to contact customer support in order to get a quote from EssayService. You can look up the approximate price of your college assignment using their built-in price calculator.

american style essay writing

EssayHub’s personalized approach allows them to tailor their services to your individual needs. Moreover, their team of expert writers can deliver an error-free essay for you, saving you the embarrassment of having your work criticized by a strict professor.

What I like the most about EssayHub is the plagiarism-free nature of their essays. Thanks to EssayHub’s zero-plagiarism policy, I can be confident in the quality of my work. Advanced security protocols is another feature that makes EssayHub stand out. Lastly, I was impressed by their round-the-clock helpful support.

Even though EssayHub offers high-quality papers and same-day delivery of your assignment, their services are affordable to students. EssayHub implemented a flexible pricing policy and various discounts to ensure that their services remain accessible to all.

Thus, a custom-written essay will cost you as little as $11.4 per page if you order it in advance. Urgent essay writing is slightly more expensive and starts at $14.25 per page. For just $7.98 per page, you can ask writing experts to rewrite your existing essay to make it more polished and error-free. Professional editing services are available at an incredible rate of $5.7 per page.

  • An easy-to-navigate website
  • Same-day delivery
  • Money-back guarantee
  • Extensive catalog of skilled writers
  • Unlimited revisions
  • 24/7 customer support
  • Turnitin report

EssayHub is a great choice for students looking for both professional essay writers and a personalized approach in one service. With a team of experienced writers, EssayHub offers quality essays that are customized to meet each student’s unique requirements.

In addition, the platform not only guarantees timely delivery but also ensures that the content is original and plagiarism-free. What’s more, EssayHub allows students to communicate directly with their assigned writers. All in an effort to make it easier for students to convey their expectations and provide additional instructions.

american style essay writing

For those of you looking to avoid these mistakes, I can recommend one of the best paper writing services—DoMyEssay. Even when I placed a last-minute paper request, they were quick to respond and deliver a professionally written assignment within a tight deadline.

In addition, DoMyEssay has one of the fairest prices on the market. They offer affordable rates for their high-quality work, making it an ideal option for students on a budget.

Be it an essay, research paper, or case study, DoMyEssay can deliver great results even with the tightest deadlines. All because of their 24/7 customer support, wide-ranging selection of topics, expert native-speaking writers, and well-timed delivery.

What’s more, despite the urgency of your college paper, pricing for last-minute orders remains affordable.

DoMyEssay pricing policy is budget-friendly and will leave any student satisfied with the value they receive. The prices for any-topic college essay start at $11.4 per page. However, DoMyEssay will charge you $14.3 per page for an admission essay.

If you need to rewrite any of your college work, prepare to pay $7.99 per page. To edit a draft of your essay, you’ll be expected to pay $5 per page. Polishing a ready-made essay, paper, or review will cost you just $3 per page.

  • All-inclusive pricing
  • Imitation of your writing style
  • Advanced security measures
  • Special discounts for students
  • Originality guarantee
  • Built-in price calculator
  • Outline writing

Although DoMyEssay can’t boast thousands of reviews yet, its rating is quite high—4.88/5 on SiteJabber. This rating is a testament to the quality and reliability of the service.

On the platform, customers have consistently praised DoMyEssay for its impeccable writing, timely delivery, and excellent customer support. Yet, I can also say that DoMyEssay is a go-to choice for students on a budget with a limited paper submission time.

PaperWriter

american style essay writing

PaperWriter is heaven for students who are always on the lookout for the most creative and original topics for their papers. Their team of experts goes above and beyond to provide unique and thought-provoking ideas for your essay, making sure it stands out from the rest.

PaperWriter can boast its skilled writing professionals, reasonably-priced papers, strong adherence to deadlines, free unlimited edits, and 24/7 assistance. Besides, this writing service has a 100% refund guarantee. Therefore, if you returned your paper for a few revisions and still weren’t satisfied with the final result, you can request and receive a refund.

Although you can order A-worthy written work from PaperWriter, their prices are quite low compared to other writing services in the market. Plus, the company offers various discounts and offers to make their services even more affordable for students.

Thus, if you decide to delegate your college essay to professional writers, it will cost you as little as $11.4 per page. Be prepared to pay $7.98 and $5.70 per page for rewriting and editing, respectively. To make an existing paper mistake-free, pay just $3 per page for professional proofreading.

  • Native-speaking writers with 3+ years of writing experience
  • Urgent essay help with the 6-hour deadline option
  • User-friendly website
  • Fast revisions
  • Access to premium writers

If you’re unsure about essay writing services, PaperWriter can alleviate your worries. This legit essay writing service hires only expert writers who are well-versed in academic standards. All to produce top-notch college assignments with every order.

However, you don’t need to stress about your money because you will only pay for your paper when fully satisfied with the final result. This is guaranteed by PaperWriter’s return policy, which is aimed at students who may have concerns about the quality or accuracy of their essays.

What criteria should be used to find the best essay writing service?

In order for you to find a legitimate essay writing service that will meet all your writing needs, you need to develop a list of requirements. To begin with, determine the important factors. After that, do your research to find out what criteria are commonly used to evaluate essay writing services.

I’d recommend paying attention to the following things when choosing the best essay writing service.

  • Qualifications and experience of the writers
  • Guarantee of original and plagiarism-free content
  • Timely delivery
  • Transparent and affordable prices
  • User-friendly interface
  • Customer reviews and feedback

What are the benefits of using professional essay services for academic writing?

Using professional college paper writing services can offer several benefits for students:

  • Expertise and quality writing. Professional writing services typically employ expert writers with advanced degrees and extensive experience in academic writing.
  • Time savings. Students can save their time by delegating writing, rewriting, editing, proofreading, or formatting to expert writers.
  • Access to resources. Pro writing platforms have access to a wide range of resources, including academic journals, databases, and research materials. This can contribute to more comprehensive and well-supported essays.
  • Learning opportunity. By reviewing professionally written essays, students can gain insight into effective argumentation, structuring, and writing techniques.

Is it legal to use the best essay writing service for my academic project?

Yes, it is 100% legal to use essay writing services for your academic projects. Essays, research papers, and other college assignments produced with the help of professional writers are not meant to be submitted as your own work. Yet, you can use drafts provided by the best essay writing service to improve your own research and writing skills. In addition, professionally written academic assignments can teach you how to structure and format your academic papers correctly.

Will cheap essay writing services provide me with a high-quality essay?

It is difficult to guarantee that cheap essay writing services will provide you with a high-quality essay. While some of these companies may offer decent work, many cheap services prioritize quantity over quality.

Although it is possible for a cheap essay writing service to provide you with a quality paper, in addition to low prices, you should also look for other factors to determine the quality of their essays. These include customer reviews, qualifications of the writers, and the company’s reputation.

Will my essay be written by an expert in the field?

If you turn to reliable essay writing services, chances are that your essay will be written by an expert in your field. Reputable writing platforms only hire native-speaking expert writers who have advanced degrees, extensive knowledge, and experience in specific subjects.

In addition, reliable services often have a rigorous hiring process. This way, they can ensure that only qualified authors are chosen to handle your assignments. These writers are usually well-versed in academic writing. Plus, they understand the importance of in-depth research, proper citation, and meeting deadlines.

Can an essay writing service guarantee the originality of its written content?

Be sure to turn to a legit essay writing service in order to receive an originality report of your written assignment. Most professional writing services recognize the significance of plagiarism-free content. They hire professional writers who can deliver high-quality, original essays. However, these are not the only measures taken to ensure the originality of your work.

Usually, each essay is checked for plagiarism twice. First, a writing platform will compare it to their current database of written assignments. Then, they compare it to all content on the Internet to ensure the authenticity of their work.

Do the best essay writing sites have a money-back guarantee?

Many reputable essay writing services do offer a money-back guarantee as part of their policies. Yet, it’s essential to carefully review the terms and conditions of each service to understand the specifics of their refund policy. Here are some common scenarios in which a money-back guarantee might apply:

  • Plagiarism. If you detect plagiarism in your essay, most services will refund your payment.
  • Missed deadlines. If the essay writing service fails to meet the deadline without a valid reason, you may be eligible for a refund.
  • Quality issues. Ask for a refund if your essay doesn’t meet academic standards or the requirements you provided.

How much do the top essay writing services charge for their help?

The cost of essay writing services may vary depending on several factors. These include the urgency, word count, academic level, topic, and reputation of the writing platform. Some top essay writing services charge a flat rate per page, while others may have tiered pricing based on the complexity of the assignment.

On average, students can expect to pay anywhere from $10 to $50 per page for professional essay writing help. However, there’s no need to overpay. Choose an essay writing service from this list. This way, you can ensure that you are getting the best value for your money.

The news and editorial staff of the Santa Cruz Sentinel had no role in this post’s preparation. This is a paid advertisement and does not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of the Santa Cruz Sentinel, its employees, or subsidiaries.

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american style essay writing

Puravive Reviews – I Tried It! Real Results? Here’s What Happened

IMAGES

  1. What Makes America Great Essay ⇒ Writing Tips and Examples

    american style essay writing

  2. 006 Mla Essay Example Format Template ~ Thatsnotus

    american style essay writing

  3. History Essay: Example of essay with harvard referencing

    american style essay writing

  4. Reflective Essay: Style analysis essay

    american style essay writing

  5. How to Format Essays

    american style essay writing

  6. How To: Essay Types

    american style essay writing

VIDEO

  1. STYLE ESSAY OVERVIEW #2

  2. How to write an essay

  3. How to write an essay

  4. American style#американский стиль

  5. Essay On Reading in English

  6. APA 7th Edition Format

COMMENTS

  1. American Style of Writing

    What is an "American" style of writing? Students naturally use their own cultural backgrounds and expectations when composing in English. Some professors will expect you to use an American style of writing. Others will encourage you to write with a style you are comfortable. Talk with your professor about the style of writing they expect from you.

  2. Essay Format: A Basic Guide With Examples

    1. What is an Essay Format? 2. How To Format Essay in MLA Style 3. How to Format Essay in APA 4. How to Format Essay in Chicago Style 5. Formatting In-Text Citations: APA, MLA, and Chicago Styles 6. How to Determine What Format to Follow What is an Essay Format?

  3. Chicago Style

    For that reason, the Excelsior Online Writing Lab created this template to give writers a foundation for formatting using Chicago-style guidelines. The template also references OWL sections that might be helpful when writing an essay. Because the template is formatted to Chicago standards, students should feel confident simply deleting our text ...

  4. Paper format

    Paper format is covered in the seventh edition APA Style manuals in the Publication Manual Chapter 2 and the Concise Guide Chapter 1 Date created: August 2019 Consistency in the order, structure, and format of a paper allows readers to focus on a paper's content rather than its presentation.

  5. Sample papers

    These sample papers demonstrate APA Style formatting standards for different student paper types. Students may write the same types of papers as professional authors (e.g., quantitative studies, literature reviews) or other types of papers for course assignments (e.g., reaction or response papers, discussion posts), dissertations, and theses.

  6. APA Style

    The authority on APA Style and the 7th edition of the APA Publication Manual. Find tutorials, the APA Style Blog, how to format papers in APA Style, and other resources to help you improve your writing, master APA Style, and learn the conventions of scholarly publishing.

  7. The Steps of Writing an A+ College Essay

    When writing an American essay, you're required to choose a side of the multiple viewpoints. In other words, a European essay sounds neutral and objective without having to choose a specific position, while an American essay is more opinionated and argumentative, despite being objective in the overall approach and using reputable references.

  8. APA Essay Format: How to Write a Successful APA Essay

    In almost every case, you will need to write your paper in APA format, the official publication style of the American Psychological Association. It is also used for academic journals. Such rules are generally the same whether you are writing a high school essay, college essay, or professional essay for publication.

  9. Writing for a North American Academic Audience

    Writing in academic settings in North America, you are expected to clearly indicate the most important points of your essay in the introduction of your paper, as well as explain how these ideas are going to be developed (e.g., comparing and contrasting, classifying, describing cause and effect relationships).

  10. What Makes a Great American Essay? ‹ Literary Hub

    As it turned out, most of the masters of American fiction and poetry also tried their hand successfully at essay-writing, which meant including Nathaniel Hawthorne, Walt Whitman, Theodore Dreiser, Willa Cather, Flannery O'Connor, Ralph Ellison. . .

  11. American Writing Styles, Argument, and Structure

    21.22. American Writing Styles, Argument, and Structure. Your original language has its own structures, formats, and cultural assumptions that are likely natural to you but perhaps different from those of English. The following broad guidelines underlie basic American English and US academic writing. Citing sources: Some languages and cultures ...

  12. About APA Style

    APA Style originated in 1929, when a group of psychologists, anthropologists, and business managers convened and sought to establish a simple set of procedures, or style guidelines, that would codify the many components of scientific writing to increase the ease of reading comprehension. They published their guidelines as a seven-page article ...

  13. A step-by-step guide for creating and formatting APA Style student papers

    This article walks through the formatting steps needed to create an APA Style student paper, starting with a basic setup that applies to the entire paper (margins, font, line spacing, paragraph alignment and indentation, and page headers). It then covers formatting for the major sections of a student paper: the title page, the text, tables and ...

  14. Strategies for Essay Writing

    Strategies for Essay Writing: Downloadable PDFs Brief Guides to Writing in the Disciplines The links below provide concise advice on some fundamental elements of academic writing.

  15. Essay Writing: How to Write an Outstanding Essay

    The basic steps for how to write an essay are: Generate ideas and pick a type of essay to write. Outline your essay paragraph by paragraph. Write a rough first draft without worrying about details like word choice or grammar. Edit your rough draft, and revise and fix the details. Review your essay for typos, mistakes, and any other problems.

  16. PDF ACADEMIC WRITING

    "Writing" is usually understood as the expression of thought. This book redefines "writing" as the thought process itself. Writing is not what you do with thought. Writing is thinking. Better living through interpretation: that's the promise of academic writing, which is a foundational course in most schools because it's a

  17. What Is Academic Writing?

    Academic writing is a formal style of writing used in universities and scholarly publications. You'll encounter it in journal articles and books on academic topics, and you'll be expected to write your essays, research papers, and dissertation in academic style. Academic writing follows the same writing process as other types of texts, but ...

  18. American Style

    Writing Tips Our best writing tip? Edit for clarity and brevity with WordRake. It's an automated in-line editor that checks for needless words, cumbersome phrases, clichés, and more. Download a 7-Day Free Trial American Style Do Quotation Marks Go inside or outside a Period?

  19. What's the difference between the American and the European style in

    Wikipedia really explains it all.. I wouldn't say that there is a European versus an American style of writing essays. The difference is between the (traditionally often unstructured and meandering) reflections of a learned person, which in many cultures is called an essay in the French pronunciation, with the stress on the second syllable, and the structured written argument, usually written ...

  20. PDF Gamage Different Cultural Writing Styles

    The American style of organization includes a clear introduction, a clear body supporting a thesis, and then concluding by showing that the evidence verifies the thesis statement. Many ESL students come from different cultures and different writing traditions and as a result many struggle to follow the American style of organization.

  21. The best Ideas essays of 2023

    Ideas. The Weekend Essay. The realists were right about the war in Ukraine. Lily Lynch. Far from the flashy, hope filled "David vs Goliath" narratives of resistance and reclamation of its first months, the Ukraine-Russia war has slowed to a drivel - and alongside it domestic morale, foreign support and US funding.

  22. American Style Essay Examples

    Essays on American Style 2 samples on this topic To some learners, composing American Style papers comes easy; others need the help of various kinds. The WowEssays.com directory includes professionally crafted sample essays on American Style and related issues.

  23. How Can I Learn American Writing Styles?

    Hey all, I am a newbie in this forum. I am a content writer and good at English writing, but I want to learn some american writing styles. Kindly give me some ideas. Regards, Faizan Samiullah

  24. What Is the American Style of Writing?

    What exactly is a "American" writing style? The Western writing style is often quite straightforward, but other cultures' writing styles may be more oblique. The problem or issue is presented at the beginning of the article, followed by specific instances or evidence to support the issue. This type of essay is known as an "argument essay."

  25. Guide to Academic Success: Ranking the 5 Best Essay Writing Services

    Here is my list of the best essay writing companies: EssayPro - the most popular writing company among students 🔎. EssayService - the best essay writing company for US students 🎓 ...

  26. The American Renaissance: An American Style of Writing

    Download The American Renaissance, a period which pned from the 1830s to the end of the Civil War, is widely acknowledged as the establishment of America's literary history.